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do you obey me, Dick, and you shall shaking his curls and shrugging his yet be master of this fair girl and of shoulders, had strolled off and left her. Ruddiford. And Ruddiford shall be for "This Italian has qualities that will you, my Lord Edward, my White Rose serve; I must make a slave of him." King!" she muttered, when the boy, Macmillan's Magazine.
(To be continued.)
sat ve master of this fair girl and of shouldem
BISHOPS AND HISTORIANS. *
No bishop's letters are less episcopal, Not even his faithful editor, Mr. or more amusing, than the letters of Hutton, can assert as much of Stubbs. Dr. Stubbs. Stubbs was thoroughly cler. Except personal religion and personal ical, and severely orthodox. But a bish- kindness, he had no episcopal qualities op, except in name, he was not. From at all. He was not a preacher, or an the bottom of his soul, and in almost administrator, or an organizer, or a equal proportions, he hated ceremony, man of business. He did not suffer fuss, and waste of time. An old fools gladly; he cared nothing for fashioned High Churchman by convic- music; he thoroughly disliked all tion, detesting Erastianism with all shows; he was not at home in Convocathe fervor of Becket, he had no re- tion, or in London society, or in the spect for the outward symbols of House of Lords; his politics were pure Ritualism, and preferred an umbrella Toryism of the most uncompromising to a pastoral staff. Simply and deeply kind. Of the statesmanship which rereligious, he could not resist making strains followers, or conciliates opfun of what he despised, and he de ponents, he never showed a trace. He spised everything that was not real. would have thought it "underhand." Learned as Germans are learned, to He could not away with dissenters; an extent and in a degree which make and when a Wesleyan school asked for an Englishman a prodigy, he passed an “occasional monitor" suggested that the second half of his long and active the Nonconformist conscience was career among men who hardly knew meant. Of lawyers he had a holy what it was that he studied. He de horror, so that the mere fact of a scribed himself as unable to read any clergyman being under the ban of the book except one which began with a Courts gave him a claim upon Stubbs's B, meaning Bradshaw, and as having sympathies. He was so little a man of no time to take a seidlitz powder. the world that, when he sat with Lord About his friend and younger contem- Coleridge on the Ritual Commission, porary, Dr. Creighton, there may be he marvelled to find the Lord Chief much argument, and two opinions. Justice of England an Erastian, or beFor, though there were many bishops, liever in the supreme authority of the and only one man who could finish the State. None of these peculiarities preHistory of the Papacy during the Refor vented Stubbs from being a true his. mation, nobody ever denied that torian, or a most lovable man. A Creighton made a very good bishop clergyman who had them all could only indeed.
have become a good bishop by a mirahim with reverence and affection. It is he might have more to give away, is indeed wholesome to read of a life so more truly Christian than his unnathonest, simple, manly, and true. The ural freedom from the pride of intellect idea of cant or pretence was loathsome or knowledge. to him. When he was bored by a long It was no easy path to learning that service, with many hymns, he said he took. Although he came of a good so. Most things did bore him, except old Yorkshire stock, and his forbears history, real religion, and fun. His had been yeomen time out of mind, humor was irrepressible; and he sel- his father could not send him to a dom attempted to repress it. He did public school, or to a good school of not even require an audience. I re- any kind; and he would not have gone member, when I was at Oxford, con- to Oxford if he had not been taken as templating with awe the Professor of a servitor at Christchurch. He had, History, as he read in the Union a of course, great natural ability, and a magazine which contained a review by memory which never failed him. But Mr. Froude of Sir George Trevelyan's he read prodigiously before he won his Life of Macaulay. Suddenly he got up, First Class and his Fellowship at and put down his Fraser with the Trinity. If he owed his early chance muttered words: “When rhetoricians to Archbishop Longley, whom he alfall out, historians may come by their ways gratefully revered, from the moown." That seems to me more artistic ment he set foot in Christchurch he than Mr. Hutton's solemn description did everything for himself. He was of Hallam as “the strangest of all pre- never tired of reading, and he never tenders to impartiality where any forgot what he read. If he had become Churchman or Church question was a College Tutor, he would certainly concerned.” Hallam was a Whig. have been popular, and would probably Stubbs was a Tory. It is possible to have written some of the wittiest admire one without sneering at the rhymes in the Oxford anthology. In other; and Stubbs, at least, paid Hal- this respect he began badly, as Mr. lam the compliment of stopping where Hutton needlessly illustrates. But he he began. Mr. Hutton is apparently a steadily improved; and his well-known prey to the delusion that there can lines on Froude and Kingsley, too fabe only one kind of history and one miliar for quotation, have all the marks kind of historian. Stubbs never forgot of a good epigram, except brevity. On that he was a clergyman, or, as Mr. the other hand, he found the country, Hutton says, a Churchman. But it as Creighton found it after him, prowould be as bigoted to complain of pitious for a student's life. He had no him on that ground, as to find fault great love of it in itself; and he rewith Hallam for taking the side of the garded two daily services in his church laity. Stubbs, like Hallam, had his as an obligation. Like Creighton, he prejudices; like Hallam, he was human, took pupils, one of whom was Mr. and he was always loyal to the Church Swinburne. Here, again, Mr. Hutton he served. What was perhaps most is unfortunate, and with less excuse admirable and most touching was the than before. Because Mr. Swinburne quaint homeliness, the simple modesty wrote him a warm and affectionate with which he concealed his vast store letter about his old tutor, Mr. Hutton of laboriously acquired information. must needs make a personal attack Not even the self-sacrificing generosity upon the late Master of Balliol, to with which, in spite of his large family, whom Mr. Swinburne was sincerely he cut down all needless expenses that and deeply attached. Although there
cle; and the age of miracles has ceased. 1“ Letters of William Stubbs, Bishop of Oxford.” Edited by William Holden Hutton,
The character of Dr. Stubbs must B.D. New York: E. P. Dutton & Co.
inspire even those who did not know
was not much in common between knew the two men, by study and inStubbs and Jowett, they were on sight, as a contemporary knew them, friendly terms; and Stubbs became that he could describe them from the Chaplain at Balliol while Jowett was soul outwards, not from the skin inMaster. But even a "Churchman” is wards. Stubbs's perfect singleness of intolerable to Mr. Hutton, when he mind and disinterested love of truth happens to be a Broad Churchman. for its own sake, his native YorkWhile vicar of Navestock, in Essex, shire shrewdness, combined with the Stubbs was also a guardian of the poor thoroughness and accuracy of his reand a diocesan inspector of schools. search, qualified him, as no other man When Archbishop Longley was trans- was qualified, to find the living among lated from York to Canterbury, in 1862, the dead, and to draw from musty he made Stubbs librarian at Lambeth, documents a human drama. Although and in 1863 his appointment by Sir he said, in reference to Buckle, that he John Romilly, to edit for the famous did not believe in the philosophy of Rolls Series the Chronicles of Richard history, he certainly did not treat histhe First, was a vast benefit to learn- tory as a science. He was full of hising. His characters of Richard him- toric aversions and predilections, from self, of Dunstan, of Henry the Second, the days of Dunstan to his own. He of Edward the First, proved to histori. communicated his politics without recal students that a new historian had serve to Freeman, who certainly did arisen, compared with whom Brewer, not share them. In 1859, he was for and Luard, and Shirley were mere Austria against the "wretched Italantiquaries and Dryasdusts. Although ians," and felt "extreme contempt" for Stubbs was rather afraid of eloquence, Victor Emmanuel. Perhaps Freeman and picturesque historians, such as may have felt more inclined to agree Macaulay, did not appeal to him, yet when Stubbs told him that no dissenter few men could be more eloquent than could write a History of England, behe, or more vividly epigrammatic. cause they had no ancestors and could Take, for instance, the contrast be- see nothing good before the Reformatween Richard and Saladin, which is tion. Stubbs was fond of drawing much more than the "trick of telling pedigrees; and he must have known phrase" that Mr. Hutton calls it.
that every one has the same number of
ancestors, whether they are ennobled, Saladin was a good heathen, Richard
beheaded, or left to themselves. If he a bad Christian; set side by side, there
were joking, one can only say that he is not much to choose between them;
usually jokes with less difficulty and judged each by his own standard, there is very much. Could they have more success. As, for example, in a changed faith and place, Saladin would letter about Froude: have made a better Christian than Richard, and Richard, perhaps, no
He mauls Cardinal Pole pretty conworse heathen than Saladin: but siderably, but I think it is the cheapest Saladin's possible Christianity would
thing to do, as Gardiner and Bonner have been as far above his actual both come so much better out of any heathenism as Richard's possible
examination than he does; heathenism would have been above his
or about Capitular Masses, when actual Christianity.
the question turned into what were Mr. Hutton has missed the point. Chapter-Houses used for, to which I Tricks of phrase do not produce pas- cannot give an answer; nor, think, can sages like this. It is because Stubbs he-probably to get cold in;
or in his quaint ejaculation that he to the author of Three English Stateslikes
men. In the unrestrained freedom of
his private correspondence, it may be the men who passed under the old
seen what a Tory he was. system better than the Balliolized idiots who get classes under the new.
“We are very quiet," he wrote to In 1866, Mr. Goldwin Smith resigned
Freeman in 1864, "now we have got
rid of that Garibaldi. I do not think the Chair of Modern History at Oxford.
that Gladstone or Lord Shaftesbury With the possible exception of Halford
were either of them sensible enough to Vaughan, no such brilliant lecturer had have sent him away for political reabeen known in the University. He was sons. I believe that for once they both an advanced Liberal, not to say a Radi- spoke the truth when they denied that cal, and had taken a prominent part --but it is what they should have in the politics of the day. Lord Derby, do who was Chancellor of Oxford as well
Stubbs can hardly have believed as Prime Minister, could hardly be ex
Lord Shaftesbury to be a liar, whatpected to keep up the Liberal tradition
ever he may then have thought of Mr. by appointing Freeman, if a suitable
Gladstone; and one must not take too Conservative were to be found. He
seriously his persistent chaff of Freewas indeed fortunate in his choice of
man. Nevertheless, his hostility to the M. Stubbs, whose studies lay quite out
Italian movement was genuine, and of
to of his own line. Mr. Stubbs, for his
a piece with his life-long distaste for part, accepted the post without hesita
Liberalism. He was too honorable a tion. Undisturbed research would
man, morally too great a man, to abuse perhaps have suited him still better.
his position as professor for the inBut he had a family to keep, and he
terests or the purposes of a party. As must have felt, modest as he was, that
he said himself in his Inaugural Lecno man in England could maintain the
ture, his object was not to make Whigs historical credit of the University bet
or Tories, but to make them good ter than he. He was not an impressive Tories or good Whigs. As for Radi. lecturer. He seemed to be more in
cals, he would, I think, have left them terested in his manuscript than in his
to the police, with perhaps a saving audience. The single volume which is
clause for Freeman, Green, and Mr. the sole monument of his professorship
Bryce. shows him at his best, combining with
When he came to deal with facts, his his native sagacity and unrivalled
love of truth prevailed over all other knowledge the eloquence and the
considerations, though it was certain humor which he too often suppressed.
that the cause of the medieval Church His character of Henry the Eighth is a
would not suffer in his hands. He literary masterpiece, which neither his
made no secret from the first of his predecessor nor his successor has ex
conviction that history justified the celled. He knew too much, and as
ways of God to man. He described sumed too much, for the “Balliolized
himself as "steeped in clerical and Conidiot,” or even the ordinary under
servative principles.” Conservative he graduate, to follow him. His formal
certainly was. But what did he mean deliverances on public occasions, which by "clerical”? He has himself anhave alone survived, were models of
swered the question, in defining "the terseness, thoroughness, and wit. In
clerical spirit and mind" to be that politics, which cannot be eliminated from history, he stood at opposite poles which regards truth and justice above
all things, which believes what it be great Oriental scholar, and as little like lieves firmly and intelligently, but the "shallow infidel" as 'need be. He with a belief that is fully convinced
had not much belief in examinations; that truth and justice must in the end confirm the doctrine that it upholds,
and for philosophy, idealist or materialwith a belief that party statement and
ist, he had no taste. His leader in highly colored pictures of friend and academic matters was Dr. Pusey, his foe alike are dangerous enemies of staunchest ally was Dr. Liddon, and in truth and justice, and damage in the his first sermon from the University long run the cause that employs them; pulpit on the 3rd of November, 1867, that all sides have everything to gain and nothing to lose by full and fair
he made the astounding statement that, knowledge of the truth.
“with a few notable exceptions, the
whole of the popular Press was ostenThis is not perhaps a good specimen tatiously and implacably set against reof the Professor's style, either from a ligion.” Unless by religion he meant logical or from a grammatical point of the peculiar tenets associated with the view. But why a layman should ob- name of Pusey, a wilder assertion was ject to the substance of it, I cannot never made; and, little as Stubbs knew imagine. Stubbs can hardly have sup- of the world, it is quite unpardonable posed that Freeman or Mr. Goldwin in him to have made it. But we forSmith would have put any other thing get trifles like this when we come to above truth and justice. Nor would consider the Constitutional History of he have cited his colleague at Cam- England, which was published in three bridge, the Reverend Charles Kingsley, volumes during the years from 1874 as one who never drew highly colored to 1878. Mr. Hutton is never tired of pictures of friend or foe. He once said comparing this work with the Decline of himself: “What a good layman I and Fall, thus doing it a great injustice. should have made"; and to use "cleri. Stubbs would have been the last man cal" in the sense of "religious" is to put to range himself with the greatest of oneself on a level with Sir Wilfred all English, perhaps of all, historians. Witwould, who thought that “ortho- Gibbon has neither equal nor second, dox" was the Greek for claret. Even and the only subsequent historian who in his Inaugural Lecture Professor has approached him in the magnitude Stubbs could not abstain from the of his task, or the breadth of his treatclerical remark that the present of ment, is Finlay. Stubbs's real rivals Italy, as distinguished from her past, are Hallam and Milman, whom he surwas a "living death.” But, after all, passed in learning, if not in practical in a teacher of history it is knowledge, wisdom. He aspired rather to the not opinion, that matters.
German ideal, and, when the first volProfessor Stubbs had little or no ume appeared, a contemporary critic sympathy with modern Oxford. Lib. remarked that it was rather a German eralism in politics he thought foolish. than an English book. And yet Stubbs, Liberalism in theology he thought as his name implies, was English to the wrong. It says much for the kindness core. He had the love of liberty, of his heart and his fidelity to friend though not of Liberalism; the dislike ship, that he never ceased his intimacy of sentiment; the hatred of equivocawith John Richard Green, who gave tion and indirectness; the aversion up his Orders and became a Free from “the fetid atmosphere of a thinker. When he found a volume of Court," which the inhabitants of these Renan, he put it in the waste-paper islands cherish, or used to cherish, as basket, though Renan was, at least, a virtues. He knew a man as his