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more like a monster than a man. Amongst the Christians, Christiernus in Denmark, Wenceslaus in Bohemia, who was likewise emperor, behaved themselves so wickedly, that it was said of them, That they had cast off' human nature. Nor much unlike to them was Richard the Third, called, The tyrant of England, yet none of all these was ever condemned to die by the sentence of their subjects. Insomuch that it is observed, that the Israelites, after they had deserted their King Rehoboam, although an oppressor, never enjoyed a happy hour, but were infested with continual wars, both civil and foreign, till at last they were utterly destroyed, and carried captives into Babylon.

Of Nero it was said, Primum damnati principis exemplum; I add, Postrcmum, non mactati tamen, as in this case. The confederate provinces were first forced in their religion, their persons and goods seized, and one hundred-thousand of them killed. The prevailing party in England, aíter those insolent and high affronts done to his Majesty, before his constrained removal from his court at Whitehall, took up arms, gave out commissions, levied men, according to his Majesty's last true and undeniable words, and seized upon the regalia, before he once put himself into a posture of defence.

In the Low-Countries their liberty was, more majorum, fully restored to them, without prejudice to any man.

In England, religion and liberty are shamefully trampled under foot, and the House of Commous so dismembered, and its privileges violated, that the eighth part of ten were beyond all parallel cast out, as the declaration and protestation of the secluded members, Feb. 13, 1648, doth testify.

The proceedings of the high and mighty States are approved and justified by all the world; on the contrary, those of the English condemned and abhorred, and by themselves confessed as irregular and unwarrantable; and a most pregnant proof and probatio probata, of their wrong, as is contained in the said declaration of the ministers.

The which premisses the high and mighty States being pleased to take into serious consideration, according to their accustomed wisdom and justice, and calling 10 mind those divers treaties betwixt the King's royal predecessors, and their lordships, in his Majesty's person, yet firmly standing. And seeing likewise divers of their lordships resolved for a punctual observation of a neutrality, since the year 1642, between the late King, his Majesty's father, of blessed memory, and his parliament, the which, by the partial confederacy with the one party, now laboured for, will, in all appearance, be violated and infringed.

Tnerefore their lordships are earnestly intreated not to hearken to the said propositions, as being prejudicial to the King my gracious master's interests, and dangerous to this state; likewise that the acknowledging them for a free republick, which possibly the condition of the times, and benefit of trade, bath occasioned, be not drawn into a farther consequence, much less an occasion given thereby, forgetting Joseph's sufferings, that the afficied be yet more afflicted, their liberty retarded, and their calamity lengthened.

His Majesiy's affairs, God be praised, are yet in a very good and hopeful condition, far better than some of his royal predecessors, who have, notwithstanding, run through all difficulties, and became considerable to their friends, as well as formidable to their enemies.

King Robert Bruce, about three hundred years ago, being likewise by the rebellion of his subjects, and the disloyalty of Baliol and Cumming, and their adherents, fiercely assailed by King Edward of England, wbo, at once, was possessed of most of the towns and strengths in Scotland, kept a parliament in St. Andrew's, took his queen prisoner, killed four of his brethren, amongst whom were those duo fulmina belli, defaced or removed all the monuments and registers of that kingdom, was constrained, with one or two servants, to hide himself among the hills; yet, notwithstanding all this, in a short time after, recovered his whole kingdom, was crowned with honour and glory, and forced his insolent enemy, in confusion, to fly from Sterling to Dumbar, and thence in a fisher-boat, Xerxes like, escaped narrowly with his life. I say Sterling,

Invictum, et fatale Scotorum propugnaculum :

Of which it is said,

Hic Latium remorata est Scotia cursum.

His Majesty's royal grandfather, Henry the Fourth, King of France and Navarre, yet of fresh memory, was in a lower condition, and had less power to resist those of the league and the powerful King of Spain; yet at last became victorious, in the overthrow of his enemies, to the great advantage and very considerable succour of the Netherlands.

The distressed condition of the predecessors of the high and mighty States-general, whom, after so many changes, the Almighty God hath, to the admiration of the whole world, brought into a safe haven, however Sirius, a Spanish writer, jesting with those of Holland and their confederates, did say, What can the Hollanders do against the King of Spain? As now, some scoffingly ask, How can the Scots stand against the powerful English? Is an eminent and visible example, that it is all one, with the Lord, to help with few or with many, and that, when all strength and human hopes do fail, he will arise gloriously, for the deliverance of the righteous, crowning them, in the end, with honour and good success.

1. Shall we then look upon the present successes, and prosperity of that party, as alone unchangeable, for the which such strange grounds are by them pretended, as are no where found, being so diametrically opposite, according to the declaration of the said divines in and about London. To

1. God's holy word.
2. The instinct of nature.
3. Natural reason.
4. The laws of all nations.

5. The constitutions, particularly of the kingdom of England, who, above all other people, most obsequiously and affectionately regard and reverence their Kings, as in those maxims of their law, Rex non moritur, Rer nulli facit injuriam, &c.

6. The judgment of all casuists.

7. Their oaths of fealty, supremacy, and allegiance, repeated particularly at the admission of every member into the House of Commons ; their protestation, their covenant, their solemn league and covenant, and an hundred declarations, besides the publick faith of the kingdom of England, solemnly given to the commissioners of the kingdom of Scotland, upon their receiving his Majesty at Newcastle, in all which, they professed to the world, that they would maintain and preserve, with their lives and estates, the King's person, honour, rights, and roya) posterity.

II. Or, shall we rest satisfied in the sophistry of those sectaries, who, out of Christ's answer to the subtle questions of the Herodians and Pharisees, if it were lawful to give tribute to Cæsar, answ

swered, Ostendite mihi numisma, cujus habet imaginem? infer that, fide implicita, the party now in England, is to be acknowledged, withoui any further enquiry or examination, since our Saviour's answer speaks nothing for their advan. tage. But, on the contrary, his commanding tribute to be given to Cæsar, whom the Jews formerly acknowledged to be their King, confirmeth and establisheth lawful power, and consequently condemneth sedition and rebellion; else David should have submitted unto and acquicsced in the usurped power of Absalom, who was possessed of all the land, even unto Jordan, and carried away all Israel after him; and Solomon in the power of Adonijah, Johoiada in Athaliah's, and the Maccabees in the power of Antiochus Epiphanes, the grand enemy of the Jews; yea, the estates of the Cnited Provinces should have then obeyed the force of the Duke of Alva, who, by the emblem of his statue formerly set up in Antwerp, did signify that he had invested himself with the absolute power. It is well said hy one of the ancients, Omnis potestas est à Deo; sed acquisitio potrstatis, furlo, rapina, incendio, aut perduellione, non est à Deo, sed ab hominum affectibus et Satanæ mulitia,

III Or, may we suffer ourselves to be abused by the examples and precedents, which the said sectaries alledge of the Kings, Edward the Second, and Richard the Second, who, by reason of their incapacity, were forced to resign their crowns, the one to his son, the other to his competitor King Henry the Fourth, but neither of them w an inconsiderable, small remainder of an House of Commons, or the people ? Only, in a full parlament, both their resignations were confirmed, and neither executed, but were always afterwards honourably entertained; yea, one Roger Mortimer, which is worth the observing, the chief author and actor in deposing of Edward the Second, and crowning his son Edward the Third in his father's place, according to which precedent his Majesty Charles the Second, ought by these to have been crowned, was by a parliament four years after, together with his fellow-murderers, condemned as a traitor and enemy to the King and kingdom, because he killed the said deposed King in Berkely Castle.

Besides, the now prevailing party, by solemn protestations, did publish and declare to all the world, that they did not intend to follow those accursed precedents, although they should suffer never so much by the King and his party. Exact. Collect. pag. 69.

IV. Should we not rather deeply apprehend, and with fear look upon those exemplary punishments inflicted upon perjury, and covenantbreaking, in God's holy word, as may be seen, toomil others, in the per. son of Saul, who, together with his posterity, as also the whole kingdom of Israel, was so severely punished, because he destroyed the Gibeonites, against the covenant made with Joshua, above two-hundred years before, notwithstanding they procured the same deceitfully? As likewise in the history of England, and other kingdoms, many pregnant examples to that purpose might be alledged; particularly that of William Thorpe, chief justice of the King's Bench in that realm, who tor taking a bribe of eighty pounds sterling, was put to death, and all his goods confiscated to the King's use, in regard that in so doing he violated the oath of a judge, as the words run, Quod sacramentum domini regis, quod erga populum habuit custodiendum, fregit malitiose, falso, et rebelliter. Parl. 23 Edw. Ili,

An Answer to their memorials. THE memorials I pass over, as monstrous, and which, by inevitable consequence, not only tend to cut off all treaties and alliances between the King's Majesty and this state, and all commerce with his loyal and faithful subjects, but likewise, in some cases, to the not suffering them to dwell or reside in these parts.

A demand which is against the band of common society amongst men, the sovereignty of the United Provinces, and liberty of the same, which have ever been a sanctuary for honest men, and a receptacle of all nations whatsoever. In a word, such quale rictor victo dare, non so. cius socium rogare solet. The cruelty of Tiberius, Nero, Domitian, and others, hath, for the most part, been confined within the walls of Rome, or the borders of Italy, without persecuting their opposers, in a strange land, as an omnibus umbra locis adero.

Concerning the thirty-six articles of the treaty. THE thirty-six articles evidently tend,

1. To hinder his Majesty's just right, and restitution to his hereditary crown and kingdom of England.

il. To involve the high and mighty States-General in a labyrinth and great inconveniences, who, at present, have no enemy.

III. To encourage and strengthen the King's irreconcileable enemies, and rebels, as the fourth, fifth, sixth, and thirty-first articles do import.

IV. Against the forementioned resolutions of the high and mighty States, in the year 1642, concerning the keeping a neutrality between

his Majesty's father, of blessed memory, and his parliament of England, namely, those of the first of November, and thirtieth of December, 1642, and the sixth of November, 1648.

V. Against a declaration and protestation of the noble and mighty States of Holland and West Friesland, dated the sixth of November, 1619, to the same purpose.

VI. Against all former treaties and alliances between his Majesty's royal predecessors and this State.

As, amongst others, that of the fourteenth of February, 1593, likewise consisting of thirty-six articles, between King Henry the Seventh of England, his heirs and successors, made in his name, and by his authority, as the words of the said treaty do bear, and Philip, Archduke of Austria, and Duke of Burgundy, which bind and oblige, to this very day, divers of the United Provinces, and the chief members and towns thereof, to assist the said Henry the Seventh and his heirs, (which unquestionably pleadeth for my master Charles the Second, he being the sixth from him in descent, in linea recta) and to afford them all favour and friendly assistance, as well by sea as by land, and prohibiieth any treaty and alliance to be made with the rebels, and the enemies of one another.

Whose undoubted right, according to God's sacred word, the laws, and the fundamental constitutions of the kingdom of England, as, Rex non moritur, &c. is firmly radicated in his Majesty's person, however he by violence be kept from it:

Non unquam perdidit ordo
Mutato sua jura loco.

Insomuch that the ancient Romans, by the light of nature, did refuse to enter into any alliance with Nabis, the usurper of Lacedæmon, but continued the same with the just and lawful King Pelopides. Amicitia et societas nobis nulla tecum est, saith Titus Quintius, in the behalf of the Roman empire, apud Livium, lib. 34. sed cum Pelopide rege Lacedæmoniornm justu et legitimo fucta est.

Finally, against the renewed treaty in the year 1550, December the fifteenth, made at Bins in Henegow, called the Perpetual Treaty, between the tutors of Mary, Queen of Scotland, in her minority, and Queen Mary of Hungary, regent for Charles the Fifth in the Low Countries, renewed again in solenni forma, word by word, at Edinburgh, 1594, between King James the Sixth and the high and mighty States, after the baptism of the late Prince Henry, his Majesty's son, celehrated at Sterling.

In the which it is promised and agreed upon, inviolably to maintain and preserve mutual friendship one with another, for all ages to come, and, as far in them lay, to prevent and hinder any damage that

be fall either of them; that they shall traffick in safety and security, and likewise, that they shall assist each other with ships, and all sort of ammunition, as may be seen at length in the treaty itself, inserted by Peter Borr, in his thirtieth book.


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