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No: various emotions that have a certain resemblance. Can you

define it? No: it is indefinable. What may you say that it is ? The vivid emotion produced by the vast in creation, by

the comprehensive in intellect, by the noble in

morals, &c. 3. How do you explain the Ludicrous ?

It is an emotion of light mirth. By what is it excited ? 1. By unexpected congruity found in images supposed

to-be incongruous in kind. 2. By unexpected incongruity in images supposed to be

congruous. Of what is it composed ?

Of astonishment and delight. What has it been called ?

Gay surprise. What may

enter into it in some cases ?
A mixture of contempt.
What is its moral use?

To check improprieties.
Are not some emotions called Introductory?

Yes; four.
1. What is Surprise ?

The feeling excited by something novel, striking, strange. 2. What is Wonder ? The feeling excited by something vast, &c. embarrassing

the mind. 3. What is Astonishment ?

Wonder overwhelming and petrifying the soul. 4. What is Amazement? A feeling between wonder and astonishment: the mind is

lost in wonder.

What is the design of these four emotions ?

To awaken Attention. What have we thus far examined ? The Human Mind: 1. Its mental and intellectual powers ;

and, 2. Its emotions or affections.


When we contemplate the spirit of man, what three things have

we to examine?
1. His Mind, Intellect, Reason.
2. His Heart, Emotions, Affections, Feelings.

3. His Moral Powers.
How do You look upon man? what is he?

An intelligent, sensitive, and accountable creature. What do we gain by cultivating the mind?

Knowledge, Truth; opposed to ignorance and error. What may you call Knowledge?

The light of the soul. What may you call Emotion?

The natural life of the soul. Unite knowledge and emotion.

By knowledge we understand what objects are:

By emotion we have certain affections respecting them. What, in this view of it, may we account the spirit of man?

A mass or a bundle of thought and feeling.
May all things be the objects of its view or contemplation?

They may.

Do all objects excite emotion ?

All do; except (perhaps) such as we account indifferent. How did


divide the Social Affections? Into Benevolent and Malevolent. What do we feel in cherishing benevolent affections?

Pleasure, delight, happiness.

What do we feel in cherishing malevolent affections?

Dissatisfaction, pain, misery. What does this show us?

That God formed us to be benevolent. What do

you understand by Moral Powers? Those powers, faculties, or endowments by which we are

responsible creatures. What do you mean by Responsible? Answerable, accountable, capable of acting as duty re

quires. To whom are we responsible?

To God. For what are we responsible? For every thing that we are and have in our several

places and relations. What is required of man?

To use his talents according to God's will.
Mention some of our talents.

Our powers of body and mind.
Our time, money, rank, influence.

Our religious privileges: Scriptures, Sabbath, Church, &c. What do the Scriptures teach us as to this subject? Rom.

xiy. 12. “Every one of us shall give account of himself to God.” What are the moral powers or faculties of man?

Conscience and Will.
Can anything destroy accountableness?

Absolute Ignorance, Inability, Compulsion.
What must man have as an accountable creature?
Knowledge, power or ability, and freedom of choice and

action. What peculiar knowledge must man have as a moral creature?

The knowledge of right and wrong; of God's will.

How do you know that you are a free and accountable being?

In the light of Christianity, I see and feel that I am such.


What is Conscience?

A complex power, or faculty. Explain it more distinctly. It is Moral Feeling and Judgment; or a sense and deci

sion as to right and wrong. Does Conscience imply knowledge?

Yes: of a rule, law, or standard.
What other notions and convictions enter into it?

Of rightful and supreme authority; of obligation.
With what does it deal?

With the moral nature and character of things, as good

or evil.

What things do you mean?

Our actions, thoughts, words, &c.
What does a man do by virtue of conscience?

Judge of the rightness or wrongness of actions, &c. Give Bishop Butler's statement of what conscience is. “ The principle of reflection in man, by which he ap

proves or disapproves his heart, temper, and actions,

is Conscience." To what does Self-love urge a man?

To seek his own gratification or advantage. To what do the Desires direct him? To certain objects by which his inclinations may be

gratified. To what do the Social Affections carry him forth? To other men; to the offices of justice, &c., arising from

the relations in which he stands to them. How does Conscience act?

wrong: from

It considers good and evil; right and wrong; approves

the one, and condemns the other. What does it teach us? What we ought to do or avoid; and must do and avoid;

if we mean that it shall be well with us at last. Are all right actions morally good?

No: they may proceed from natural feeling, interest, &c. What are they in this case?

Materially virtuous, not morally good.
What is essential to a right moral action?
It must proceed from a regard to right and

choice: from a right motive: it must have a right

aim. What is the rightful authority of conscience?

It is to be supreme over all our principles of action. What has Man as a moral being ?

Moral sight, moral feeling, moral judgment. Is feeling a standard of duty?

No: Law is its standard.
What law do

you mean?
1. The law written in the heart.

2. The law of God, or Revelation. What, as to conscience, must we guard against? Against accounting our whims and prejudices for the

decisions of conscience. Is conscience a mere arbitrary power?

Certainly not. What must we have, in order that we may safely follow its

dictates ? As clear and sound notions of things as possible. When are we criminal, although we follow conscience?

When we do not first obtain knowledge. What in this matter is the proper process?

To enquire, examine, revolve: no ignorance :

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