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The breakwater will be constructed on the ocean bottom and will resist the impact of the highest ocean waves that can occur at that site. The highest possible wave that can occur at this location is approximately 43 feet. Maximum wave height is a function of the ocean depth, which is approximately 40 feet at the site.
The breakwater will be approximately 300 feet wide on the ocean floor, and about 30 feet wide at the top. The highest part will extend 54 feet above the ocean. In addition to resisting the highest possible wave, the plant will withstand sustained hurricane winds of 156 miles per hour and tornado winds of up to 300 miles per hour. The maximum wind ever recorded in the local area has been less than 100 miles
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create the artificial reef, within which the plants will be moored. The mound facing of the reef will consist of sand, gravel, and stones topped by an armor of interlocking pre-cast concrete units called dolosse. A typical large dolos weighs 42 tons and measures 20 feet by 20 feet. Approximately 70,000 dolosse, in various sizes, will be placed on the breakwater. Dolosse are one of the most effective structures known for dissipating the energy of the ocean's waves.
More than 3 million tons of material will go into the construction of the breakwater, enough material to construct a two-lane highway 200 miles long.
We have complete confidence in the design strength of this breakwater. However, we are not just relying on design studies to determine the structural strength of the breakwater. Extensive scale-model testing will be done to insure that our design and analytical studies are correct. Scaled-size 43-foot waves will actually be crashed against the scale model of the breakwater to test the design strength. These detailed breakwater studies will be performed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers at highly specialized facilities in Vicksburg, Mississippi. Additional model tests for wave action and ship collision will be carried out at the University of Florida, Gainesville. These tests will encompass the entire breakwater configuration with the two floating plants inside it. Similar model studies of the thermal effects of these plants will also be conducted at the University of Florida.
The artificial reef, or breakwater, will be the largest and strongest structure ever built in the ocean. First, concrete caissons will be floated to the site, sunk, and filled with sand and gravel. Next, thousands of tons of rock will be brought by barge to
Typical dolos used for breakwater reinforcement weighs 42 tons and measures nearly 20 feet by 20 feet. Approximately seventy thousand dolosse will be interlocked with each other in a honeycomb-like manner.
Each plant will measure approximately 400 feet square and be 180 feet high at the top of dome. The draft is about 30 feet, leaving approximately 10 feet of clearance between the bottom of the barge and the ocean floor.
The two nuclear units will be constructed in Florida and floated to the New Jersey site by Offshore Power Systems, a joint venture of Westinghouse Electric Corporation and Tenneco, Inc.
The ekectricity from the otfshore plant will reach the mainland by underwater and underground cable. There will be no overhead wires. The underground cable will not go through the Brigantine National Wildlife Refuge. Conservationist groups have been consulted by PSE&G regarding the best route for the cabling. Once ashore, the cable will continue underground well beyond the coastal area before coming up into a switching station and then into a transmission grid. The tentative location for the switching station is planned to be in the area northwest of Tuckerion.
A small shore facility of approximately 3-5 acres will also be needed for servicing
Nuclear Generating Unit floated into place and moored
the plant, and will be on or near one of the local inlets. It will consist of a storage enclosure, clerical office, parking lot, and dock. The building will be approximately 140 feet by 60 feet. This will serve as an assembly point for the men who operate and maintain the plant and as a location for consumable supplies and small spare parts to be delivered to the plant.
Approximately once a year, uranium fuel shipments will be brought directly to the plant by barge from a major deepwater port somewhere along the east coast. Spent fuel will be transported directly to a reprocessing plant in the same mannerby sea. No fuel shipments will be delivered by land or transported through local communities.
Some people have voiced concern about the appearance of the plant from the shore. The artist's conception, on the next page, depicts how the plant will appear on a typical day to a person standing on the nearest beach, approximately 2.8 miles away. The plant would actually appear smaller to a person in the nearest populated communities which are more than five miles away
In order to assure there will be no adverse effect on the marine ecology in the area, PSE&G has engaged one of the most eminent marine biologists in the country, Dr. Edward C. Raney of Cornell University and Ichthyological Associates. His team of marine biologists are conducting extensive studies of the marine life in the area. These studies have already begun and will continue for a number of years after the plant goes into operation to be absolutely certain there is no adverse ecological impact.
Artist's conception depicts how the plant will appear on a typi
cal day to a person standing on the nearest beach, 2.8 miles away. The nearest populated community is over 5 miles away.
Dr. Raney's studies determine the water temperature preferences of various species of fish, their swiming speeds at different seasons of the year, reproductive patterns, eating habits, migration patterns, and many other facts needed to study the ecology of the area-including plankton and algae growths. With this advance information, we can determine the parameters within which the warm water discharge system should be designed to minimize the thermal effect, and also to determine what the best water intake velocity
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should be to allow fish to swim freely away from the intake ducts.
Preliminary thermal studies indicate that only in an area of a few acres immediately adjacent to the plant will the water temperature rise be 5°F or more. Outside of that relatively small mixing zone, any temperature difference from the surrounding ocean temperature is quickly dissipated. Of course, there will be no thermal effect from the plant on the shore, approximately 3 miles away.
As a result of his preliminary studies, Dr. Raney is of the opinion that the offshore artificial reef and the slightly warmer water will provide a much more favorable
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