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retire from the position of discharger feur, who certainly led them a fearful of Frenchmen.
dance, although he was rather a dear Your affectionate nephew,
creature, the poor things let their house
Sidney. for a year and decided to travel. I XII.
have just heard from Bella, from Mrs. Jack Lyon to a friend a few Florence, that she met them toiling up months later.
the hill to Fiesole the other day, and (Extract.)
behind them, carrying Mrs. Armyne's You remember the Armynes? In de. easel, was-who do you think? The spair at ever getting rid of their chauf- chauffeur!
THE ASSASSINATION OF THE GRAND DUKE SERGIUS.
It would have taxed the gloomy behind them, all, in fact, except the power of Tacitus, that supreme master best-trained legionaries, are crying of the condensed eloquence for which "Stop the war!" All over the vast exscarcely any language but the Roman is tent of the Czar's dominion, from an adequate vehicle, to describe accu- Warsaw, from Moscow, from Kieff, rately the present condition of the Rus- from Odessa, even from Irkutsk, come sian Empire. Far away on the Eastern tidings of a movement, half economic, frontier the greatest army that Russia half political, accompanied by risings has ever sent beyond its historic boun- which can only be put down by sandaries is fighting for its life against a guinary repression, and which, whether superior foe, and hardly hopes for the economic or political, are all directed, victory which alone can preserve it openly directed, against the “Princifrom destruction. If the railway which pate,” the autocracy as we now call it. supplies it is completely broken at any There are provinces in Russia where point of its six thousand miles of industry is profitless because of strikes, length, Kuropatkin is as certainly lost most of them produced by actual want as ever Varus was; and on that railway among the unskilled, and provinces behind him gather not only hosts of where the landlords are crowding into “brigands," descendants most of them, the cities because they fear a jacquerie it is said, of soldiers of Jenghis Khan's of their tenants. There is talk of disvast army, who took the northerly di- content even in the Army, discontent rection and settled on their conquests, which, if Kuropatkin is crushed or but of raiders from the Japanese army driven out of Manchuria, may become who have slowly forced their way be mutinous or explosive. And now in the hind their enemy's left. To-morrow. midst of it all the old disease of Rusnext week, or in the coming spring the sia, call it Nihilism, or revolutionary Augustus of the Northern world may furor, or what you will, the old impulse be moaning—"Varus, give me back my which kills moral restraint and invents legions!" The Fleet, if it cannot be for itself the excuse that when tyransaid to have been destroyed, has been ny is irresistible assassination is war, paralyzed for effective action. The is rearing its head once again, and Reserves, dismayed or irritated by a secret societies threaten the extinction year of continuous and unexpected de- of the Romanoffs. They have struck, feat, are resisting the summons to the too, successfully at the Grand Duke front; while the peasants and artisans who after the Czar was the most prominent member of the house, a man judge from the evidence afforded by who, whatever else he may have been his uncle's murder, would be no safer his wife's devotion throws at least in Livadia than in St. Petersburg, and strong doubt on some of the charges no personal courage or skill in arms brought against his personal character avails against a hand-grenade. -was a fanatic for orthodoxy and ab We regret deeply the almost universolutism, and as such was regarded by sal tolerance with which this crime has his kinsman and Sovereign as the most been regarded all over Europe, includ. trustworthy of friends. He was re- ing Russia herself. We detest the garded by all Russians as the closest methods of the Russian autocracy, adviser of the Czar, and he was there which seem to us to imply a refusal fore murdered in circumstances the full of justice and intellectual life to a great weight of which seems even yet not and patient people. The conduct of to be discerned abroad. Any Revolu- the Grand Duke Sergius towards the tionary Committee can order an Jews and the workmen under his auassassination, and escape is nearly thority in Moscow would at any time hopeless if the assassin will give his have justified armed insurrection; but life for that of his victim; but this even when slaves have risen against Revolutionary Committee must have their masters, we can have no symagents even in palaces, or how did its pathy with insurgents who order hostile instrument know that Sergius Alexan- officers to be picked off, or arrest the drovitch, who took every precaution career of a dreaded general by the he or the police could devise, would bullet or the knife as he makes his be passing the precise spot at the pre- rounds. Let the Liberals of Russia cise time when his carriage, always play fair even if their lives are staked driven at speed, could be checked, and on the game they are playing. Christhe grenade thrown with a certainty tianity is hypocrisy if assassination is of fatal effect? The Czar is censured declared excusable by provocation, or by opinion for placing his palace of by the intensity of the just hate which Tsarskoë Selo and its environs under a man has developed in a multitude of martial law; but with this evidence of enemies; and besides that supreme the network of treachery amidst which argument, there is another, which even all of his house must be living the order Revolutionary Committees ought to may be only a wise precaution, adopted respect. What good do they accomfor the sake of his family rather than plish by murder? Plehve dies, and for that of his own person. The order Trepoff succeeds him; and how much may prove futile, but it adds fresh has been gained for the cause of energy to the watchfulness of the liberty? A vengeance partly personal, guards, and at least warns "the enemy" as any one may see who reads the that its foes are awake and well pre- absorbing account of his motives writpared. With his fleet destroyed, his ten by Plehve's murderer, and pubarmies threatened with destruction, his lished in this country in the Manchester people, if not hostile, at least sullen, Guardian of February 18th, has been the very women of his family menaced satisfied; and of what good is that with death, and hidden treason with either to the deeply wronged assassin murder for its object lurking in his or to his country? As a rule, the only palaces, the position of the Czar is effect of assassination is to justify reworse than that of the Julian Emper- pression to the consciences of those ors, for they, at least, could fly or who carry it out, and to make them perish sword in hand. Nicholas II., to stronger by calling up the “clean pride"
that will not yield to terror to support ing under the tyranny of its petty desthe “mucky pride” which will not yield pots. up power. Even if the Czar were him. We have mentioned the gloomy conself killed, all his rights would, in the ditions which at this moment surround opinion of those who uphold the autoc the Russian throne, but have as yet racy--that is, in the opinion of the omitted the gloomiest of them all. The whole Army and of a majority of the man who, in circumstances almost unpeasantry-pass to his child, for whom paralleled in history--for Philip II. of some Regent would fight by the use Spain lived safe in the Escorial-strugof the same weapons as those now gles to uphold that awful sceptre, and employed, with this additional energy even to carry it upwards over one more imparted to them, that they would be hill, is unequal to its weight. He used on behalf of the innocent, on wishes no harm to his people, probably whose future millions would rely with knows of no harm happening to them, hope. There are Russians, we believe, for the truth of things is carefully kept who declare that their only trust is from his ears, and he does not even in a change of dynasty; but even they know, as he himself is said to have concannot hope to secure that result by fessed, why his terrible uncle was successive hand-grenades. It is insur- made away with. He is miserable, yet rection they must rely on, or military he might in a day be a happy man if revolt-that most dangerous and detes- he would only content himself with a table of political weapons-or passive position, say, like that of his cousin resistance to general taxation, the re- the German Emperor,-master, that is, fusal of supplies by a vote of the un- of a dominion in which he is practiorganized people, which so far as we cally absolute, but can act only through know no revolutionary party, however law, and occasionally with the consent just its cause, has ever yet secured. of representatives whose preoccupaOf those three chances, which one is tion is not to differ with him too seribrought even a little nearer by a policy ously. He could secure that position of murder, that at the most for some to-morrow by a decree of twenty lines, sixty individuals brings the thought of for once it were in print, and known to death a little closer to their fears? be signed by him, resistance would be Every Grand Duke and Duchess has, as impossible as was resistance to the like every other human being, already decree of Emancipation, and the Embeen sentenced to capital punishment peror might next day wander at will by the will of Almighty God. The along the quays of the Neva as safe as revolutionists may say that they hope if he were walking on the Thames Emto terrorize their rulers into better be- bankment. We believe that he would havior; but has that ever in history be only too rejoiced to do this, and been accomplished? Yes, it has been now and then resolves on doing it; but once; and in that one instance is the the resolute will of his house has not condemnation, written as it were by been given to him, his burden is too the finger of Providence, of their entire great for his strength, and in Russia in argument and policy. Orsini's bomb the hour of her agony--and of his-"all freed Italy because it failed. Had it things drift." succeeded, Italy might still be languish
THE APPROACHING TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE OF AUGUST 30
n Algerin, the
There are many special features it strikes Spain on its north-west coast about the total solar eclipse of August line, and leaves the eastern coast, enof the present year. In the first place, veloping the islands of Majorca and perhaps the chief of these is that it will Iviza. Reaching Africa in the neighoccur about the time when the solar at- borhood of eastern Algeria, it passes mosphere is greatly disturbed, or in through Tunis, Tripoli, Egypt, and the other words, at a time when the num- Red Sea, and finally terminates in ber of sun-spots is about a maximum. Arabia. Second, the localities from which it In Spain an opportunity is afforded may be observed are well distributed of making observations at some staover land surfaces, and some are easily tions of high altitude, for the eclipse accessible from the British Isles. track includes several lofty mountains. Thirdly, observers will have to wait for instance, Penas de Europa, southmany years before another favorable west of Santander, and 8000 feet high, eclipse occurs. That in 1907 will be is one of numerous possible observing visible in Central Asia, but its occur- peaks, and advantage should be taken rence in January will deter many from of this or some other elevated region. seeing it. The two eclipses in 1908 It will thus be seen that there is will be visible only from the Pacific plenty of scope for observers to scatter and South Atlantic. The eclipse of themselves along the line of totality, 1909 will occur in June in Greenland, and this should be done as much as while that in 1910 will be visible only possible. The low altitude of the sup from the Antarctic regions. In 1911 during totality at Labrador (27%) and only a short portion of the end of the Egypt (24°) renders both these regions eclipse track will pass through a part somewhat unfavorable for the best obof South Australia. It is therefore the servations, but there parties should at eclipse of 1912, that will take place in any rate be present. The former April in Spain, which will be the next region can undoubtedly be left to easily accessible one to observe; but as Canadian and American observers, for totality will only last 60 seconds, its it does not seem necessary that Euroduration will be brief compared with pean observers should journey so far that of this year, which will last for when more favorable stations are more than 342 minutes.
nearer at hand. The close proximity Further, the fact that the approach of Egypt to many European countries ing eclipse occurs in a month, such as renders this part of the zone of totality August, when a great number of peo- easily accessible. Here the central line ple are taking their summer holiday, of totality passes just a little north of and therefore can more easily leave Assuan, the outer limits enclosing these shores, should ensure the pres. Edfu on the north and Darmut on the ence of many volunteer observers at south. the more easily reached stations. In The probable weather conditions at the present instance the zone of totality the different stations form an imporcommences in Canada towards the tant item in eclipse matters, for clouds south of Lake Winnipeg, skirts the ex- can easily mar the work of even the treme south of Hudson's Bay, passes a best organized expedition. Omitting little to the north of Nova Scotia, and Labrador, a station that will not be then crosses the Atlantic. In Europe occupied by observers from this country, the north-western portion of Spain useful to those visiting Spain is a pubdoes not seem to be particularly lication just received from the Astrofavored with the required weather con-nomical Observatory of Madrid, entitled ditions. According to Señor F. Iñiguez, "Memoria sobre el Eclipse Total de the director of the Astronomical and Sol del dia 30 de Agosto de 1905.” This Meteorological Observatory of Madrid, has been prepared by the director, this locality during August is not only Señor Francisco Iñiguez, and contains cloudy and damp, but storms are of details about climate and many useful frequent occurrence. Such a report, maps, in addition to data about the however, should not prevent one party eclipse itself. at least from taking up a position The weather conditions for the stathere, but it should suggest to many tions situated in Algeria, Tunis, and who had up to the present made up Tripoli seem to be very favorable, and their minds to observe in that locality should be made the most of. For Alto seek stations further along the line, geria, and more especially for the and not congregate at a very probably neighborhood of Philippeville, we have unfavorable station such as this ap- some useful facts which have been pears to be. At stations towards the communicated through M. Mascart by east the conditions seem to be more V. A. Angot, of the Bureau Central suitable the closer the Mediterranean Météorologique, Paris. Dealing first side is approached, and, according to with cloud and rain, we learn that the authority mentioned above, the during the months of July and August probability of fine weather on this Philippeville is the clearest and driest coast is very high. Inland stations will of all the coast stations in Algeria, the probably, have the disadvantages of mean rainfall for these months amountdust and heat combined.
ing to 4 and 10 millimetres respectively Perhaps one advantage of the north out of a total of 807 millimetres for west over the east coast is that the the whole year. The average number former will be very much the cooler, of rainy days for each month totals but in eclipse matters sky conditions two or three. Storms are rare, but inprecede temperature considerations. crease towards the interior. If we rep
With regard to such matters as suita resent clear sky by 0 and sky covered ble sites for instruments, their safety, by 10, then 2 or 3 would represent the guards for camps, building materials, condition of cloudiness at Philippeville. &c., the Spanish Government can be As regards temperature, the diurnal depended upon to render every assist variation has an amplitude of 9° C. or ance to those who apply through the 10° C., the mean temperature being proper channels, and the valuable aid 24° C. (75° F.). By night the temperathey gave to parties during the eclipse ture would thus be about 18° C. or 19° of 1900 is still in the memory of C. (64° F. or 66° F.), and at two hours many observers.
after noon the maximum day temperaThose who wish to know something ture would reach 29° C. or 30° C. (84° about the routes to Spain, the methods F. or 86° F.). For stations situated of travel and approximate cost, will some tens of miles inland there is a find some interesting and useful infor- very rapid increase of day temperature, mation in an article recently written the prevailing winds in August vary by Mr. G. F. Chambers, and published from N.E, to N.W., i.e. are sea winds; in the Journal of the British Astronomi- they are not strong, and are not much cal Association (vol. xv., No. 2, p. 93). augmented by the sea breeze. Another source of information specially In Egypt the prospect of fine weather