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PREFACE.

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ONE of the most notable features in this volume of the ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA is to be found in the group of patriotic articles—the Grand Army of the Republic, the Loyal Legion, the United States Medal of Honor, and Memorial Day. The article on the Medal of Honor is especially valuable from the fact that it presents lists (not accessible elsewhere) of the soldiers and sailors who have received the medal. These articles are illustrated with a brilliant colored plate. Another illustrated article of special interest is that on Modern Houses, which shows the wonderful progress in American domestic architecture, with views of some of the finest residences that have been erected in recent years. At the other end of the social scale we find the remarkable series of Strikes, which are classified and set forth in a way to be convenient for ready reference. The Disasters and other Events of the year are also recorded briefly in chronological order. Among the articles that will be found timely this year are those on the laws, customs, and theories of Elections, on the Fisheries and treaties relating thereto, and on the Interstate Commerce Law, the last named being from the pen of Hon. Thomas M. Cooley, chairman of the Commission. Closely related to these is the learned article on Treaty-making Power of the United States. In relation to education, we have the articles on Industrial Education, Indian Education, Mind-Reading, Physical Training, and Volapük. Among the organizations treated are the Law-and-Order League, the Ancient Order of United Workmen, Mutual Aid Societies, and the White Cross Society. The scientific articles include that on Astronomical Progress and Discovery, by Prof. Harkness, of the Naval Observatory at Washington; Chemistry and Metallurgy, by Dr. Williain J. Youmans, editor of “The Popular Science Monthly"; those on EmeryWheels and Engineering, by Col. Charles L. Norton; that on utilizing the power of Niagara Falls; and the description of the new Croton Aqueduct. Among the industrial topics treated are those on Photo-Engraving, Porpoise-Hunting, Postal Facilities, Salt-Mining, and Tree-Planting. The special articles, on subjects not treated every year, include those on Domesticated Buffalo, Guns for Coast Defense, Library Laws, Polo, Records of the Turf, and Prison Reform. Besides the usual general article on Patents, some of the inventions of popular interest are treated, including Mechanical Carriers, Naphtha Motors, and the mysterious Keely Motor. The necrology of the year includes Henry Ward

Beecher, the greatest of pulpit orators; Alvan Clark, the most successful telescope-maker; Spencer F. Baird, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution; James B. Eads, the eminent civil engineer; Gen. William B. Hazen, head of the Weather Bureau; Roswell D. Hitchcock and Mark Hopkins, the eminent scholars; Jenny Lind, the greatest singer of her time; Lord Lyons, the British diplomatist; Ulysses Mercur and William B. Woods, jurists; John Roach, the greatest of American ship-builders; James Speed, of President Lincoln's Cabinet; Emma Lazarus, John G. Saxe, and Benjamin F. Taylor, poets; William A. Wheeler, ex-Vice-President; Bishops Lee and Potter, Catherine L. Wolfe, Elihu B. Washburne, and Edward L. Youmans. Portraits of all these and others will be found in the volume, and an unusually large number of brief sketches of those who passed away during the year. The three portraits on copper-of Henry Ward Beecher, President Sadi-Carnot, and the new Emperor of Germany--were etched by Valerian Gribayedoff. The portraits in the text were drawn by Jacques Reich, whose fine work has been so noticeable in the new “Cyclopædia of American Biography.”

The article on Recent Growth of American Cities is continued from last year, and the numerous regular topics that are treated every year have been carefully and fully discussed by competent writers, most of whom are regular contributors, and keep track of the subjects from year to year. An Index for this volume will be found at the end, and a combined Index for the twelve volumes of the series is issued separately.

NEW YORK, April 2, 1888.

CONTRIBUTORS. .

Among the Contributors to this Volume of the Annual Cyclopædia" are the following:

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