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What do you say of such conduct?

It is irrational, unjust, and injurious. How does an ignorant person look on surrounding objects?

For the most part with a stupid gaze of indifference.
How does he commend them?

As being pretty or useful, &c.
How does a person that has Knowledge view them?

With profitable thought and feelings of delight.
What does he acknowledge in all things?

The work of God: His wisdom, goodness, power, &c. Are all objects monitors or Instructors?

Yes; to a reflecting mind. What does it find in them?

"Tongues in Trees, Books in the running Brooks ;

“Sermons in stones, and good in every thing." When is knowledge to be acquired?

In the days of youth.
How ought you to regard your Youth?

As a preparation for Manhood.
How should we regard the whole of life?

As a preparation for Eternity.
When Youth is past, what are we to do?

To use the knowledge which we have, and to gain more. What will you always be, if you be wise?

Scholars, or learners.
How is knowledge to be gained?

By reading, thinking, conversing.
Give a safe rule in each of these matters.

Read little, and what is choice :
Think much, and closely:

Converse calmly, slowly, thoughtfully, wisely.
Give two rules to be observed in reading.

1. Attend to the meaning of every word:
2. Understand the meaning of every sentence.

When do we understand words?
When we can explain them; tell what ideas they convey

to us.
What ought our knowledge to be?

Clear, sound, humble, practical. To what is “clear" opposed?

To what is dull, dim, muddy, confused, indistinct. To what is "sound" opposed?

To what is questionable, smattering, shallow. To what is “humble” opposed?

To what is proud, positive, overbearing, talkative. To what is “practical” opposed ?

To what is notional and unfruitful. When is knowledge sound?

When it rests on right principles:

When it is correct, so far as it goes. How is such knowledge obtained?

By long, close, deep, practical thought. When is knowledge practical?

When it makes us diligent and useful in the world. From what, as to our minds, will knowledge preserve us?

From error, delusion, crude and idle fancies.
What is all Creation to a person without knowledge?

Comparatively a blank.
What is it to a person who has knowledge?

A Volume, of which every page is full of truth and wisdom. If you would obtain knowledge, what must you be?

What do you mean by attention?

The fixing of the mind on the subject before us.
To what is attention opposed ?

To restlessness, volatility, carelessness, listlessness. What is your duty at school?

To be diligent and attentive.

What ought you then to seek daily?

Advancement in knowledge.
Will general remarks about things make you

They never will.
What must we do in order to gain real information?

We must examine different subjects separately. How must we examine them?

We must see them minutely, in all their parts, &c. To what may you compare one who takes only general views?

To a traveller in a railway carriage. What do you say of him?

He sees every thing, and knows nothing. To what do you compare one who studies particular subjects ?

To a person who carefully cultivates a field. How is his labour rewarded?

With all the fruits of harvest. Will any sort of knowledge of itself make you good and happy?

It certainly will not.
What is mere knowledge?

It may be compared to light.
What, speaking generally, does light effect?

It shows us the forms, colours, &c., of things.
What is necessary, in order that knowledge may be beneficial

to us? Life, energy, strength. Why is this necessary?

In order that we may live according to our knowledge.
How are we to obtain this strength?
We must seek God's grace; the influence of the Holy

To reading, attention, &c., what must be added?

Earnest, habitual prayer.
Quote the words of Solomon: Prov. ü. 3, 5.

" “ Yea, if thou criest after knowledge,

And liftest up thy voice for understanding,
Then shalt thou understand the fear of the Lord.

And find the knowledge of God." What will be the practical effect of this knowledge? ver. 9. " Then shalt thou understand righteousness, and judg

ment, and equity; yea, every good path.” Mention two things which are essential to your being scholars.

1. Attention: close, patient, and persevering thought.

2. Dependence on God for His grace and blessing. What have we to study?

Words and Things.
What are words, if do not understand them?

Mere empty sounds.
When do you understand Things ?

When I know their nature, structure, dependencies, &c. What inducements have you to seek knowledge?

1. It raises our nature as intelligent creatures.
2. It promotes our happiness.
3. It makes us useful to others.

4. It favours, aids, and strengthens piety. What ought to be the first desire and aim of us all ?

To be always advancing in knowledge and goodness. Quote some lines of Milton.



Only add

Deeds to thy knowledge answering: add faith,
Add virtue, patience, temperance: add love,
By name to come called charity, the soul
Of all the rest: then wilt thou not be loth
To leave this paradise, but shalt possess
A paradise within thee happier far.”


We have spoken of Knowledge in a general way: I proceed in the same manner at present, making, however, a nearer approach to the subjects which we have to examine-the materials of knowledge. Here I must request you always to remember two words; Distinction: or the distinguishing of things according to their nature: and Order: or the due arrangement of things in the mind.

What forms the Good of man as an Intellectual being ?

What do you mean by knowledge?

Right views, notions, or ideas of things.
What things do you speak of?

All things whatever.
How do you distinguish or divide all things?

Into Spiritual and Material.
Mention them in reference to our powers of apprehension.

Invisible and Visible.
What do we see around us?

What we call the Universe. What do you mean by the universe?

The Visible Creation. Of what does it consist?

Of Matter, in all its kinds, combinations, and forms. Is all Matter visible? Air, Heat, (or Caloric) Electricity, Magnetism, are invi

sible. Is Spirit or Mind visible?

Not to the corporeal eye of man.

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