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What do you understand by the deluge of Ogyges, B.C. 1785?

An inundation of Bæotia and Attica. Isaac.
We enter on the Fabulous Period.—When and by whom was

Athens founded ?
B.C. 1556; by Cecrops, from Egypt. 15th year of

Mention another deluge, B.C. 1548.

Deluge of Deucalion; Thessaly.
What is recorded of his son Hellen?
That he settled in Thessaly, and expelled the Pelasgi.-

The Hellenes soon became the most powerful tribe,

spreading over Greece.
Mention the four chief branches of the Hellenic tribe.

Æolians, Ionians, Dorians, Achæans.
About what time is Corinth said to have been built ?

About B.C. 1520. 51st year of Moses.
When, and by whom, was Thebes founded ?
B.C. 1519, (or as some, B.C. 1493,) by Cadmus, a

Phnician. What is recorded of him? He introduced sixteen letters of the Alphabet.-From

this period the Greeks made rapid advances in

civilization. When, and by whom, was Sparta or Lacedæmon founded ? B.C. 1516; by Lelex. 55th


of Moses. What noted Council was established, B.C. 1507 ?

The Council of Areopagus.
Who settled in Argos, B.C. 1500 ? 71st


of Moses. Danaus, from Egypt. Mention a council established B.C. 1497. 74th year of Moses. Council of Amphictyon; a league of twelve states of

Greece. Who reigned, B.C. 1495, in Phthiotis (in Thessaly)? 76th


of Moses.

Hellen, son of Deucalion. Mention his three sons.

Æolus, Dorus, and Xuthus. You have mentioned the four branches of the Hellenic tribe :

from whom did the Achæans and Ionians descend ? From Achæus and Io, sons of Xuthus. Mention a noted city built by Dardanus.

Troy; B.C. 1481, in Asia Minor. 90th year of Moses. When, and by whom, were the Olympic games first observed ? B.C. 1453; by the Idæi Dactyli; priests of Cybele.

118th year of Moses. Mention a great man in Crete, B.C. 1406. Othniel.

Minos, king and law-giver.
Who settled in Argos, B.C. 1400 ?
Pelops, from Phrygia; he gave his name to southern

Greece, Peloponnesus.
Mention a noted king of Athens, B.C. 1399.

Erectheus; he instituted the Eleusinian mysteries.
What was taught in these mysteries ?
The unity of God; the immortality of the soul; a future

state of reward and punishment. What ceremonies were connected with them?

Such as were childish and ridiculous. Mention a poem published B.C. 1374.

The Rape of Proserpine, by Orpheus. Mention a kingdom founded B.C. 1344. Eglon.

The kingdom of Mycenæ ; Argos divided. Mention a king of Athens B.C. 1300, and what he did. Shamgar. Theseus : he laid the foundation of the grandeur of Attica;

divided the citizens into three classes, nobles, artisans, and labourers; and gave them a common con

stitution. Mention a noted maritime Expedition, B.C. 1263. Deborah.

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The Argonautic; to Colchis; now Mingrelia: the Col

chians were the Hollanders of those days. Mention a celebrated siege of ten years. Jephthah.

The siege of Troy, B.C. 1193—1184. Mention a great change in Peloponnesus, B.C. 1104. Samuel. The return of the Heraclidæ to the Peloponnesus: a long

period of civil war and bloodshed. At this time the

Greeks began to colonise.
Mention some of these colonies.

The Dorians migrated to Italy and Sicily;
The Æolians to Asia Minor;
Nileus led some Athenians or Ionians, to Asia Minor :

hence the name Ionia:
Between B.C. 1124 and 1044. Eli David.
Mention two poets in these ages. Rehoboam, &c.

Hesiod and Homer; between B.C. 968 and 884. Mention an epoch in legislation, B.C. 870. Athaliah.

Lycurgus established his laws at Sparta. What is said of Phidon, king of the Argives, B.C. 870? Joash. He is said to have invented Scales and Measures, and to

have coined silver at Ægina.

Such are a few scattered links, to speak so, in the broken chain of History. Many at least of the dates are very uncertain. But here we see that men were restless, active, and enterprising; they cultivated arts; they attended to legislation and government; to commerce, and also to poetry.

Our attention will now be chiefly given to Athens : but we must make a few remarks on Sparta.—A double monarchy, or two kings, ruled there, in their separate branches, nearly 900 years; from B.C. 1102 to 202. Procles and Eurysthenes, two brothers, descendants of the Heraclidæ, began to reign B.C. 1102. Their successors filled the throne to B.C. 210, when, under the two last kings, Lycurgus and Agesipolis, the


monarchical power was abolished. Machanidas was tyrant there, B.C. 210—208: then Nabis, B.C. 206—192. In B.C. 191, Lacedæmon joined the Achæan league, and shared the fate of that confederacy, all becoming subject to Rome, B.C. 147.—The power of the Spartan kings was checked by the watchful eye of the Ephori.--Lycurgus, B.C. 884, reformed and new modelled the Constitution. He attended especially to the regulation of manners, and went on the principle, that

Luxury is the bane of Society.” He substituted iron money for gold; prohibited commerce and useless arts; and necessary ones were only practised by slaves. The Spartan Education rejected all embellishments of the understanding, and nourished only the severer virtues. It taught the duties of religion; respect for parents; reverence for old age; inflexible honour; undaunted courage; contempt of danger and of death ; and above all, the love of glory and of their country.

The manners of the women were shamefully loose: parental or maternal tenderness was unknown: and the slaves were treated with the most barbarous rigour.—The institutions of Lycurgus had no other end than to make—a nation of soldiers.

We now turn to Athens: and you will observe that we are come to the period which we called, 2. Historical: that is to the time of Authentic History:

B.C. 776. Mention the forms of government which successively existed at


1. Regal; 17 kings; Cecrops the first, B.C. 1556; Co

drus the last, B.C. 1068; that is, from the 16th

year of Moses, to the 27th of Saul. 2. Perpetual Archons 13.; Medon, the first, B.C. 1068;


Alcmæon, the last, B.C. 752; that is, from the 27th

year of Saul, to the 7th of Jotham. 3. Decennial Archons 7; Charops, the first, B.C. 752;

Eryxias, the last, B.C. 682; that is, from the 7th

year of Jotham, to the 17th of Manasseh. 4. Annual Archons; Creon, the first, B.C. 682; Diogne

tus, the last, B.C. 264; that is, from the 17th year of Manasseh, to about the 59th of subjection to Egypt

and Syria. Mention an Archon and Reformer, B.C. 624. 17th of Josiah.

Draco : a legislator. What is said of his laws ? That they were

66 written in blood.” Mention a reformer of a different description.

Solon; B.C. 595. 4th year of Zedekiah. (Give an idea of him. He had extensive knowledge; was mild and temporising.

The people claimed the sovereign power, and ob

tained it. Mention a few particulars in his system of government. He divided the citizens into four classes. The fourth, the

most numerous, had an equal right of suffrage. He instituted a senate of four hundred. He committed the guardianship of the laws to the Areo

pagus. His laws were humane: such too, were those relating to

Contrast the Lacedemonians and the Athenians.

Among the Lacedemonians, Among the Athenians,
Arts were despised; Arts were esteemed ;
Peace, the natural state; A military establishment;
Frugality prevailed; Luxury prevailed;
Jealousy of liberty;

Jealousy of liberty;
Courage from ferocity; Courage from honour.)

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