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had its effect on Protestant dogmatics; history the Absolute Spirit “has come and in our own day theology has been to itself.” strongly influenced by the modern This magnificent conception of the theory of knowledge and by psychology history of the Church is not, indeed, generally, as well as by the theory of without some value; but, for all that, development.

it cannot be accepted. That the knowl. This is all so evident and so notorious edge of God as the Absolute Spirit that there is no need to expatiate on forms a main element in the Chris. the fact that without a knowledge of tian religion is true. On the other the history of philosophy we cannot hand, since the aim of philosophy is to study the history of the Church. But get at the ultimate reasons for every, Hegel and his followers ask us to take thing, and these are not to be found a step further: Christian doctrine and in anything material, an elective affinity philosophy, they say, are not only inter is thereby established between philostwined with each other, are not only ophy and spiritual religion. Moreover, akin to each other, but are in the last the higher forms of religion have at all resort identical. The considerations times made use of philosophical leading to this hypothesis are as fol- thought in order to justify the idea of lows: Religion exhibits the relation be- God and give it a fuller development; tween man and the Absolute, and a and, conversely, philosophy has taken knowledge of the Absolute is that to account of the ideas expressive of rewhich our intellectual efforts are ligious and more particularly of Chris directed. In the lower stages of re- tian faith. But these circumstances ligion, however, this relation is at best must not blind us to the fact that reonly felt; and hence these stages are ligion and a philosophical theory of incomplete, particularistic, and encum- the world, so long as the latter keeps bered with alien matter. As develop to its own ground, are two different ment progresses they become more and things. Religion is a definite state of more pure and spiritual, until they feeling and will, basing itself on inner reach their culminating point in Chris- experience and on historical facts. tianity. God is then revealed and This it remains even in its higher recognized as the absolute and imma- stages; and hence the intellectual elenent Spirit. According to this view, ment in it, although an absolutely the history of the formation and de- necessary element, always takes the velopment of Christian dogma is the second place. Again, religion is never real history of the Christian religion; "disinterested," as any theory must be; and the most important elements, too, on the contrary, it has to do with in dogma are the speculative asser- hopes and aspirations; nay, we may tions, especially those on the nature even say that religion is the instinct of the Trinity and on Christology; for of self-preservation in a higher formin them the pure, pantheistic knowl- an instinct, however, which in the edge of God comes to expression, in Christian religion is not concerned with part clearly and plainly, in part only the empirical Ego and with earthly lightly veiled. In this way the history life, but with the inmost core of this of philosophy and the history of higher, Ego, which in another world, the world especially of the Christian, religion are, of Freedom and the Good, sees its true rightly understood, identical; nay, in home. Pbilosophy.cannot and may not their identity we get not only the true know anything of all this, except in history of the human spirit but also so far as it calls religion to its aid the history of God Himself: În this when it attempts to study the philosophy of religion. For without religion there was no more life. On the other philosophy remains bound down to the hand, in none of the intellectual sysfive senses and the whole apparatus of tems that have prevailed from time to psychology and logic, which every time has the human mind ever spoken where carry it back to at least two its last word, and nearly all of them fundamental factors and one uniform have borrowed something from reprocess. In religion, on the other hand, ligion. The human mind has had to it is one fundamental factor and two take these systems back again and processes which we are led to accept again, and put others in their place. The obscurities to which this state of The more closely and attentively the things sometimes give rise; the "be- ecclesiastical historian examines this lief” of philosophy in the unity of the struggle of the mind in itself and in fundamental factor, and the half-be- its relation to religion, the deeper he lief of the theologians in the God of will go, and the more indispensable he religion, have produced endless con- will make the study of his subject to fusion in the course of history, and the science of history as a whole. brought about the erroneous notion that the results of pure knowledge and

IV. of religion are essentially akin to each other or even identical. No! they are We said just now that the human different; they are two parallel lines mind has never spoken its last word in which – religious philosophy apart, any of the intellectual systems that which is not pure philosophy-are con- have prevailed from time to time. Is nected only, as it were, by the bridge that true? Have we not, perhaps, its of certain analogies, or by the flights last word in the theory which tells us of fancy which merge their different that it is economic conditions-I mean fields in one in order to give them life. food, the supply of food, and the place

However-be the distance between where it can be obtained-which ultithem what it may-in the actual his- mately determine all intellectual life tory of things they are very closely and all higher development, including bound up with each other. They have that of religion? I must not try within done each other great service, and to the limits of this lecture to explain my gether they represent the higher life reasons for declining to accept such a of humanity. How much does religion, theory. I may say, however, that it even the Christian religion, owe to the seems to me to be refuted by the mere progressive achievements of philosophy fact that the most material element and the various forms of knowledge! acting upon man always produces feelHow much they have done to purify it, ings and ideas which themselves act to clear it of false ideas, and to free as forces in their turn, and stand in it from impossible pretensions! Re no simple proportionate relation to ligion, no doubt, is very tenacious in their material causes. Moreover, as clinging to old prejudices, and the his long as men continue to sacrifice their tory of the relation between philosophy possessions, their blood, and their life, and religion is also the history of a for ideal aims, it will be impossible for struggle. Andrew White has described anyone to maintain the materialistic it for us. Religion seems always to view of history except with the help of have had to surrender; but it only sophisms. seems. All that it did was to abandon But although we decline to explain outworks that were no longer of any everything that happens by the play of use to it. It shed the leaves in which economic conditions, we may still

gratefully acknowledge that this latest, often handed over their property to the the economic, view of history has shed Church, not only in order to save their and will continue to shed a great deal souls, but also to secure themselves of light on the history of the Church. from high-handed acts or sheer rob Let me show what I mean by a few bery. The Church entered on the Midexamples. The great extension of Chris- dle Ages as a great and wealthy and tianity in the early centuries cannot be therefore aristocratic power; and the explained without keeping the social immense struggles between Emperor and economic views and practices of and Pope, Princes and Bishops, were the Christian communities in view. all in the last resort struggles for Every one of these communities not wealth and dominion. only tried to relieve the poor, to pro- The whole history of the Church in vide for widows and orphans, the sick, the Middle Ages may therefore, nay the weak, those who were out of work must, be studied from the economic or persecuted, etc., but it was also a point of view. This is very evident regular association for mutual help. By even in the history of Monasticism. the union of all these communities in Up to the time when the orders of menthe Empire into a firm alliance with dicant friars arose, the development of one another a social organism arose Western Monasticism has a place in which could not fail to attract, in the the history of the large landed estate. highest degree, the economically unfor. An abbey would sometimes form the tunate. That this is really what hap centre of such an estate, and the abbot pened is shown by pagan writers them. nolens volens had to provide for his selves. It was shown, for instance, by monastery before he provided for the Lucian in his Peregrinus Proteus. spiritual welfare of his monks. But

But not only did the Church step in even the movement which produced where social relations were concerned; the mendicant friars very quickly be its thoughts and ideas were also deter- came in its turn part and parcel of an mined by its attitude in questions of economic movement, although of a dif. economics. The distrust which the ferent kind. Light may also be shed Church shows towards wealth and on the development of the Papacy from capital is in part to be explained by the same source, for one of the condi. the poverty of the early communities; tions of its becoming a sovereign power and here, too, its theories about earthly was the possession of landed property. possessions have one of their roots. In the struggle about the investiture When it afterwards came to number of the bishops the questions at issue both rich and poor in its ranks, it re were concerned just as much with tained that distrust. This had a very property as with dominion; and as a paradoxical result: The dangers of European power whose possessions wealth, it was said, exist only for the were not on a par with its position, the individual Christian; they do not exist Papacy was especially affected by the for the Church, which is preserved economic upheaval which took place from them by its sacred character in the 14th and 15th centuries. If it There is no harm, then, in the Church was to survive, ready money had to becoming rich. Rich, accordingly, it be collected from all sides. To get became. Part of its wealth was due money it had to raise its spiritual preto the fact that in the dark days of tensions in every direction, and make inner and outer convulsion a man's pos- them into fresh rights; nay, more, it sessions and his capital were still had to multiply the means of grace safest under its protection. Hence men which the Church offered, and exploit

them as financial resources. Just be by the theologians, it is plain that side cause it was a financial power, howby side with political conditions the ever, the Papacy now began to excite theories adopted were strongly acted distrust and dislike, and this it was on by social influences as well. These that paved the way for the reforming influences extend even to dogmatics movements. We can thus see how and ethics (the “divinely appointed" greatly religious theories and ecclesias. orders), and to show that in detail is tical arrangements were dependent on one of the tasks of the future. We this development. Of the new sacra. must never allow ourselves to forget, mental observances, of the multitu. however, that behind the economic facdinous rites and ceremonies, and of the tors there are always the political, and fresh dogmas framed upon them, a that it is these that really turn the large number had their origin in eco- scale. In power and effect they outnomic and financial necessities. . . weigh all other factors, so far as ex

In this respect the upheaval which ternals are concerned. the Reformation denoted did not in. volve any radical change. Here, too, That the history of the Church is economic and social conditions played most closely bound up and interwoven a great part. That the Reformation with all the great branches of general got the upper hand among a portion of history, is what I have tried to show. the German people was due, first and In recognizing this fact, and in shaping foremost, to the Princes, who aimed at our study accordingly, there may poscreating territorial Churches for them- sibly be some risk of our losing sight selves and being masters in their own of or undervaluing the special character house. In this connection, however, which attaches to the history of the we must not forget that in the larger Church. We shall guard ourselves towns and in the country districts the against any such danger if we always Reformation assisted the class-con- bear in mind that all our labors in this sciousness of certain aspiring orders in sphere ought to help us to throw light the community, and that, on the other on the question, What is the Christian hand, the knights of the Empire, who religion? This must ever remain the were in a bad way economically, at- guiding-star of our researches, however tempted by its means to regain their wide the range which they will have previous position. But it is in France to take. If ecclesiastical history loses and, above all, in England, that the sight of that guiding-star, it will also close connection between the Reforma lose the right to form a special subtion and social and economic conditions ject of study within the science of hisis particularly plain. Even after Eng. tory. If it follows that star, then what land had shaken off the Papacy it was is characteristic of every independent social and economic conditions which subject of knowledge will also hold determined religious parties and strug- good of it—that it unveils itself only to gles: the King and the aristocracy held the man who devotes himself entirely to the Church of the Thirty-nine Arti- to it. Grimm once made the fine ob cles; the higher middle classes were servation that knowledge has no Presbyterian; the aspiring lower mid- secrets, though it has its secrecies; it dle classes were Puritan and rallied has no Geheimnisse, but it has Heimto Cromwell's flag. When we look, too, lichkeiten. The history of the Church at the way in which, both there and in also has its Heimlichkeiten. The man Protestant Germany, the character and who is half-hearted in his efforts about aims of the Church were then settled it will see nothing; it is only when he

woos it with the loyalty of a Jacob that slaves of compulsion makes the chilhe will win the bride.

dren of freedom. Not even in the hisIn the history of the Church, how- tory of the Church can anyone get a ever, these Heimlichkeiten go very deep direct vision of this inner evolution ac. and are very precious. We have seen complished in the individual, nor by that there is no such thing as a double any external facts whatever can any. history, and that everything that hap- one be convinced of its possibility and pens enters into the one stream of reality. But the light which shines events. But there is a single inner from it throws its rays on what hapexperience which everyone can possess; pens on the stage, and lets the specta. which to every one who possesses tor feel in his heart that the forces of it is like a miracle; and which can history are not exhausted in the natural not be simply explained as the prod- forces of the world, or in the powers of uct of something else. It is what the head and hand. This is the Heimlichkeit Christian religion describes as the New of the history of the Church because it Birth-that inner, moral, new creation is the Heimlichkeit of religion. which transmutes all values, and of the

Adolf Harnack. The Contemporary Review.



Tsingtau, September. not what one would have anticipated The flag-lieutenant leaned wearily on in the faces of men to whom a great the rail. It would have been difficult nation still looked for the successful to have adequately analyzed his shaping of its destinies. thoughts. They were conjured up by It was a weird scene. Three great the weariness of life which possessed white beams of light pierced a backhis body, and the fierce despair and ground that was otherwise impenetrautter humiliation which had crushed ble in its inky blackness. They fohis soul. The rim of the beam from cussed their concentration upon one the search-light on Golden Hill, as it point, and illuminated with dazzling was lighting the water-way for contrasts the gaunt hull and heavy passage of the last of the battleships, tops of the battleship in their every flooded the superstructure of the flag- detail, as with laborious toil it was ship as she rode at anchor. Yet it towed between the artificial sags,was more than the intensity of the legacies of Japanese efforts to obstruct unnatural light that blanched the faces the fairway. In front of it three of the little group of officers on the launches were dragging a mine-trawl. bridge. It was not fear,-Russians are The busy panting of the tugs and the not cowards: besides, the officers of swirl of the water beneath the trawl. the Russian Pacific Squadron were hawse were the only sounds in the past fear. It was the utter hopeless- vicinity. But other sounds punctuated ness which knowledge of physical in the stillness of the night,—there was competency breeds in the vicinity of ever present the dull reverberation of death. The crestfallen consciousness the Japanese shells from the investing of impotency that might be seen in the lines, as they burst wih maddening face of an inexpert motorist if the monotony on the hill-crests of the outer chauffeur suddenly had fainted; but defences. Just for a moment the rim

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