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370 STIFFENED SUSPENSION BRIDGE (2 illus THE KEELY MOTOR (3 illustrations). 408, 409 trations) 254, 255 NAPHTHA ENGINE


256 New Croton AQUEDUCT (4 illustrations) 556–560 CROTON WATER-SHED.

256 RECENT INVENTIONS (12 illustrations) 651-656 THE GREAT RAFT 257 A PORPOISE


259 REPEATING RIFLES (4 illustrations) 714, 715 HARBOR OF CEARÁ 260 A TARPON


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Α. ABYSSINIA, & monarchy in Eastern Africa, respecting the transit of merchandise. The having an area of about 200,000 square miles, Abyssinians did not desire to possess Massoand a population estimated at 4,000,000 souls. wah, not being able to hold so distant a post, The monarch, who is called the Negus, is Jo- and were willing that it should remain in the hannis, or John, formerly prince of the prov. possession of Great Britain, but grew jealous ince of Tigré, who, after a period of civil war when it was handed over to the Italians, whom fare following the British invasion of 1868, was they immediately suspected of aggressive deproclaimed king in 1872.

signs on their territory. Their suspicions inTreaty with England. During the operations creased when the Italians established friendly for the withdrawal of the Egyptian garrisons relations with the Habab tribe, which was in from the Soudan in the early part of 1884, con- rebellion against the Abyssinians, and when cessions were offered to the Abyssinian Negus they occupied places in the surrounding counfor the removal of the long-standing ditferences try for the troops that had been in dispute between him and the Egyptian Khedive. A between the Abyssinians and Egyptians, but formal delimitation of the frontier was offered, which the latter bad never gone so far as to which would restore to him the territory of take possession of. King John sent a letter Bogos; also free transit for all goods, includ- to the Queen of England, complaining of these ing arms and ammunition, through the port of acts, and asserting that the Italians obstructed Massowah, under British protection. It was the transit of goods. The Italian Government further agreed that all difficulties in the mat- dispatched an imposing mission, in the beginter of supplying an Aboona, or high-priest, for ning of 1886, to confer with King Johannis, Abyssinia from one of the Coptic churches of and conclude a treaty similar to that made by Egypt should be removed. For these conces the English. The Italians were willing to insions King Johannis agreed to facilitate the re crease the concessions already granted, and detreat through his territory of the Egyptians at sired in return to extend their settlements so as Kassala and other posts in the neighboring to include healthful quarters for their soldiers parts of the Soudan. All future disputes be- . in the district of Keren, situated in the uplands tween Abyssinia and Egypt were to be re near Massowab. The English Government deferred to the British Government for arbitra- termined on sending an envoy to accompany tion. A treaty containing these provisions was the Italian officers for the purpose of making concluded by Admiral Sir William Hewett as explanations that would help to bring about a special British envoy. The Abyssinians sub- good understanding between the Italians and sequently more than redeemed their promises, the Negus, and also of conveying presents and not merely granting passage to the garrisons expressions of gratitude for the aid given by of Gallabat and Gbirra, but actively interven- the Abyssinians in extricating the Egyptian ing for their rescue, and making a brave at- garrisons. The Italian envoys were recalled, tempt to succor the Egyptians at Kassala. when it became evident that they would not

The Italians at Massowah.—The port of Mas- be cordially received. The Englishman prosowah, which had formerly been an object of ceeded alone, and at Asmara, the first Abysdispute between the rulers of Abyssinia and sinian village, met Ras Aloula, the King's genthe Khedive of Egypt, was taken possession eral, who was incensed at reports of Italian of by Italy, with the concurrence of Great encroachments, and threatened to attack their Britain, when the Egyptian garrisons were advanced positions. The envoy found the Newithdrawn from the Soudan, the Italians un gus also annoyed. No steps were taken by the dertaking to carry out the British agreement Italians, after their rebuff, to remove the cool


ness, or to allay the suspicions, which were you? Is not this country mine? Evacuate fomented by Frenchmen and Greeks in Abys- my country if you have come by orders. Why sinia, and by the Arab sheiks whose territory erect fortresses? You bring what is abundant lies between Abyssinia and the sea.

with you-cannon, muskets, and soldiers.” Ras Attack on Italian Troops.— The post of Saati Aloula, after the battle, returned with his troops was occupied by basbi - bazouks when the to Asmara, whence he sent one of his prisonItalians took possession of Massowah. The ers, Maj. Piano, with a letter, saying: “What Abyssinians complained of the occupation, but has happened was caused by your tricks. Let at length connived at it, because the bashi- us now be friends, as in the past. Remain in bazouks gave protection to their caravans. your own country. · All the region between In January, 1887, Gen. Gene, the commander Massowah and here belongs to the Negus." of the Italian forces in Africa, made arrange The Conquest of Harrar.—Simultaneously with ments to forward European troops to Saati. Ras Aloula's movement, King Menelek, of Ras Aloula collected an army without the Shoa, led his army against Harrar, which had knowledge of the Italians, and marched upon been restored to the hereditary ruler by the Keren. Gen. Gene, in his dispatches giving English, and was an object of Italian aspiraintelligence of the hostile movement, said that tions. The Emir's troops were met near the he had means more than sufficient to repel any frontier and put to flight. When Menelek enforce that the Abyssinians could send against camped before the city, the inhabitants sent an him. In a later dispatch he asked for a re-en- Italian merchant with an offer of surrender, forcement of 600 men, in order, if necessary, and prayers for clemency. The Abyssinians to make a military demonstration. The Ras thereupon entered the town and took possent a messenger to warn the Italian com- session without pillage or bloodshed. King inander to evacuate the advanced forts, and to Menelek remained in Harrar several weeks, limit the occupation to Massowah, threatening and when he departed left a garrison of 4,000 to throw into chains Count Salimbeni, the men. The Negus and his son, with large leader of a scientific expedition to Abyssinia, bodies of soldiers, attempted the conquest of if this were not done. On January 19 the Abys- other parts of the Soudan. sinians attacked the Italian outposts at Mon The Dispatch of Re-enforcements. In response kullo. In a combat lasting four hours, more to Gen. Gene's first request for re-enforcethan half of their force, which numbered 300, ments, 800 men were sent from Italy, with were slain. Of the Italians five were killed, 120 Gatling guns. They landed at Massowah and three made prisoners. One of the prisoners on February 15. The Italians had raised a was sent back with a letter saying, that if the force of 1,000 bashi-bazouks, and had distribItalians wished peace they must remain in uted arms among the inbabitants. With the Massowah. The commandant replied that new troops from Italy the strength of the garpeace was not desired on such conditions. rison was about 2,500 Europeans and_1,500

A day or two afterward a force of 1,500 men natives. The news of the reverse at Dogali of all arms was sent out from Monkullo to was communicated to the Italian Chamber on succor Saati, and prevent that post from falling February 1, and a credit of 5,000,000 lire was into the hands of the Abyssinians. Near voted for the dispatch of fresh troops. The Dogali the column, which was commanded by second detachment of 2,000 soldiers reached Col. Decristoforis, was attacked on January 24 Massowah on February 22. The credit was by Ras Aloula's entire force. The Italians could granted only on the understanding that there not work their machine-guns, and sent back to should be no extension of operations beyond Monkullo for more men and mitrailleuses. the occupied posts. On March 12 another One of the two companies forming the garrison detachment, numbering 666 officers and men, was dispatched under the command of Capt. was sent out. Tanturi, but, before the re-enforcements came Negotiations with Ras Aloula.—Maj. Piano reup, Col. Decristoforis's three companies were turned to the Abyssinian camp to treat espeutterly routed. The bashi-bazouks fled in cially for the release of Salimbeni and his party. the beginning of the engagement. The Italian Count Salimbeni himself was allowed to go to soldiers formed into a hollow square, and de- Massowah to arrange for the payment of a ranfended themselves as long as their ammunition Ras Aloula sent word, in the latter part lasted. The Abyssinians, who were said to of February, that he would not attack the Italnumber 20,000 men, had many Remington and ians provided they remained at Massowah, Martini rifles. After the rout of the Italians, Monkullo, and Arkiko. In March, Gen. Gene they withdrew to the hills. The Italian losses agreed to the conditions demanded for the reon the 25th and 26th were 23 officers and lease of the Italian prisoners, which were the 407 men killed, and one officer and 81 soldiers delivery of 1,000 rifles that had been seized as wounded. Ras Aloula is said to have made contraband by the customs authorities, and the the attack without the sanction of the Negus. surrender of five Arabs belonging to a tribe A letter was dispatched, on January 26, by friendly to the Italians. The Arabs were exeKing Johannis, who said: “In the first place cuted by the Pas, and the tribesmen were inyou took Wuaa, and now you have come to censed against the Italians. All the members Saati to erect a fortress. What object have of the scientific party were released, with the



Ministers. Churches. Members,








9 80 40 61 45

6 21 128


28 15 7 6


137 200 594 177 784 1,004 1,550 1,701

128 480 4,067 1,584

707 650 658 820 801 1,090 743 800 250 127 390 240 470

26 81 26 80 18 48 85 15 10

6 12

9 17

5 49

8 2 3 1

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exception of Count Savoiroux, who was detained by Ras Aloula to act as his physician.

The Change of Commanders.-- The Italian Gov- California ernment ordered Gen. Gene to establish an effective blockade, with the object of prevent

Colorado ing the importation of arms into Abyssinia. Denmark Count Robilant sent a dispatch severely censuring the commandant for purchasing the lowa freedom of the prisoners by the surrender of Kansas arms and fugitives, and soon afterward sent


Maine Gen. Saletta, the first commander of the Ital- Michigan ian troops in East Africa, to relieve him of Minnesota bis post. An Abyssinian bishop, the head of Nebraska the Order of Jerusalem, while returning from New England a pilgrimage to the holy city, was detained by North Pacific. Gen. Gene as a hostage for the safety of Maj. Ohio.. Savoiroix. Letters from the Negus and his Pennsylvania.. general to the French consul, M. Saumagne, Sweden proved that he had carried on a hostile in: Tennessee trigue, though he had been formally instruct

Upper Columbia ed by his Government to facilitate their settle- Vermont.


120 ment at Massowah. In consequence of this


1,522 revelation, he was removed from his post. Gen. Saletta arrived at Massowah in the middle British. of April , and took over the command on April General Southern.

Scandinavian. 23. He notified the merchants in Massowah to recall all their agents in Abyssinia, as he


28,111 intended to declare a blockade by sea and land. On May 2 he proclaimed martial law, and on Besides the ministers, 166 licentiates were the following day announced the blockade of returned. The whole amount of Conference the coast from the Bay of Hamfila on the funds was $146,936. The reports show insouth to the point opposite the Difnen Islands crease from the previous year of 27 ministers, on the north. A prize court was instituted 15 licentiates, 57 churches, 2,564 members, at Massowah to deal with vessels breaking the and $24,295 in Conference funds. bloekade. The Negus appointed Ras Aloula The International Tract and Missionary Sogovernor-general of the Taccaze country as far ciety reported 12,512 members, 247 cities as the Red Sea, excepting the province of Ma- entered by Bible workers and colporteurs, kalle. Rifles of an improved pattern were dis- $59,166 received on account of the tract and tributed among the soldiers of the Ras, and missionary fund, $27,551 received on account all commerce with the Italians was prohibited of periodicals, $6,315 on account of the tract on pain of death. On July 11 the Italians lost and missionary reserve fund, $28,579 pledged about 600,000 francs' worth of ainmunition by and $20,965 paid for home work, $67,351 the explosion of their powder-magazine, which pledged and $18,981 paid to other enterprises, was supposed to have been set on fire by Abys- and an excess of $62,356 of resources over sinians to avenge one of their countrymen who liabilities. City missions in 36 cities and was shot as a spy. There were 10 persons towns employed 102 "experienced workers." killed and 75 wounded by the explosion. The General Sabbath-School Association, at its

Offer of Mediation.—On July 12 the British anniversary meeting, adopted a form of conGovernment communicated its readiness to stitution for State Associations. The Ameriact as mediator between Italy and Abyssinia, can Health and Temperance Association had and the Italian Government accepted the prin- on its rolls the names of nearly 15,000 memciple of British mediation in its answer, giv- bers. The Central Seventh-Day Advent Puben before the end of the month. No move- lishing Association returned a pet gain from ment was undertaken by either side during business during the year of $11,849, and a presthe summer; but in August the Italian Gov- ent valuation of $166,520. Its accounts were ernment chartered steamers for the dispatch, balanced at $343,583. The Pacific Seventh-Day if necessary, of 10,000 troops in the autumn. Advent Publishing Association returned a capi. The Mohammedans on the coast were gener- tal of $49,692, and total assets valued at $175,741. ally willing to join the Italians against the The Seventh-Day Adventist Educational SoAbyssinians, and treaties were made by Gen. ciety reported the present value of its property Saletta with several Arab tribes.

and resources as $56,156. About 175 students ADVENTISTS, SEVENTH-DAY. The following of the college were attending Biblical lectures. is a summary of the statistics of the Seventh- Healdsburg College returned an excess of Day Adventist denomination, by Conferences, $15,839 of assets over liabilities. The net reas given in the “Seventh-Day Adventist Year- sources of the Health Reform Institute were Book" for 1887:

returned at $178,014. The average number of

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