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lity; there is no doubt but they may lawfully be received into any civil society of men, to live and have a being therein, as strangers. For it is not lawful for them to desire to be received upon any other terms, because the rest of the world must be ingrafted upon them towards God, and not they upon any other people. For, in respect of God's providential government of the world, the prerogative is still theirs, to be a people set a-part above all others, for the manifestation boob of his mercies and judgments. I say, then, that they being such a people set a.part, not only in their foretaihers, but in their present state, for such an end, and in this state being made strangers every where, and not lawfuí for them to make any other account of themselves : and God having recommended the entertainment of strangers, as a special duty of charity unto all christians; and no nation of the world being a greater object of charity, and fitter to be pitied by christians, than Jews: It is clear to me, that, it the question be put in general terms, concerning the lawfulness of admitting them, the answer cannot be other than affirmative. But, if the question be made concerning the expediency of admitting of them at such and such a time, in this or that place, upon those or these terms, then I suppose the great rules of expediency are to be observed, which are, t. In respect of God's glory, according to the apostle's direction, 1 Cor. x. 31. Whether, therefore, ye cat or drink, or whatsoever ye do, do all to the glory of God.' Whatsoever, then, conduceth to the glory of God, is not only lawful, but expedient to be done. 2. In respect of our neighbours, there is a twofold rule, the one is of edification, the other avoiding offences. The rule of edification is expressed by the same apostle, in the same chapter, verses 23, 24, in these words, ' All things are lawful for me, but all things are not expedient All things are lawful for me, but all things edify not. Let no man seek his own, but every one that which is another's.' Where the 23d verse puts not expedieni and not edifying for equivalent terms, expounding each other, and equidistant from that which is lawful. And the 24th verse shews what is meant by edifying. The rule of avoiding offence is again in the same place expressed, verse 32,‘Give no offence, neither to the Jews nor to the Gentiles, nor to the church of Gud. Even as I please all men,' &c. 3. In respect of ourselves the rule is, that we ourselves be not thereby deprived of our christian or civil liberty; which the apostle expresseth, i Cor. vi, 12, in these words : ‘All things are lawful for me, but all things are not expedient; all things are lawful for me, but I will not be brought under the power of any.' If, in the circumstances of their admission, nothing be found contrary to those rules, but all can be made consonant to the glory of God, to the edification of others, without danger of offence, and with. out bringing a yoke upon ourselves; then their admission will be judged not only lawful, but also expedient; and to determine, how the circumstances may agree with those rules, doth belong chiefly to those to whom the power of admitting of them is given by God; that is, to the rulers of the state, without whose consent no societies ought to be formed in the state. For, secing the Jews come into christian commonwealths, not as members thereof, but as strangers therein, and yet form a society, or kind of commonwealth among themselves, it can be long to none pertinently to juilge of the expediency of admitting of them, but unto those whom God hath set over the commonwealth to procure the welfare thereof. Others may be consulted withal concerning particular circumstances, which may be proposed unto them, to hear their opinion what they will julge of them; but, upon the whole matter, none ought to give a verdict, but such as can compare all circumstances at once, with the frame of the whole state, to discern, by the forenamed rules, whether their admission be expedient or not. And, seeing it may stand in their own power, by the admission of them, to order things so towards them, as to make all circumstances consonant to the rules of expediency, I conceive it will be their duty, when they are intreated so to do, to endeavour the performance thereof; and, if they do not so, I know not how to excuse them from a failing in the duty of their calling. And although particular persons, to whom the judgment, super totam materiam, doth not belong, ought not to meddle beyond their line in the business; yet being required to contribute their assiste ance and advice, how to frame things in a way towards them, which is most expedient, they ought not to refuse it. Therefore I also shall put in my mite among the rest, although I am at a great distance for the present, and cannot know how things stand at home.

If then the question be, how their admission may be so circumstantiated, as to answer the forenamed rules of expediency? I would advise thus :

I. To advance the glory of God by their admission, I conceive they must be restrained from some things, and may be fairly induced to some other things. The things, from which they must be restrained, are chiefly these: 1. Not to blaspheme the person of Jesus Christ, or, if any doth, that he shall be liable to the law which Moses hath given, in case of blaspheming the name of God. 2. Not to seduce any, or go about to make proselytes; or, if any doth, he shall, ipso facto, forfeit his liberty, or undergo some other heavier punishment. 3. Not to prophane the christian sabbath, but to rest' upon it, as well as upon their own sabbath ; and not to dishonour any of the ordinances of Christianity, under some punishment to be inflicted, suitable to the offence.

The things, whereunto they may be fairly induced, are, as I conceive, these: 1. To hear us concerning the grounds which we have for Christianity, and that with patience, and without contradicting contentious. ly; but, in case of doubts, that they should propose the same by way of question to be resolved, that we may have cause to give them a reason of our faith and practice. 2. To declare to us the grounds of all their faith and practice, and to answer such questions as we happily may propose to be resolved by them, upon such a declaration. 3. To avoid on both sides all contradictory disputes in these conferences, and not to trouble any of the weaker sort of either side, with the matters to be handled therein, but only to set them a foot amongst a few of the rabbies of each side in a friendiy way. Here at Cassel something hath been intended this way, by obliging them to come once a month to a lecture, wherein the grounds of Christianity were opened unto them; and although few or none have been thereby so openly converted, as to embrace all the truth; yet some of them have been so moved, that they have wept much sometimes at the things which they have heard. Also a small catechism of our belief, concerning the Messiah, hath been penned for them, and they have been obliged to read it, and learn it, so as to answer to the questions contained therein, that it might appear they were not ignorant of our meaning, for the aim was only to glorify God in this. For the glory of our God is chiefly made manifest in his truth and faithfulness to make good bis word, for he hath magnified his word above all his works'; and if we can order their admission so, as to manifest unto them the truth of his word revealed unto us by the promises of the gospel, in the knowledge of his name; and so lay that knowledge before them in the lump, that they cannot but see that God hath appeared unto us, and doth rule us by spirit and truth, and makes a great difference between our communion with himself and their literal worshiping of him; if, I say, we can contrive, in their admission, the business so towards them, that they shall not only be restrained from dishonouring our God and his ordinances, or overthrowing his truth in the minds of any, but that they shall be made to see the goodness of God's mercy to us, that he hath adopted us to be his people in their stead; then the first rule of expediency will be observed, and there will be no great difficulty to contrive ihe business so, that the other rules also will be put in practice. Now, concerning the method of spiritual prudence, how to go about this work towards them, is a subject too large to be entered upon at this time. One caveat only may be suggested at present, which is this, that the scanning of particular questions and doubts which they may have concerning the genealogy of Christ, and other circumstantial maitors in the New Testament, should be avoided, and the main und niable truths wherein the Old and New Testament agree, and which make up the substance of saving knowledge, and of the practice of piety, and the fulfilling both of the promises made to us, and the threatenings denounced against them, should be only insisted upon, and branched out, to let them see the body of the whole truth of God, made out to us, and our endeavour to glorify God thereby

And thus much shall be at this time hinted at, concerning the observation of the first rule of expediency towards them in their admission ; which being not only feasable, but a main duty incumbent to all christian magistrates to intend and endeavour, it is to me evident, that their admission is not only lawful, but expedient also.

II. To advance their edification by their admission, according to the second rule of expediency; I conceive matters may be so ordered towards them, that they may be made to understand, that the intention of the state, in admitting of them, is not to have profit or temporal advantages by them (which may be had as well by our own industry, and perhaps better, without theirs) but rather out of christian love and compassion towards thein; and in witness of our thankfulness to God, for the good which hath been derived from them to us; and for the hope which we have, that all his goodness shall be fulfilled both in them, and us, when the Messiah shall return in his glory. The apostle saith, that 'charity edifieth'; and it is a truth approved by daily experience, that, without charity, no ground can be laid of mutual commerce, or increase of good things, mutually communicable. Therefore I would suggest humbly this, that, to open a door in their hard hearts, for doing good unto them, the charity of the state, in the act of their admission, should be ratified towards them, and they made fully sensible, that it is not for any profit, which they can bring to the state, that they are admitted ; but for a desire in us, for doing them good, for the good, which, through their misery, is befallen to us Gentiles, viz. that we have the oracles of God, by their means, preserved and conveyed to us, and the knowledge, and the accomplishment of the benefit of all the promises, whereof we desire, that they may be made partakers again with us. And this being made professedly the ground of their admission, viz, our thankfulness to God, to shew that mercy to them, which he hath shewed to us: all other duties of good-will, and lawful communion, tending to the accomplishment of this end, may be wisely and kindly built thereupon, so as, without prejudice, they will be glad to receive the same, and entertain the motions which we may make to that effect; and, amongst other effects of our love, they may receive, by the same act of their admission, an assurance, that, in all treaties with the nations which persecute and oppress them, a care shall be had of them, and their interests, as with Spain and Portugal, and the Grand Signior, and others, if any be, who seek to destroy them. That in publick transactions their liberty of living with them shall be procured so far, as in the power of our state shall lie by God's permission.

III. To avoid offences between them and us, in admitting of them, it will be expedient that they live by themselves, and that their worship be performed in their own tongue; that the insolencies, which the common sort of both sides may use one towards another, be prevented by laws and special orders, to keep them from incroaching upon others, beyond their bounds; for they are naturally more high-minded than olher nations, and make less conscience of oppressing the Gentiles, than others do; because they find they are oppressed by them, and imagine themselves the only noble people in the world; and therefore aspire to have, not only liberty to live by themselves, but riches and power over others, wherever they can get it; which inclinations of theirs, being the chief causes of offences, must be prevented, nut as here in (vermany, by making them base and vile; but by other more friendly ways, which prudence and equity will suggest.

IV. To avoid the temporal inconveniencies which may arise from their covetous practices and biting usury, and other subtieties in trade, by which we of the nation may be prejudged in our liberty, and brought, in some respect or other, under their power. The wisdom of the state will look to it, nor is it in my way to take it into consideratiun: Therefore I shall leave this last rule of expediency unto their vigilancy, and draw to a conclusion of these suggestions, whicrein I have no more to say but this; that if they desire aumittance, and will receive it in a way, wherein these rules can be observed; then they should be admitted, and that it will be a sin in those, who will not admit them upon these terms; or who will not propose such terins as these, unto them, when they desire admittance; or who, having an opportunity to invite them in their distress, do not mind these principles in admitting of them, to give them entertaininent in their commonwealth. As for other considerations of future hopes, although I believe as much of them, as most inen do; yet I can draw no argument from thence for any particular admittance of them, at this time, because I know that the tiines and seasons of their deliverance are in God's hand alone, and that we are very much inclined to mistake in conjectures of that nature. But the universal rules, which are grounded upon the main ends and duties of Christianity, must be observed by those that will trust unto God, for a blessing upon their endeavours. And when they have (towards such ends, and according to such duties) done that which they think, is acceptable to God; then they ought to acquiesce, and leave the issuc to Providence, which I am persuaded will be favourable to the state. And, in this assurance, I rest ever,


Your most affectionate and

faithful Servant in Christ,


Cassell, in Haste,

Jan. 8, 1656.

POSTSCRIPT. Concerning the Jews, if I can, I will send you the abstract of the laws, by which they are received here. Our state doch wisely to go warily, and by degrees, in the business of receiving them. Menasseh Ben Israel's demands are great, and the use, which they make of great privileges, is not much to their commendation here, and elsewhere. They have ways, heyond all other men, to underinine a state, and to insinuate into those that are in offices, and prejudicate the traile of others; and therefore, if they be not wisely restrained, they will, in a short time, be oppressive, if they be such as are here in Germany. To call in the Caraits would fright away these, for they are irreconcileable enemies. Time must ripen these designs, and prudence may lead them on.

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