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8. What is Reasoning? A series of judgments or propositions, each of which is a

judgment. To what does it lead ? To a result or final judgment, grounded on antecedent

judgments. To what is reason, or the faculty of reasoning in man opposed ?

To what is called Instinct. What is Instinct ?

A substitute for reason. Where do we find it?

In all animals. Compare man and animals, as to this point. Man has instinct and reason; animals have instinct, but

not reason. How does instinct work in animals ?

As a rule by which they act in an unvarying manner. How does reason differ from it ? It is intelligent, and varies means, ends, and the course of

action. How does reason stand opposed to imagination ? Reason confines itself to fact and reality; not so imagi

nation. Compare Reason and Revelation.

Reason may be called natural revelation. What then is Revelation ?

A peculiar and divine discovery, far above reason. Is revelation contrary to reason ? It is never contrary to it, but it is often above it, or

beyond it. Mention some of the different meanings of the word “reason.”

1. It may mean clear and true principles ; or
2. Clear and fair deductions from them; or
3. The cause, especially the final cause, or design; or

4. The faculty of the mind employed in the discovery of

truth. What do you mean by the word in this fourth sense of it? The rational power or faculty, by which we deduce one

proposition from another. What is the province of speculative reason ?

To judge of what is true or false in speculative points. What is the province of practical reason ?

To judge of what is good or ill upon the whole. What do you mean by faculties of the Mind ? Not so many distinct or separate powers in the mind, but

the mind itself acting in various ways. Repeat the different actings of the mind, as we have been

noticing them. Reflection, Perception, Conception, Memory, Association

or Suggestion, Imagination, Judgment, and Reason. What now


view of the human mind ?
It is endowed by our Creator with ability to reflect to

perceive—to conceive—to remember—to associate

—to imagine-to judge—to reason. Explain briefly the several provinces of all these powers of the

Mind. 1. It reflects on all things, and on its own operations. 2. It perceives what is present. 3. It conceives what is absent, and what is general or

abstract. 4. It remembers the past. 5. It finds one object lead to a great variety of thought. 6. It imagines according to its own caprice. 7. It compares and determines.

8. It carries on the judging process as far as it pleases. Are these operations voluntary?

Most of them are so; under our own control. What follows from this fact ?

We are responsible for the use which we make of our



What do you mean by the Heart, as different from the Mind?

Emotions, affections, passions, feelings.
What belongs especially to the Mind.

What belongs peculiarly to the Heart ?

Sensitiveness, or feeling.
How do you divide all things as to their qualities, in relation

to ourselves ? Into Good and Evil; Desirable and Undesirable; Bene

ficial or Injurious. By what are our emotions excited, or produced ?

By the real or the apprehended qualities of things. What do


account Good ? That which gives delight, pleasure, happiness. What do you account Evil ?

That which gives pain, trouble, misery. What, as to this point, is most important ? To make no mistake about good and evil; no mistake

about happiness and misery. What are common mistakes among men ?

To account that evil which is good;
To account that good which is evil ;
To make happiness consist in present pleasurable feelings;

To make misery consist in not gratifying present desires. What affection do we feel towards what we account good ?

Love, Desire.
What affections do we feel towards what we account evil ?

Hatred, Aversion.
When is Love a principle?

When it is an invariable preference of good universally.


When is it an affection ?

When it is directed to a particular object. When is Hatred a principle?

When it is a fixed aversion to evil universally. When is it an affection ?

When particular persons or things are its objects. How do you distinguish between principle and affection?

Principle is deep, settled, permanent, universal;

Affection is less so; varying; particular.
What are the Primary Emotions ?

Love and Hatred.
What are their Primary Effects ?

Desire and Aversion.
Is not aversion a form of desire ?

Yes: it involves a desire to shun something, &c.

We are now to examine the different Emotions :-Is this a

simple subject ? No: it is very complex. I thus class the emotions: and this division must be kept in

mind :
1. Emotions produced by Good and Evil.
2. Emotions that belong to Persons :

i. As to the Individual;
ü. As to Society:

Benevolent Affections:

Malevolent, or Defensive Emotions. 3. Emotions excited by outward things, without referring

either to Good or Evil.

We now are to examine what we call the Heart in this three-fold view: and thus you will form, I hope, something like a correct notion of this part of man's constitution, and become better acquainted with yourself.



How may Good be regarded, in relation to ourselves?

As in Possession, or as in Expectation.


What does Good in Possession excite in us?

Various pleasing emotions. 1. What is Joy?

Vivid delight by the reception of something gratifying. Is it not inspired by pleasing intelligence respecting others? Yes: benevolent hearts rejoice in the good of others,

whether it is seen or heard of. What does this prove, or at least illustrate?

That man is born to be social, not selfish and solitary. 2. What is Gladness?

An inferior sort of joy, arising from a particular event. 3. What is Cheerfulness?

A still gentler emotion : perpetual or habitual gladness, 4. What is Mirth?

A high degree of cheerfulness : often facetious, ludicrous. 5. What is Contentment?

Acquiescence of mind in the good that we enjoy. 6. What is Satisfaction?

A pleasing state of mind, higher than contentment.


What does Good in Expectation excite in the breast?

Various emotions. 1. What is Desire? A feeling excited by an object which has qualities, on

account of which we wish to obtain it.


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