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against them, by Queen Elisabeth's and my father's constitutions. The prelates also as probably expecting a conservation of their means and benefices, then threatened in another way, from this head of theirs, O God, how ridiculous! Having lost thus in the House of Lords, for the lower was of little consideration to me, more than twenty and upwards of suffrages, who remained more indulgent and firm to me, were intimidated, thereto books being cast abroad, by the tumultuousness of the apprentices and tradesmen, which seditions the adverse party of the parliament, with all the eagerness that they could, fomented. At Westminster also, scandalous books were written against me, at the pleesure of those parliamentary rebels, which, their emissaries far and near dispersing them, by some provincials, thereto courted, were subscribed, and exhibited, suddenly after, to the parliament; as though, nothing on their part suggested, the whole matter had, by the people, been exacted.
Hen. The very self-same fraud and collusion did I practise to the church's ruin. For first of all, by writs and declamations, who were refractory of the clergy I indulged; in doing whereof, I pretended reformation, and not ruin, which was really my design, like your rebels, who in the beginning of their defection, even by oath and publick faith, obliged themselves, not to attempt against your person, realms, or church, but to defend them with their utmost power, though however of some defects in church and state, by removing from you certain evil counsellors, they seemed to pretend a reformation. And, lest any thing should have the face of oppression, which I did, I procured certain books to fly abroad, with whose sense I was very well pleased, which the monks in their own names should write to me, near according to this following tenor:
Since the goodness of God (with your highness's concurrence) hath su wrought, that in these latter days (the darkness of times past dispersed) a new and true light bath appeared unto us; we heartily and humbly make request, that you will free us from this cloistered slavery (the very path unto most certain perdition) and restore us to our spiritual liberty; for which doing (to express our gratitude) we (freely and not any ways forced, whom not fear nor yet collusion draws thereto,) give you all our houses, goods, and lands, nay jurisdiction, to be your own for ever.'
These books I dispersed through all the monasteries, and commanded that every one should subscribe them, who would not to be forthwith hanged. But especially all the abbots and superiors, that the rest might by their suffering be intimidated ; so that divers through the fear of death (as though really from their proper motives,) were induced 10 underwrite these papers.
Car. I have signed also many things constrainedly, and (what is worse) been forced to swear I did so willingly. But so far was this my easiness from availing me (especially about the city of London) that (after all, whatsoever they asked me I had given them with a full compliance) they still more and more increased their tumults; and observing all my castles, strengths, and navy taken from me (with the total militia) it was then (when no meaus else were left me) that I betook myself first unto arms, whereby to guard my life, my crown, and my dignity; wherefore, setting up my kingly standard, the most faithful of my subjects Ay to me, whose numbers in short time so increased, that I waged seven years war with the parliament. During which time it was remarkable to see how, more than others, the Roman Catholicks flocked to me, and, for my good, exposed their lives and fortunes. Those, to wit, who were formerly traduced (by the obloquies of most slanderous calumniators) as suspected to both King and kingdoms, for refusing of the oath of allegiance, in which point they never yet were found defective, though falsly therefore called recusants, but which also exacted from their consciences an abjuration of the pupe's authority, and an acknowledgment of my spiritual supremacy; these very men, I say, though they took not that oath, yet, unsworn, they never stuck at any thing in the which they might be loyal to me and faithful. But the covenanters, call them protestants or puritans, what did they (though against their oaths, and highly abjuring any such kind of practice) but even tooth and nail bend all their forces to deprive their King of life and dignity. Nor wanted these their plots at last success; for money falling short to pay the soldiers, whom I therefore was constrained to dismiss, being my. self of all things destitule to extremity, I was glad, as to my very last refuge, to betake myself wholly to the Scots. But (oh unheard of and most shameful perfidiousness !) those sold me to who would give most for me, by which means thus tossed from prison to prison, these miseries as you see have overwhelmed me.
Hen. I wonder not (by the parliament's authority and insinuations) that some of thine have left thee; but how cometh it, that thy country-men the Scots have taken arms against thee, joining with the enemies?
Car. This threefold defection, by the Scots, was indeed my utter ruin and overthrow; for if only I had contested with the English, by the aid of other faithful of my subjects (more in number very many than the re. bels) as well in England as also in Ireland, I should easily have made good my prerogative. But the Scots, on this occasion, fell from me. I fancying, forsooth, as head of the church, that it belonged most peculiarly unto me, that not only the same tenor of faith, through the extent of my whole dominions, but the same service also, rites and likewise ceremonies, should be uniformly in the same observed (the archbishop thereto most of all exhorting me, whom I reverenced as though indeed some patriarch) I commanded the book of common prayer, a form of thy son Edward's first composing, and the surplice to be used by the Scots, who had not either publick form of worship, or other decency of ornaments in their church, but, as now it is the fashion atGeneva, every one babbled as he pleases his own impertinencies; strictly threatening with exemplary punishment who thereto should not yield due obedience; which the people of Scotland observing, and that already it was put in practice, cried out Popery is now violently forced upon us. Then tumults day by day ipcreased, which the Calvinist ministers fomented, who consulting the
puritans of England, especially Hambden the chief of that faction, joint. ly brought in the Scots upon this nation, then in peace, who with their armies invaded it. This incursion, so rebellious, of those traitors (like a river when its banks are broken down) overflowed my total realms with sedition.
Hen. Is it not as clear then, tell me Charles, as noon-day, that our inauspicatiously affecting church supremacy hath confounded us in this sort which now thou seest?
Car. Very true, it is not void of reason for so being; yet do I not reach how all those evils rather seized not thee, the first invader of the English primacy, who (convening all the states of thy kingdom to be confirmed upon thyself and thy successors) than puor me, who have but kept, and that too peaceably, what my ancestors by their wills bad left to me.
Hen. Oh Charles, how art thou grosly deceived if thou thinkest I do not share in thy misfortunes? No sin yet ever escaped unpunished, nor was impunity ever allowed to wicked persons. And, to pass by what now at present I suffer, what tortures did not then distort me, when my executioners were those three man-spillers, avarice, cruelty, and lust? And as for avarice, so unsatiably it reigned in me, that having subverted three-hundred and seventy-six religious houses, and snatched away their lands and goods, by an edict to that purpose which I made; scarcely one year had yet been fully gone about, before I vexed with such high taxes all my subjects as had never been before from them exacted, by which morsel now made keen and Aleshed, as it were, not long after, oh how rich and opulent! I confiscated what remained of the church revenues. In the interim I gave hopes unto the laity that those goods of the church would go so far with me, as to free them for ever from exactions; a hearing so grateful to the people, that they impensly for it favoured my abreptions. But so fooled they were in these their expectations, that í alone a little after more oppressed them, than in fifty years before my predecessors. After I had spoiled and razed a thousand churches, taken all unto my use that belonged unto them; all their coin, and sacred vessels, robbed them of; brass, lead, shards, seelings, nay, even the very rubbish set to sale, with all else vendible; besides two chests from out of the church of Canterbury, so massy scarce four men could carry one of them, so well crammed they were with gold and precious stones: After all, I say, these things had been thus robbed by me, I was reduced into such very great indigence, that, whereas I mixed at first but two of brass only with ten ounces (by my edict) of good silver, I afterwards with two of current silver mixed ten ounces of adulterate brass; thus tortured, as you see, with endless avarice, nor less roughly by my cruelties handled.---For full twenty years at least together, whilst I lived in the communion of the church, no one ever of the Kings shed less blood, in all which time two only suffered of my nobility. But afterwards, when I fell from the church(not more thirsty of gold than of blood)of all conditions, all ages, and all sexes, I exhibited a most fearful massacre; and that upon no other demerit, but that only they withstood my voluptuousness. Four queens, with either steel or imprisonments, I took away, which were the consorts of my bed; two young princesses, and
also two cardinals (proscribing, in his absence, the third) who was very near in blood to me allied. Dukes, marquisses, counts, or sons of counts at least a dozen, I put publickly to death ; barons, knights bannerets, or knights, to the number of twenty, wanting two; abbots and priors thirteen; priests and religious seventy-seven; of lesser rank, and of the vulgar, infinite. And, whilst belching thus on all sides my cruelties, the faithfullest of my subjects most feared me, as witness that most hora rid catastrophe of Cardinal Wolsey, of Cromwell, and the Bullens; of the Howards, of Norris, and lastly Compton. But as for lust, so very insatiably was I lost in it, that, divorcing my best and lawful wife, I saw not any thing of that sex the which I burnt not for; nor scarcely did I lust that woman, whom one way or other I did not violate. Was it not also for the punishment of my sins, that your father and yourself have reigned in England ? Who leit nothing on my part unattempted, which I could think of 10 hinder your succession, that I might fix it by a masculine birth unto the house of which myself was descended. Two wives I forced unjustly from my bed, and as many made to quit this life; the fifth, who fell in troublesome labour, I commanded to be ripped up alive, to the end to save the infant which she went with; thus barbarously and inhumanly adding, that it was easier to get more wives than children. The sixth I also afterwards married, whom when thinking to have spilt myself, I perished. Yet, for all this my caring for posterity, during fifty years time of my life, no one ever lived long of my survivors. A boy, indeed, of nine years old, succeeded me in the usurpcd supremacy, little knowing how to govern himself, but much less the helm of church jurisdiction, who had also first departed this life before attaining to his youthful age. Mary also, my legitimate daughter, who cast out heresy, entered afterwards to the crown, of whose child I could bave very well hoped, five years married to the Catholick King; but that God (the just revenger of homicides, rapes, incests, and likewise of sacrilege) barred my seed from inheriting the earth; nor in vain are his words, or to be laughed at, thus importing, that the days of the sons shall be cut shorter for the father's offences. She dying soon after without issue, this empire was translated into thy line; but Elisabeth, that illigitimate daughter of mine (begot in incest, and judged incapable of governing by the parliament, and myself thereto assenting) stepped, however, into the kingly throne, and would be called, forsooth, the head of the church, by my example, under whose womanish popeship, at least a thousand suffered death for being priests. But ridiculous is that head which hath no tongue; and a woman, as the apostle averreth, is not allowed to speak in the church; yet it is admirable to see with what audacity she took upon her to usurp the church of God, who missioning (with a womanish sollicitude) her ministers for the planting of the gospel, sowed the seeds, as yet we see here in England, of a multiplicity of sowre-levened heresies. And, after seventeen years keeping her prisoner, she bad cut off the head of thy grand-mother, doing acts of most unparalleled cruelty, by the example of my former tyrannies, she descended without issue into-,
Thus, in the first generation, ended my progeny; so true it is what the kingly prophet said, “That the seed of the wicked shall perish,' Psal. xxxvii; and accordingly in another place, “Their fruits shall be extirpated from the earth, and their seed from the sons of men.' I have been admonished by very woeful experience of the truth of this prophet's saying. So, to wit, it hath pleased the Almighty to laugh at the counsels of men. And this reason the same prophet superaddeth, ' For they contrived counsels which they could not make good,' Psal. xxix. For there is no counsel which will stand against God,' Prov. xxi.---As too late, and to my cost, I have found true. Wouldest thou yet be more confirmed of these sad verities ? Unto King Edward, when I died, my son, I left twelve tutors,all reputed Catholicks, and, abstracting from the supremacy only, which I desired he should keep in his hands, commanded he should be otherways bred up a Catholick. All heresies, this only excepted, by my will, I wholly excluded and abolished. But, as violating the wills of my ancestors, and subverting what they built and consecrated, so many temples and monuments of religion, I deserved not that my own should be observed ; amongst the rest, the Duke of Somerset was one, uncle to Edward the Sixth by the mother, whom, at my death, I did, as guardian, prefer to him. He infected, and my son by him, with heresy, brought in that, which most I hated, of the sacrament, which Queen Elisabeth, after both, confirmed. A monument I appointed for my ashes much more sumptuous than ever any of my ancestors, and yet hitherto I have failed of the same; though, alone of all the Kings of Great Britain, three children have, in order, succeeded me; nor need I fear, now those are dead, to be forgotten, who, for my wickedness, shall eternally be remembered. I am the mark of all men's hate of all conditions. To the Catholicks, by good reason, odious, cutting England from the communion of their church; abominated no less worthily by the religious, as whose families I have destroyed and sold their goods. Equally execrable to the church and laity; as first raising over the whole body of the Catholicks that persecution, which, to this hour, afflicted them; the hereticks, even to death, detested nie, still pursuing them with fire and sword. Luther called me a stall-fed ox, and very often a most inhuman tyrant; Calvin drew out the sword of his pen against my title of the head of the church, which, so monster like, to inyself I had arrogated; and marked me out by the dint of his writings, as one destitute of both fear and shame, in relation to both God and man. All the literate will perpetually hate my memory, that I should root out, and totally destroy, so many monuments of antiquity and learning, such as scarcely in the world are to be paralleled.
To conclude, whilst I lived, the most did hate me, every one feared me, and scarce any one loved me. In my latter days, by the furies of my conscience agitated, like to Orestes, I would fain have incorporated with the ehurch all those kingdoms which I had torn from its obedience, and, in whatsoever I was able, I endeavoured a reparation of those wrongs I had done my wife. This at last, in some sort, I provided for, giving caution by my last will and testament, that, if Edward my son should die issueless, my daughter Mary, whom I had before disinherited, born of Catharine, should suceed me in these kingdoms. Oh! how often have I talked with my familiars about this first, to wit, of bowing to his holiness, and being received again intohis grace and favour? But, having