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(C.) Benevolent Emotions as to Character. Does our Good Opinion of others excite emotion?

It does. 1. What is Approbation?

A decision of judgment connected with delight. 2. What is Esteem? It is higher than approbation: it describes the value

we put upon some worth: it is the commencement

of affection. 3. What is Respect? The impression made by goodness of character and good

sense. 4. What is Admiration? The feeling excited by whatever indicates superior wis

dom, ingenuity, good sense, benevolence, courage, &c. 5. What is Veneration? High respect, in which the mind is struck with wisdom

connected with the sterner virtues. 6. What is Awe? A feeling excited by the lively idea of power :-power

that would inspire terror, were it not modified by

the idea of safety. 7. What is Reverence?

Veneration paid to superior sanctity, with a degree of awe.


Malevolent Affections.

(A.) Malevolent Affections as to Persons.

From what do these affections arise?

From Evil either seen, or felt, or feared. How may these be divided?

Into Occasional and Permanent.

(a.) Occasional.

What is the emotion excited by the sight, &c. of Evil?

Displacency: displeasure.
What are the objects of this emotion?

Persons, and ill conduct.
What does it produce in the breast?

A desire to resist, retaliate, punish.
How does this state of the heart show itself?

In various ways.

1. What is Anger? An emotion of instant displeasure, arising from the feel

ing of injury done or intended, or from the omission of good offices to which we conceived ourselves to

be entitled. For what is anger designed, as a part of our constitution? It is as a weapon put into our hands against injury,

injustice, and cruelty. 2. What is Passion?

The abuse of anger. 3. What is Peevishness? A measure of anger languidly discharging itself against

everything that comes in its way. 4. What is Rage? The madness of anger; producing threats, or extravagant

or atrocious actions. 5. What is Revenge? A strong desire to sacrifice pity and humanity to the

principles of vindictive justice. 6. What is Resentment? Hasty and sudden displeasure: a mere instinct. Or

settled and deliberate displeasure. Quote the words of St. Paul. Eph. iv. 26.

“Let not the sun go down upon your wrath."

7. What is Suspicion? Comfortless doubt as to the character and conduct of

another. 8. What is Jealousy? Apprehension of rivalship: anxious solicitude lest we be

supplanted in the affections of those whom we most esteem.

(b.) Permanent. What are the Permanent emotions produced by Displacency?

They are many. 1. What is Malignity? Radical depravity of nature, cherishing inveterate hatred:

maintaining implacable war against its object: deliberately planning schemes of mischief: and employ

ing every means to the prejudice of another. 2. What is Malice? It is “having spite :" the disposition of an inferior mind

to execute every purpose of mischief. 3. What is Envy?

A sort of Malevolence made up of sorrow, anger, pride, &c. 4. What is Rancour?

A degree of malice that preys on its possessor. 5. What is Cruelty ? It is seen in the unmoved contemplation, and in the vol

untary infliction, of misery. 6. What is Censoriousness ? A disposition to find fault with others; declaring every

action improper, or ascribing it to improper motives. 7. What is Prejudice ? The opposite of Partiality: a degree of malevolence which

disposes us to prejudge the character, &c. of any one to his disadvantage, without proper evidence before us.

8. What is Ingratitude ?

Insensibility to benefits. 9. What is Apathy ? A singular stagnation of social feelings : the disgraceful

negative of every social affection.

(B.) Malevolent Affections as to Character.

Are not certain affections excited at the view of the character

and conduct of others ? They are. 1. What is Horror ? The antipode of admiration: a painful feeling excited by

the contemplation of atrocity, &c. 2. What is Indignation ? A strong and elevated disapprobation of mind, excited by

something flagitious in the conduct of another. Give some notion of its composition.

Vivid dislike, desire of vengeance, &c. 3. What is Contempt? A more calm affection than the preceding. It looks at

the character and disposition which is capable of

committing unworthy actions. What objects excite it? Radical baseness and imbecility, where neither ought to

exist. 4. What is Disdain ? Such a degree of contempt as precludes any commerce

with the party despised. 5. What is Irrision ? A feeling inspired by any peculiarty of sentiment, disposi

tion, or conduct, which violates an acknowledged law of congruity.



1. What is Beauty ? In our minds it is an emotion: in outward things it is

the aptitude to produce it. Is it a sensation ? No: it is an emotion subsequent to the perception or

conception of the object termed beautiful. Is the emotion universal as to mankind, or uniform as to the

individual ? It is neither. Does beauty exist in objects independently of the mind that

perceives them ? No: we ourselves spread the charm over the object. Does this emotion vary? Yes: like other emotions, with the varying tendencies of

the mind, in different circumstances. 2. What is Sublimity? An affection of our mind; not a quality of anything

external. Give a notion of it without beauty. It is only an astonishment and a certain impression of

immeasurable greatness or power, more akin to

terror than to any pleasurable emotion. Give a notion of it with beauty. It is often beauty united with a feeling of undefined

grandeur in its object, and a consequent delightful

astonishment, between admiration and awe. What is it in relation to moral actions ? A combination of the pleasing emotion of beauty, with

admiring astonishment and love, or respectful reve


Is sublimity one emotion ?

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