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schedule, which price and payment will be full compensation for all work prescribed in this section, except for extra work of any rehandling of spoil materials due to delayed burning as ordered by the Engineer and not made necessary by fault or negligence of the Contractor. Payment will be made under:

Pay item

211(1) Roadside cleanup.

211(2) Roadside cleanup.

Pay unit

1000 square foot unit.



212.01 When specified, this procedure will be used to determine density requirements of selected embankments, subgrade, bases, and bituminous concrete. The procedure will consist of control strip construction to establish target densities for the specified course plus use of portable nuclear moisture/density testing equipment to determine in-place densities obtained during the construction process.

Construction Requirements

212.02 Compaction Equipment. Compaction equipment shall be capable of obtaining specified compaction requirements without detrimentally affecting the compacted material. The equipment shall be modern, efficient compacting units approved by the Engineer. The compacting units may be of any type, provided they are capable of compacting each lift of material as specified and meet the minimum requirements as contained herein. Minimum requirements for rollers are as follows:

(1) Sheepsfoot, tamping or grid rollers shall be capable of exerting a force of 250 pounds per inch of length of roller drum.

(2) Steel-wheel rollers other than vibratory shall be capable of exerting a force of not less than 250 pounds per inch of width of the compression roll or rolls.

(3) Vibratory steel-wheel rollers, shall have a minimum weight of 6 tons. The compactor shall be equipped with amplitude and frequency controls and specifically designed to compact the material on which it is used.

(4) Pneumatic-tire rollers shall have smooth tread tires of equal size that will provide a uniform compacting pressure for the full width of the roller and capable of exerting a ground pressure of at least 80 pounds per square inch.

(5) Heavier compacting units may be required to achieve the specified density of the embankment.

212.03 Construction of Control Strips and Determination of Target Density. To determine target density, a control strip shall be constructed at the beginning of work on each course of material to be compacted. Each control strip, constructed to acceptable density and surface tolerances shall remain in place and become a section of the completed roadway. Unacceptable control strips shall be corrected or removed and replaced at the contractor's expense. A control strip shall have an area of approximately 400 square yards and shall be of the same depth specified for the construction of the course which it represents.

The materials used in the construction of the control strip shall conform to the specification requirements. They shall be furnished from the same source and shall be of the same type used in the remainder of the course represented by the control strip. The underlying grade or pavement structure upon which a control strip is to be constructed shall have the prior approval of the Engineer.

The equipment used in the construction of the control strip shall be approved by the Engineer and shall be of the same type and weight to be used on the remainder of the course represented by the control strip.

Compaction of control strips shall commence immediately after the course has been placed to the specified thickness, and shall be continuous and uniform over the entire surface. Compaction of the control strip shall be continued until no discernible increase in density can be obtained by additional compactive effort.

Upon completion of the compaction, the mean density of the control strip will be determined by averaging the results of ten nuclear density tests taken at randomly selected sites within the control strip. The mean density of the control strip shall be the target density for the remainder of the course which it represents.

If the mean density of the control strip is less than 98 percent of the density of laboratory compacted specimens as determined by testing procedures appropriate for the material being placed, the Engineer may order the construction of another control strip.

A new control strip may also be ordered by the Engineer or requested by the Contractor when:

(1) A change in the material or job-mix formula, is made.

(2) Ten days of production have been accepted without construction of a new control strip.

(3) There is reason to believe that a control strip density is not representative of the material being placed.




Method of Measurement. No measurement for payment will be made for this

Basis of Payment. Unless otherwise provided, the cost of constructing control strips will be considered incidental to the cost of the material for which a control strip is required. Payment for the material shall be full compensation for performing the work specified and the furnishing of all material, labor, tools, equipment and incidentals necessary to construct the density control strips. No payment will be made for any material used in the construction of unacceptable control strips.



213.01 This work shall consist of roadway excavation, embankment construction and disposal of material in accordance with these specifications and in reasonably close conformity with the lines, grades and dimensions shown on the plans or established by the Engineer.

Construction Requirements

213.02 General. The Engineer will establish and mark the right-of-way through lands of private ownership, set bench marks and construction stakes establishing the lines and grades for bridge work, culvert work, protective and accessory structures and appurtenances and will furnish the Contractor for his grading operations stakes marking the limits of clearing and grubbing and the top of excavation slopes as designed. The control stakes for the grading and related operations may be set by offsets from a preliminary line or from portions of the designed road centerline staked for better control. Stakes, established as provided above, will be set before the clearing and grubbing operations begin and their preservation, or reestablishment, shall be the responsibility of the Contractor. These stakes and marks shall constitute the field control by and in accordance with which the Contractor shall govern and execute the work.

213.03 Grading Tolerances. Except for bridge alignment, grades and site locations the finished roadway may deviate at the option of the Contractor, within the limits stipulated below, from the lines, grades, typical sections and dimensions shown on the plans provided that the general plan and minimum width shall be maintained and the maximum grade and maximum curvature permitted shall not be exceeded, the drainage impaired, nor embankments extended into flowing streams. On curves or at other places where deemed necessary by the Engineer, the Contractor shall construct a widened roadway section for turnouts as indicated on the plans.

Deviations from the elevation of the designed roadbed will be permitted up to plus or minus 4 feet, provided that the new gradient does not vary more than 2 percent plus or minus from the gradients shown on the plans. Revised gradients shall have a minimum tangent length of 100 feet. Where grade revisions are proposed, the forward and back grade tangents shall be connected by uniform vertical curves consistent with the design. No adjustment shall be made which has an adverse effect on drainage.

The roadway centerline may be shifted laterally for a maximum distance of 8 feet right or left on federally-controlled lands and also on the right-of-way obtained through private lands providing there is no drainage impairment, right-of-way or stream channel encroachment. The curvature may not be increased more than 8 degrees on such adjusted alignment, provided that no curve shall have a radius of less than 100 feet, except as shown on the plans. Compound curves will be permitted providing the centerline adjustment is within the tolerances listed above.

Any deviation of a character not provided for in the plans and specifications or working drawings, that may be required by the exigencies of construction, will require the written approval of the Engineer.

213.04 Construction Requirements. The construction details shall conform to the applicable requirements of subsection 203.05 through 203.18 except for compaction.

Unless otherwise provided, watering and rolling of roadway embankments will not be required except for the placement of foundation fill, bedding material or compactable soil placed against and in the immediate vicinity of structures. Hauling and spreading equipment shall be operated over the full width of each layer of embankment in order that full coverage of tire or track compaction is obtained for each layer placed.

The Contractor shall compact material placed in the immediate vicinity of structures, including pipe culverts, with approved mechanical or vibratory compaction equipment.

Suitable approach connections shall be constructed to existing roads and trails in addition to the construction of road approaches shown on the plans or designated by the Engineer.

Method of Measurement

213.05 Linear grading will be measured by the station (100 linear feet).

Basis of Payment

213.06 The quantity of linear grading to be paid for will be on a final quantity basis and shall be the quantity shown in the bid schedule unless the Engineer changes the design which affects this quantity, in which case the quantity shown in the bid schedule will be adjusted by the amount of the change for the purposes of payment in accordance with subsection 109.02. No additional payment will be made for increased quantities resulting from adjustments to the road alignment or gradient made in accordance with subsection 213.03 by the Contractor to balance quantities or to suit his operations.

No direct payment will be made for: (1) benching necessary for the placement of side hill embankments and for the operation of hauling and placing equipment; (2) constructing ap

proach connections to existing roads and trails; (3) constructing road approaches shown on the plans or designated by the Engineer; (4) compacting material placed in the vicinity of structures; (5) constructing turnouts and curve widening; but payment will be considered included in the unit price bid for the pay item listed below and shown in the bid schedule, which price and payment will be full compensation for the work of this section.

Clearing and grubbing will be paid for as provided under Section 201.
Payment will be made under:

Pay Item

213(1) Linear grading.

Pay Unit



214.01 This work shall consist of removing existing facilities and reconstructing at a new location. The facilities to be relocated include such items as fencing, highway signs and traffic control devices, utilities, cattle guards, delineator, curbs, guard rail or other items as shown on the plans.


214.02 General. Highway facilities that are to be reconstructed at new locations shall conform to the design of the existing facility. The work shall be performed in accordance with the requirements of these specifications for new work of similar character, which apply to the type of facility to be reconstructed, adjusted, modified, remodeled, relaid, relocated or reset. Material salvaged from existing facilities that is determined by the Engineer to be unsuitable for use in the reconstructed work shall be disposed of in accordance with Section 202. The unsuitable material shall be replaced with a material of a kind and quality equal to the best material in the existing facility.

Details of the work will be shown on the plans or in the Special Provisions.

Method of Measurement

214.03 When payment for the relocation is on a lump sum basis, that payment will include all work necessary to complete relocation of the item.

When a unit price is the basis for payment measurement of the item will be in accordance with Section 109.

When relocation work is not a contract item, the work will not be paid for directly, but will be considered as a subsidiary obligation of the Contractor under other contract items.

Basis of Payment

214.04 When the contract includes separate items, and unit or lump sum prices for adjusting, modifying, remodeling, relaying, reconstruction, relocating or resetting of miscellaneous highway facilities, the quantities will be paid for at the contract unit or lump sum price for the item of work involved.

The above prices and payments shall include full compensation for furnishing all labor, materials, tools, equipment, and incidentals, and for doing all work involved in completing the relocations as shown on the plans and as specified in these specifications and the special provisions, and as directed by the Engineer.

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215.01 This work shall consist of furnishing and installing a mat of fiber glass roving and asphalt on slopes and in ditches in accordance with these specifications and in reasonably close conformity with the lines, grades, dimensions and locations shown on the plans or established by the Engineer.


215.02 Materials shall meet the requirements specified in the following subsections: Fiber glass roving

Emulsified asphalt


The emulsified asphalt shall be grade CSS-1.

Construction Requirements

215.03 (a) Fiber glass roving shall be spread uniformly over the designated area to form a random mat of continuous glass fibers at the rate of 0.25 to 0.35 pound per square yard. This rate may be varied as directed by the Engineer.

Fiber glass roving shall be anchored to the ground with asphaltic material applied uniformly over the glass fibers at the rate of 0.25 to 0.35 gallon per square yard. This rate may be varied as directed by the Engineer.

The upgrade end of the roving shall be buried to a depth of 1-foot to prevent undermining. The above instructions for slope and ditch protection may be varied by the Engineer to fit field conditions.

(b) Maintenance and Repair-Roving shall be repaired immediately if damaged. Soil in damaged areas shall be restored to original grade, refertilized and reseeded if originally specified, all at no additional cost to the Government.

(c) Equipment-Equipment shall include:

(1) Pneumatic ejector capable of applying fiber glass roving at the rate of 2 pounds per minute (approximately 8 square yards per minute).

(2) Air compressor capable of supplying 40 cfm at 80 to 100 psi. Acceptable air hoses necessary for supplying air to areas not accessible to the compressor.

(3) Approved asphaltic material distributor with necessary hoses and hand spray bar for working on slopes and other areas not accessible to the distributor.

Method of Measurement.

215.04 Fiber glass roving will be measured by the pound.

Asphalt cement or emulsified asphalt will be measured by the gallon at 60°F. or will be converted to this temperature for payment in accordance with subsection 109.02.

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