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and idle robbery of the medieval baron. ization of France, Spain, and Italy. The Celt and the Slav lacked them-in All that is meant is, that these counUlster it was remarked that, before tries yet retain the impress of the time the Plantation, there was no city but when they were provinces of the Armagh. In like manner, Argyll may Roman Empire. In Russia, Slav ways be contrasted with Fife. If Poland and ideas must be sought lower down had had such an element in her so- in the social and political scale-in the ciety, her nobles would not have been “mir," with its communal ownership able to enslave the peasantry and of land, in the "aztel,” or co-operative make the royal power a shadow. workshop, in the organization of local Certainly on Polish soil there are and self-government. have been towns enough, but they were full of Teutons and Jews; there In spiritual, as in secular things, the were no native burgesses, no stuff to Slav spirit is not well reflected by the fashion into a Third Estate.

institution which stands for it in the The case of Russia is unlike that of eyes of the world. The Greek Church Poland; there the Czars strengthened has been imposed on the Slav; it is not themselves at the expense of the no- a spontaneous expression of his habit bility, like our Tudors, and the modern of mind. Indeed, it was a geographical bureaucracy is made up of men whose accident that brought him within its claim to nobility is the fact that they fold. The Russian Slavs were conserve the crown. Unlike our Whigs, verted by Greek missionaries, while they are not necessarily drawn from the Balkan Slavs lived within the the native aristocracy. The political sphere of the Greek Empire. The Poles development of Russia has indeed not and Bohemians were gathered into the proceeded on democratic Slav but on Latin Church. No Church could have bureaucratic Prussian lines. The a close connection with two such syslatter model is fit for a true empire; tems as the Byzantine and Russian and in Prussia there is that signal Empires, and yet suffer no reaction, mark of empire--predominance of race. Yet the Greek Church is not so If we leave out the Rhenish Provinces, “Erastian” as a Western Church would the rest of Prussia is built on the have been under like condition; in débris of crushed Slav peoples. The each case the State has been in a mould recent attempts to drill the Baltic Oriental enough to enable the Church Provinces, Finland, and the Armenian to give it a theocratic tinge. Russia is Church into a uniform pattern, are the only country in Europe where modelled on the Prussian policy pur- “Procurator of the Holy Synod” could sued in Alsace-Lorraine and the Ger- be the title of a high officer of State. man part of Poland. Indeed, the parti. If the Greek Church had set store by tion of Poland has kept the three East being Catholic, like the Latin, it ern illiberal Powers together by a com- would have been more detached from munity of interests and fears. It is a these two political systems, and so matter of history, that Russian state- have been more of a free Church. Its craft has been largely borrowed from ambition, however, has been to be German oracles; the chief difference Orthodox, not Catholic. Now, there is being, that in Russia there is not, as nothing Slav in such an aspiration; it in Prussia, a ruling class of non-Slav is Greek, but, as understood by the race. It is indeed as safe to affirm the Greek Church, sought to be realized "Teutonic" character of the Tsardom on impossible conditions. The Greek as it is to speak of the “Latin" civil- genius, in its prime, desired to think

LIVING AGE. VOL. XXVI. 1378

rightly; but such thinking was recog- peror in the Thirty Years' War. The nized as implying growth and progress. evangelical Christianity yet surviving The Greek Church wished an impossi- in Moravia, and the quality of much bility-to think rightly, but without Russian Dissent, show a clear strain in growth or change. The very name the Slav, which is at home with early Byzantine is a by-word for soulless Christianity. The note of this Slav verbal dialectics. In Russia, the close “heresy' is an unwillingness to make connection with the State, joined to that compromise with the world, to this enforcement of formal orthodoxy which the Western Churches have more and the policy of keeping human be- or less yielded. His temper is the ings in tutelage, makes the Greek “Christianity of the Gospel.” To such Church a persecuting Church. Not a temper it is not a conclusive reason withstanding this, there are millions of for not obeying the Sermon on the Dissenters in Russia, who seem to find Mount, that such obedience would be the Greek Church alien from their tem- fatal to the survival of the State. The per, just as the Celts with one accord Western State is not so dear to the have rejected the Anglican Establish- heart of the Slav. This spirit has bement. Yet the Greek Church has bent come articulate in Tolstoy; but it anito humor popular leanings. The use of mates all those Russian believers who pictures is conceded to the objective find that they cannot give military sermind. The rejection of instrumental vice to the State. music from divine service, if not main. These traits should be remembered tained on Puritan grounds, as among when we are disposed to think of the the Presbyterians, has the effect of Slav as a Cossack. Perhaps more than making the service more congrega- most of us, he retains the stamp of our tional. Again, as in the Roman but early Aryan forefathers. The unit of not in the Anglican communion, the his society--the village community-is bulk of the secular clergy is drawn common to him and the Hindu. An from the people. The Orders of regu- like the Hindu, he has a certain Eastlars lead a cloistered contemplative ern acquiescence in destiny; and in life, about which there is something war he seems ready to be shot. He Eastern, but little akin to the feverish, does not try to subdue the forces of missionary zeal of Jesuits and other Nature to himself, and has little share brotherhoods in the Latin Church. in mechanical contrivances. Moralists

Bohemia was the one Slav country remind us that action is hindered by that espoused the Reformed doctrines. too much feeling; certainly the Slav Jerome and Hus borrowed much from seems to have too much feeling. He is Wiclif; the success of their movement as melancholy as the Greek; but was partly due to the fact that it shows it through music, even more blended with an outburst of Czech than through literature. He is as imnationalist feeling against the Ger- pressionable as the Celt, with this difmans. It could hardly have done this, ference-that his home has rarely been however, if it had not a democratic amid mountains or by the sea, except character. The Reformed doctrines, the Baltic, which is less inspiring than which prevailed in Bohemia for two the Ægean or the Atlantic. Hence, his hundred years, might have been estab art deals more with human kind than lished there for good, but for the Aus- with Nature. His temper might have trian conquest and persecution: nearly remained unknown to us, if we had all the Protestants were killed, driven had to go out of our way to study out, or overawed by the Viennese Em- Slav folk-lore, dances, and airs; but in

the nineteenth century Slav art was one by which the Slav has impressed the taken up by men of genius, who have Western world. Music is hard enough spoken to all Europe,

to interpret authoritatively; yet it is Slav art has become a naïve "crit. scarcely fanciful, if we try to discern icism of life.” The word "criticism" in Slav music a common expression of must be used guardedly, as the Slav the Slav temperament. However elahas little turn for abstract thought, borate the structure of a particular such as the Greeks and Hindus showed: piece may be, it is likely to have its being without the curiosity of the root in popular airs. Thus it never beformer, and feeling more deeply than comes artificial; there is always a certhe latter, he is less able to settle down tain spontaneity and freshness. The to calm contemplation. So perhaps we note of sadness is usually very clear. should say that Slav criticism is Sometimes it is too plaintive, as in usually unconscious but sometimes Chopin, who would probably have been deliberate, as in Tolstoy, who uses his suspected by Plato, as tending to melt powers as an artist to arraign the form too much the heart of man, and make of society. It was suggested that the him a feeble warrior; in Tschaikowsky Slav was able to accept the Gospel it is sterner, as it is in the solemn quite purely, because he had no motive Prelude by Rachmaninoff. That music for making the reservations which our should never be exotic appears to have attachment to Western institutions im- been recognized by Dvorak, the Czech poses upon us. This detachment in musician; though he seems to have apspires his art. We talk of his realism, plied the principle with an odd confumeaning that he will not see things sion of history. For, being in America, through a kindly haze, but in a dry he is said to have suggested to the peolight. Thus he has no feeling for the ple of the United States that they romance of war, being quite without should base their music on negro the set of ideas connected with chiy- melodies. alry. Even in his unconverted days If we wish to see what has been the Tolstoy wrote of war (in Sevastopol) as achievement of Slav music during the if it were a horrible thing. Verest. past fifty years, we have only to comchagin, the painter, also treated war pare the record of the Slav with that of faithfully in his pictures. In like man- the Celt in the same period. The Slav ner, Gorky does not take the evils that has nothing like the “Eisteddfod" or follow in the train of Western indus- "Feis," which are a kind of Dionysiatrialism for granted; he paints them in perhaps the idea of “competition” in their naked horror. Well he may; for music would seem to him incongruous certainly the Slav, like the Celt, seems - yet the Celt, with all this systematic to degenerate rapidly when he drifts cultivation, has not produced such into the slums of cities. Even Tolstoy masterpieces as those of the great Slav is at times more impressionable than composers in our time. There is a consciously critical: thus The Cossacks great number of traditional Scottish, is written under the influence of Irish, and Welsh airs; but they have Rousseau, the Kreutzer Sonata under never formed a basis for the elaborathat of Schopenhauer. In some ways tion of great works. Indeed, the hisSlav feeling seems to be expressed tory of Slav music is not unworthy to better by Turguéniev, a sweeter and be compared with the rise of Greek milder nature than Tolstoy, whose drama, which also sprang from the asceticism has a touch of asperity. simple songs of a rural community,

Of all the arts, however, music is the met to celebrate some of the festal occasions of their agricultural year. bring about a revolution in Russia. Each became-within the possibilities Many of us are slow to believe this, of its own medium-a sad musing "o'er because we are convinced that the Rusthe doubtful lot of human kind.” sian Slav is incapable of self-govern

In suggesting that the Slav is mel. ment. For this purpose we are too apt ancholy and something of a fatalist, to make Parliamentary institutions the there is no intention to forget that he test, and, not forward ourselves in local has a touch of Celtic irascibility. He government, we underrate the possihas a bad name for wild retaliation; in bility of developing freedom and reRussia and in the Balkans oppression sponsibility by local self-government. is answered by assassination, of which Hence we commonly ignore the work the Teuton has a genuine loathing. We that has been done in this direction were quite sincere in our horror of in Russia since the time of the Tsar Celtic outrages in Ireland twenty years Alexander II. We also forget that the ago. The Teuton, however, forgets Slav is better placed than we are for that he is sometimes responsible for dealing with some of the economic maintaining a social order which problems that face large populations. breeds savage and murderous thoughts. His system of land tenure is not, like He can be a partner in the oppression ours, much encumbered with the relics of one race by another; and then he of feudalism. The village community neither understands the resentment is his unit; and, if it were not for 'which he is causing, nor the form in beavy taxation, the Slav peasant would which the resentment expresses itself. not be badly off. This, combined with In his own domestic troubles, he pro- a traditional distaste for town life, ceeds differently; if his rulers seek to has helped to prevent a drain to the oppress him, he uses such a weapon towns. Thus there has been no great as the power of the Commons to refuse physical deterioration; and the race has to vote supplies. He talks with unc- remained young and fresh. For such tion of the “red fool fury of the a race we feel that the future has Seine," or "the blind hysterics of possibilities. The Slav seems quite the Celt," and is proud of a record out of sympathy with the Positive in which freedom "slowly broadens spirit; and it may be that he will never down from precedent to precedent.” give us great names in physical science The Teuton as poet has a touch or mechanical invention. Copernicus of the lawyer or bureaucrat. One is almost the only great physicist who can only hope that in Russia has arisen among the Slav peoples. If, at least, Tolstoy's philosophical dis- however, the race can resist the factory approval of appeals to physical force system, as it did the feudal system, will be understood to imply, not only and organize industry on the lines of a withdrawal from military service, labor co-partnership-and it has gone but refusal to use the bomb.

some way in this direction—it will have At the moment there are confident done much to make life more tolerable prophecies that the present war will for large masses of men. The Independent Review.

H. M. Conacher.

HOMEWARDS.

you

“We are twelve, twelve of us! Are added with a good-natured smile. we to burst in this stifling heat?” Then they all moved to the left, except angrily howled an old man, leaning out the man in the corner, who would not of the narrow carriage-door. “Please, give up his place, and shrank nearer to look yourself," he continued, drawing the window. back to show the train-conductor he The woman faintly said “Thank was no liar.

you," and sank down on the seat next “She must get in all the same," the to her kind champion; then drawing man answered calmly, and turning to her arm with infinite care from under somebody behind him, who was quite the ragged bundle, she stretched and silent, “Quick," he said, "up with you, moved it, with a sigh of relief, to regive me that bundle. I'll hold it.” lease the cramped and aching limb.

“No, no, thanks, it's all right, I can “Bad job having to travel with get up," murmured the woman anx- babies," said the old woman, turning iously; she caught hold of the handle to her. with one hand, held tight to her breast "I say, we don't want any squalling," a shapeless ragged bundle with the cried out crossly a mealy-faced youth. other, got up, and stood waiting in the “Oh, he won't cry, you needn't fear," middle of the railway carriage.

said the mother, with a strange, pale The door was shut with a sharp smile. bang; the train moved; she staggered “Is he ill?". and would have fallen had not the old “A little,” she answered after an inman who spoke before held her up. stant's hesitation, in a trembling underAt the sudden shock a small, thin arm tone, blushing deeply. peeped out of the ragged bundle.

“Where do you come from ?" "Now, boys, we must make a little “America. I landed this morning.” room; the poor thing cannot stand all Two of her companions who had sailed the time," said the old man in a loud with her sighed. voice to his fellow-travellers.

"All alone?" "Let them make room on the other “My husband ... remained down side," struck in his neighbor, but no- there," she sadly answered, looking at body moved. She was hanging on to her mourning. the laden luggage-net, and stumbling "Poor thing! And where are you at every shake.

going now?" "You are all thin ones over there," "Home," naming a small village in he continued, winking idiotically at the the fever-stricken Maremma. unwieldy paunch of the man near him, "Have you made a little money, at who was snoring.

least?” With an eloquent Italian ges"Dare say, when you've nothing to ture she scraped her thumb-nail on the eat,” answered two or three, and some edge of her teeth; that was the only scanned each other's faces in silent answer. Then a wretched slow chorus taunt,

arose in that stuffy atmosphere: each "Now, then, let's squeeze up a bit, resigned voice telling its brief tragical and make her a little room,” spoke at history. last an old woman compassionately. “I made three hundred francs: it all "We shall be all the warmer!" she went for medicine and doctors," so

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