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Nor Rome till Macedonia became a Roman Province.

B.C. 168. It remains, therefore, that we take a closer 'view of them, as far as we can, in the light of General History: and here the Grecian and Roman History will demand our careful consideration.

I. THE BABYLONIAN EMPIRE.

6th year

By whom, and when, did you say that Babylon was founded ?

By Nimrod. Gen. x. 10; about B.C. 2234.
What country is now the site of Babylonia, or Chaldea ?

Irak Arabi: its capital is Bagdad.
We pass over the elder Babyionian empire, B.C. 2234—747

1487 years: but mention some of the kings of the second empire. Nabonassar, (Belesis, Baladan). B.C. 747. 2 Kings xx. 12. 12th

year

of Jotham.
Maroc Empadus. B.C. 721. 2 Kings xx. 12.

of Hezekiah.
Esarhaddon. B.C. 680. 2 Kings xix. 37. 19th year of

Manasseh.
Nabopolassar. B.C. 625. 17th year of Josiah.
Nebuchadnezzar. B.C. 606. 2 Kings xxiv., XXV. 5th

year of Jehoiakim.
Evil-Merodach. B.C. 561. 2 Kings xxv. 27.

of the Captivity.
Neriglissar. B.C. 559. 48th year.
Belshazzar, (Nabonadius). B.C. 555. Dan v. 52nd year.
Darius the Mede. B.C. 538. Dan. v. 31. vi.

Cyrus. B.C. 536. Ezra i. 1. 2 Chron. xxxvi. 22, 23.
Mention some of the conquests of Nebuchadnezzar.

Judea, B.C. 606—588. Tyre, 585–573. Egypt, 573. Where is its conquerer foretold by name?

Is. xliv. 28. xlv. 1.

46th year

69th year.

Name the idol worshipped at Babylon.

Bel; Nebo. Is. xlvi. 1. xxi. 9. Nimrod, or the sun. For what perverse science was Babylon noted ?

Astrology. Is. xlvii. 13. Dan. ii. 2. What is the present state of Babylon ? Its exact place is scarcely known; “its ruins are ruined.”

Jer. li. 37, 43.

II. THE MEDO-PERSIAN EMPIRE.

1. Media.

What is ancient Media now called ?

Persian Irak; south of the Caspian sea. Whence was the name Media ?

From Madai ; third son of Japhet. Gen. x. 2. What was Media in early ages ?

Probably a province of the early Assyrian Empire. When, and by whom, was it made an independent kingdom ?

B.C. 710; by Dejoces.
Mention the Kings of Media.

Dejoces, B.C. 709. 18th year of Hezekiah.
Phraortes, B.C. 656. 43rd year of Manasseh.
Cyaxares, B.C. 634. 8th year of Josiah.
Astyages, B.C. 594. 5th year of Zedekiah.

Darius the Mede, B.C. 559. 48th year of the Captivity.
What befell it in B.C. 537 ?
Cyrus attached it to Persia, on the death of his uncle

Darius. How is this represented in Dan. viii. 20 ? Media and Persia are represented by the two hörns of the

Ram. How does Isaiah speak of the Medes; xiii. 17, 18; xxi. 2, 3 ?

As God's instruments against Babylon.

N

2. Persia.

What was the ancient name of Persia ?

Elam; Gen. x. 22. xiv. 1.
Who is said to have been the first king of Persia ?

Kaiumarath ; a son or descendant of Aram.
Passing over the early ages, by whom was the Persian Empire

founded ? By Cyrus; B.C. 559. Mention its capitals.

Shushan; now Shuster, or ruins thirty-five miles from it.

Persepolis ; near Estakar, in Fars.
Mention the kings of Persia.

Cyrus, B.C. 559.
Cambyses, B.C. 529. Ezra. iv. 6. Ahasuerus.
Smerdis, usurper, B.C. 522. Ezra. iv. 7. Artaxerxes.
Darius Hystaspes, B.C. 521. Ezra. iv. 1. Haggai,

Zechariah. Xerxes the Great, B.C. 485. (Explain Dan. xi. 2, 3.—The 1st King is Cambyses; the 2nd

Smerdis ; the 3rd Darius Hystaspes; the 4th is
Xerxes; the “mighty king,” ver. 3., is Alexander

the Great.)
Artaxerxes Longimanus, B.C. 464. Dan. vii. 1. Nehemiah.
Xerxes II. B.C. 424.
Sogdianus, B.C. 424.
Darius Nothus, B.C. 423. Nehemiah, Malachi.
Artaxerxes Mnemo, B.C. 404.
Darius Ochus, B.C. 358.
Arogus, or Arses, B.C. 337.

Darius Codomannus, B.C. 335.
When did this empire fall?
In B.C. 301 ; battle of Arbela, (now Arbil, in Kourdis-

tan.) Dan. viii. 1-7.

What became of Persia after the death of Alexander the

Great ? It was part of the Syrian kingdom, till B.C. 250. What then took place ? Arsaces founded the Parthian Empire, to which Persia

was tributary.
What is the modern name of the ancient Parthia ?

Khorasan.
What was the capital of the province Parthia ?

Hecatompylon; now Damghan.
What city became the capital of the empire ?

Ctesiphon, on the Tigris, now Al Modain.
How long did this empire continue ?
Till A.D. 229, when Artaxerxes, (son of Sassan) founded

the second Persian Empire. Dynasty of the Sassan

nida. What was a leading feature in its history?

Its continual wars with the Romans. How long did it last ? Till A.D. 652, when it was conquered by Othman,

Caliph of the Saracens. What great man lived in Persia in the days of Darius

Hystaspes ? Zoroaster, a great patriarch of the Magi. Mention a notable military transaction in the days of Arta

xerxes Mnemo. The retreat of the 10,000 Greeks; recorded by Xenophon. How long did the empire founded by Cyrus last?

About 207 years.
Mention prophecies of its overthrow.

Jer. xlix. 34, &c. Ezek. xxxii. 24. Dan. viii. 7.

GRECIAN HISTORY.

1752 years.

In forming our view of Grecian History, we may divide

it thus; 1. Greece before it was the third of the empires spoken

of in prophecy, that is, from B.C. 2088, to Alexan

der the Great, B.C. 336 2. During the time that it was the third of those empires;

that is, from Alexander the Great, B.C. 336, to the battle of Pydna, or to the taking of Corinth ; that is, to B.C. 168, or to B.C. 146, when Achaia became a

Roman Province; 168, or 190 years. 3. From its subjection to Rome, to about A.D. 300, when

it merged in the Byzantine Empire. But Greece is far too interesting an object to be viewed only in this general way. We will, therefore, notice two periods, which we will call Non-Historical and Historical, and also point out sub-divisions of each.

1. Non-Historical. Here we have what is called,
i. The Obscure Period. B.C. 2088, to 1785; from

Ægialeus, founder of the kingdom of Sicyon, to the

Deluge of Ogyges: 303 years. ii. The Fabulous or Heroic Period. B.C. 1785, to the

Olympiads, B.C. 776 = 1009 years. A slight notice of these periods will suffice.—But I may ask,

who were the ancient inhabitants of Greece ? The Graici, Leleges, Pelasgi, Hellenes, &c. What was ancient Greece, as to government ?

A cluster of independent states: ruled by kings. As to the obscure period, what kingdom was founded, B.C.

2088. Terah. Sicyon; by Ægialeus. What kingdom was founded B.C. 2056 ?

Argos, by Inachus. Haran.

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