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3 And it shall come to pass in that day, that Jehovah shall

give thee rest from thine affliction, and from thy disquiet,

and from the hard servitude, which was laid upon thee: 4

and thou shalt pronounce this parable upon the king of Ba-
bylon; and thalt say:
How hath the oppressor ceased! the exactress of gold

ceased ! 5 JEHOVAH hath broken the staff of the wicked, the sceptre of

the rulers, 6 He that smote the peoples in wrath, with a stroke unremitted ; He that ruled the nations in anger, is persecuted, and none

hindereth. 7 The whole earth is at rest, is quiet; they burst forth into a

joyful Nout:

is added in ההוא The word .ביום ההוא [in that

day- .3

) . two mss, and was in the copies from which the lxx and Vulg. tranflated : sv on inimeça eXtiv”, in die illa, Cavanavo!, Ms Pachom. adding »). This is a matter of no great consequence : however, it reftores the text to the common form, alm It constantly used on such occasions ; and is one among many instances of a word lost out of the printed copies.

4. - this parable-] Masbal. I take this to be the general name for poetic style among the Hebrews, including every sort of it, as ranging under one, or other, or all of the characters, of Sententious, Figurative, and Sublime; which are all contained in the original notion, or in the use and application of the word mahal. Parables or Proverbs, such as those of Solomon, are always expressed in short pointed sentences; frequently figurative, being formed on some comparison; generally forcible and authoritative, both in the matter and the form. And such in general is the style of the Hebrew Poetry: The verb mahal signifies to rule, to exercise authority ; to make equal, to compare, one thing with another ; to utter parables, or acute, weighty, and powerful speeches, in the form and manner of parables, though not properly such. Thus Balaam's first prophecy, Num. xxiii. 7--10, is called his masoal; though it has hardly any thing figurative in it; but it is beautifully sententious, and, from the very form and manner of it, has great spirit, force, and energy. Thus Job's last speeches, in answer to the Three Friends, chap. xxvii,-xxxi. are called mafhals; from no one parti. cular character, which discriminates them from the rest of the poem, but from the sublime, the figurative, the fententious manner, which equally prevails through the whole poem, and makes it one of the first and most eminent examples excant of the truly great and beautiful in poetic style.

The Lxx in this place render the word by Opavos, a lamentation. They plainly consider the speech here introduced as a piece of poetry, and of that species of poetry, which we call the Elegiac: either from the subject, it being a poem on the fall and death of the king of Ba. bylon; or from the form of the composition, which is of the Longer fort of Hebrew verse, in which the Lamentations of Jeremiah, called by the Lxx Sempoi, are written. 6

8 Even


8 Even the fir-trees rejoice over thee, the cedars of Libanus : Since thou art fallen, no feller hath come up against us. Hades from beneach is moved because of thee, to meet

thee at thy coming : He rouseth for thee the mighty dead, all the great chiefs of

the earth ; He makech to rise up from their thrones, all the kings of the

nations, 10 All of them shall accost thee, and Mall say unto thee :

Art thou, even thou too, become weak as we? art thou made

like unto us? 11 Is then thy pride brought down to the grave; the sound of

thy sprightly inftruments ? Is the vermin become thy couch, and the earth-worm thy covering? How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the

Morning! Art cut down to the earth, thou that didit subdue the nations! 13 Yet thou didit say in thy heart: I will ascend the heavens ;

Above the stars of God I will exalt my throne;
And I will fit upon the mount of the divine presence, on the

fides of the north: 14 I will afcend above the highths of the clouds; I will be like

the most High 15. But thou shalt be brought down to the grave, to the sides of

the pit. 16

Those that see thee Mall look attentively at thee; they

shall well consider thee : Is this the man, that made the earth to tremble; that shook

the kingdoms? 17 That made the world like a desert; that destroyed the cities?

That never dismissed his captives to their own home?


11-thy covering-] Twenty-eight Mss, (ten Ancient) and seven Editions, with the Lxx and Vulg. read 702), in the fingular number.

13. The mount of the divine presence-] It appears plainly from Exod. xxv, 22. and xxix. 42, 43. where God appoints the place of meeting with Moses, and promises to meet with him before the ark, to commune with him, and to speak unto him; and to meet the children of Israel at the door of the Tabernacle ; that the Tabernacle, and afterward the Temple, and Mount Sion, (or Moriah, which is reckoned a part of Sion,) wbereon it itood, was called the Tabernacle, and the Mount, of Convention, or of Appointment; not from the people's assembling there to perform the fervices of their religion, (which is what our Translation expresses by calling it the Tabernacle of the Congregation,) but because God appointed that for the place, where He himself would meet with Mofes, and commune with him, and would meet with the people. Therefore,

, , where he would present himself: agreeably to which I have rendered it in this place, thc Mount of the Divine Presence.


18 All the kings of the nations, all of them,

Lie down in glory, each in his own sepulchre : 19 But thou art cait out of the grave, as the tree abominated;

Cloathed with the Nain, with the pierced by the sword,
With them that go down to the ftones of the pit ; as a trod-

den carcase.
Thou shalt not be joined unto them in burial;
Because thou hast deltroyed thy country, thou hast llain thy

people :
The feed of evil doers shall never be renowned.

Prepare ye flaughter for his children, for the iniquity of

their fathers;
Lest they rise, and possess the earth ; and fill the face of the

world with cities.
For I will arise against them, saith JEHOVAH God of Hosts :
And I will cut off from Babylon the name, and the remnant ;
And the son, and the son's son, saith JEHOVAH.



19.-like the tree abominated-] That is, as an object of abomination and deteftation ; such as the tree is, on which a malefactor has been hanged. “ It is written, saith St. Paul, Galat. ii. 13. cursed is every man that hangech on a tree :" from Deut. xxi. 23. The Jews therefore held also as accursed and polluted the tree itself on which a malefactor had been executed, or on which he had been hanged after having been put to death by stoning. “ Non suspendunt super arbore, quæ radicibus folo adhæreat ; led super ligno eradicato, ut ne fit excifio molesta : nam lignum, super quo fuit aliquis suspensus, cum suspendioso sepelitur; ne maneat illi malum nomen, & dicant homines, Iftud eft lignum, in quo fufpenfus eft ille, ó desvane Sic lapis, quo aliquis fuit lapidatus ; & gladius, quo fuit occisus is qui est occifus ; & fudarium five mantile, quo fuit aliquis ftrangulatus; omnia hæc cum iis, qui perierunt, sepeliuntur." Maimonides, apud Casaub. in Baron. Exercitat. xvi. An. 34. Num. 134. “ Cum itaque homo suspensus maximæ esset abominationi,- Judæi quoque præ cæteris abominabantur lignum quo fuerat fufpensus, ita ut illud quoque terra tegerent, tanquam rem abominabilem. Unde Iaterpres Chaldæus hæc verba transtulit 700 un, licut virgultum abfconditum, five sepultum." Kalinki, Vaticinia Observationibus illuftrata, p. 342. Agreeably to which, Theodoret, Hift. Ecclefiaft. i. 17, 18, in his account of the finding of the Cross by Helena, says, that the three Crosses were buried in the earth near the place of our Lord's fepulchre.

Ibid. -cloathed with the flain.] Thirty five mss (en Ancient), and three Editions, have the word fully written, was. It is not a noun, but the participle pallive: thrown out among the common flain, and covered with the dead bodies. So ver, Il. the earthworm is said to be bis bed-covering.

20. Because thou haft deltroyed thy country; thou hal lain thy people.] Xenophon gives an instance of this king's wanton cruelty in killing the son of Gobrias, on no other provocation than that, in hunting, he ftruck a boar and a lion, which the king had missed. Cyrop. iv. P. 309.




23 And I will make it an inheritance for the porcupin., and

pools of water ; And I will plunge it in the miry gulph of destruction, faith

JEHOVAH God of Holts.

JEHOVAH God of Holls hath sworn, saying:
Surely as I have devised, so thall it be ;

And as I have purposed, that thing shall stand:
25 "To crush the Assyrian in my land, and to trample him on my

Then shall his yoke depart from off them ;

And his burthen shall be removed from off their shoulder.

This is the decree, which is determined on the whole

earth; And this the hand, which is stretched out over all the nations: 27 For JEHOVAH God of Hofts hath decreed ; and who shall dif.

annul it? And it is his hand, that is stretched out; and who shall turn

it back?



Rejoice not, o Philiftia, with one consent ;
Because the rod, that (mote thee, is broken :
For from the root of the serpent snall come forth a basilik;

And his fruit thall be a flying fiery serpent.
30 For the poor shall feed on my choice first-fruits ;

And the needy Mall lie down in security:

But he will kill thy root with drought; at

23. I will plunge it-] I have here very nearly followed the ver. fion of the cxx: the reasons for which see in the lait Nore on De Poefi Hebr. Prælect. xxviii.

25. To crush the Allyrian-on my mountains) The Affyrians and Babylonians are the same people: Herod. i. 199, 200. Babylon is reckoned the principal city in Aflyria: ibid. 178. Strabo says the same thing; lib. xvi. sub. init. The circumstance of this judgment's being to be executed on God's mountains is of importance : it may mean the destruction of Senacherib's army near Jerusalem; and have still a further view : compare Ezek. xxxix, 4. and fee Lowth on this place of Isaiah.

28. Uzziah had subdued the Philistines, 2 Chron. xxvi. 6, 7; but taking advantage of the weak reign of Ahaz, they invaded Judea, and took and held in posesion some cities in the southern part of the kingdom. On the death of Ahaz, Isaiah delivers this prophecy, threatening them with the destruction that Hezekiah, his son, aod great grandson of Uzziah, thould bring upon them: which he effected; for “ he smore the Philistines, even upto Gaza, and the borders thereof.” 2 Kings xviii. &. Uzziah therefore must be meant by the rod that (more them, and by the serpens, from whom hould spring the flying fiery ferpent; chat is, Hezckiah, a much 2-rrible enemy, than even Uzziah had been. pr. 1780.


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And thy remnant he will say. 31

Howl, O gate ; cry out, o city!
O Philitia, thou art altogether funk in confternation!
For from the north cometh a smoke ;

And there all not be a {traggler among his levies.
32 And what answer shall be given to the ambassadors of the

That JEHOVAH hath laid the foundation of Sion ;

And the poor of his people fall take refuge in her.
Any person who shall hereafter be disposed to enter more
deeply into the theological explanation of the prophecies of
Isaiah, will now be enabled to purfue his design with fingular

30. He will lay) The Lxx read 0277, in the third person, anches; and río Chald. The Vulgate remedies the confusion of persons in the present text, by reading both the verbs in the first perfon.

31. Prom the North cometh a smoke] That is, a cloud of dust, raised by the march of Hezekiah's army against Philifia., which lay to the south-west from Jerusalem. A great del raised has, at a distance, the appearance of smoke : “ fumantes pulvere campi.” Virg. Æn, xi. 9c8.

32. .- to che ambassadors of the nations] The Lxx read in erwy, plural; and so the Chaldee. The ambassadors of the neighbouring nations, that send to congratulate Hezekiah on his success ; which in his answer he will afcribe to che, protection of God. See 2 Chron. xxxii. 23. Or, if nya, singular, the reading of the Text, be preferred, the ambassadors sent by the Philistines to demand peace.

Art. IV. The Britih Fruit-Gardener; and Art of Pruning; com-

prising, the most approved Methods of Planting and Railing every
useful Fruit-Tree and Fruit-bearing-Shrub, whether for Walls,
Espaliers, Standards, Half-S:andards, or Dwarfs: The tree fuc-
ceisful Practice of Pruning, Training, Grafting, Budding, &c.
so as to render them abundaotly fruitful. And full Directions con-
cerning Soils, Situations, and Exposures. By Jobo Abercrombie,
of Tottenham-Court, Gardener; Author of Every Man his own
Gardener, First published under the Name of Thomas Mawe.
45. bound. Davis. 1779.
WHOUGH the experienced Gardener may, perhaps, find

little in the present publication that is altogether new, yet it is not without its use. Whatever, has been hitherto written on this subject was rarely to be met with, except in voluminous works t, intermixed with other matter in which the mere fruit-gardener had no concern; or in compendiums of gardening, in which the subject was very imperfectly treated.

+ We most except Mr. Hitt's valuable tratile on Fruit-trees, in one odavo volume; an account of which was given in the 13th vol. of our Review.

• With


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