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his people. The means by which this selves in the success of their policy, end is to be reached is wholesale but what is possible in a single city slaughter, as often as a crowd large may not be possible in many cities at enough to be slaughtered can be found once; and, after all, the real population gathered together. How far this dis- of Russia does not live in cities. The cipline will be effective it is too soon grievances of the peasants may not to say. Probably so long as the neces- indeed be identical with those of the sary orders are given, and the troops workmen, but they have points of reobey them, it will succeed in St. Peters- semblance, and the rumors of what burg. No revolutionary movement can happened last Sunday growing, as they hope to stand against cavalry and are likely to do, in the process of transartillery, if they are used with suffi- mission, may suggest the need of makcient decision. But St. Petersburg is ing common efforts for a common end. not Russia, and it is possible that the The present policy is not fitted to deal spectacle of what the Czar's autocracy with discontents that are spread over has come to in the capital may seri- the whole country, and the incapacity ously weaken its hold on the rest of of the Czar may yet lead to consethe Empire. The Grand Dukes may quences that even the Grand Dukes for the moment be delighting them- cannot control. Tbe Economist.
THE MACEDONIAN SITUATION.
There is once more grave reason to who buy the tithes of a village at aucfollow the course of events in Mace- tion and collect as much more as seems donia with anxious attention, and to good to them. But that this experiinquire rather searchingly what steps ment will be generally adopted we do our own Government is taking to fore- not for a moment believe. The whole stall the dangers which seem imminent Turkish system of ascendency, by and to fulfil its pledges. The Times which the ruling class of Mohamedan has written well upon this subject dur- landlords share in the profits of coning the past week, and if public opinion quest, rests upon these methods of in France were as alert and as well. spoliation, and if the "garrison" (to use informed as in England one might per- an Irish parallel) were deprived of its haps hope for some further diplomatic perquisites its loyalty would hardly move. The Austro-Russian reforms stand the strain. Lastly, the gendarhave failed, as all good judges pre- merie scheme has broken down because dicted they must, and their failure has the European officers possess no execubeen almost surprisingly complete. tive authority. If they see an abuse The two Assessors have merely they must report to headquarters. travelled about, written reports, and with the maintenance of order they giren good advice to Hilmi Pasha, as have nothing to do. In fact, it is clear the humblest consuls might have done that the reforms have failed to do any The Turks have permitted an experi- good. ment in a few selected villages to see But apart from the failure of the rewhether it is possible to collect the forms, matters seem to be actually taxes directly without the intervention rather worse than they were before the of the corrupt and violent publicani, late insurrection. The Turkish administration is more hopelessly centralized insurrection spells massacre, outrage, than ever, and Hilmi Pasha, a clever and devastation. but somewhat sinister figure, is a mere I t is quite futile to look for help to shadow of the Palace. He appears to either of the interested Powers upon be doing his best, as he did in the whom Europe in a moment of apathy spring of 1903, to drive the Bulgarians conferred a mandate to pacify Mace: once more into revolt. Troops are be- donia. Russia is entirely preoccupied ing quartered once more upon the both at home and abroad. Austria has villages-which means a daily round of no policy except procrastination. Her robbery and oppression. A curfew Emperor is an intensely conservative ordinance has been re-enacted. The force. Both the Germans and the Magwhole public life of the Bulgarian com- yars are disposed to be Turcophil and munities stands suspended and sup to dread any movement of sympathy pressed. Their teachers are nearly all which might make them responsible in exile, and practically all their schools for a large Slav population. And both are closed in consequence. A large Austria and Hungary are in the throes number of their churches have been of Parliamentary crises. Of the other handed over to the Greek faction by Powers, Germany stands aloof, and the Turkish authorities—and that even doubtless supports the Sultan behind in villages where the peasants of the the scenes. France is tied by the RusGreek party are in a very small mi- sian Alliance. Italy is eager, but innority. Economically, save for the terested. There remains only England, help that was rendered once this au- at once free, disinterested, and symtumn in certain districts by the British pathetic. We are pledged to action. Relief Fund, their case is still exceed. In the past stands our overwhelming ingly miserable. The Turks, needless responsibility for the Treaty of Berlin, to say, have not made good their prom- which flung Macedonia, rescued by ise to rebuild the villages (12,000 Russian intervention, once more behouses in all) which were burned in neath the heel of the Turk. But we 1903. In the Adrianople region the have also obligations of recent date. refugees have not yet been suffered to Lord Lansdowne has explicitly promreturn, and their lands are still occu- ised that if the Austro-Russian reforms pied by Turks. Finally, the Greek and should fail he will propose more drastic Albanian bands which are making war measures of amelioration. He is much upon the Bulgarians are tolerated, if too well informed, thanks to our excelnot encouraged, by the Government, lent consular staff in Macedonia, to which is only too pleased to foster any retain any illusions about the success feud among its Christian subjects. The of these reforms. That he has not forgeneral insecurity defies description, gotten his pledges is an assumption and the outlook for the immediate fu- which his keen and altogether humane ture is still blacker. With the coming interest in this question warrants. The of spring all the lawless bands are problem is how best to awaken the inpreparing to extend their activities, terest of the French Government and to while the rigor of the authorities, not bring it into line with Italy. In the auagainst the agitators but against the tumn of 1903 Sir Edward Grey exvillagers, grows ever more stringent. pressed the opinion that if even one It is an unbearable position, and if other Power would support us, it was there comes no sign of a fresh Euro- clearly our duty to intervene. There pean intervention before next spring is no doubt that we could secure the an insurrection seems inevitable--and co-operation of the Italian fleet if a
naval demonstration became neces- officials and the soldiers would receive sary.
less pay than ever, and there would Lord Lansdowne has himself in- be no money to repair the roads. Moredicated the programme which any seri over, nothing short of a final solution ous Power must follow if it means to will ever induce the Bulgarian or Greek intervene with effect. It would no bands to disarm or persuade the Turks doubt be worth while merely to confer to reduce the colossal army which lives executive authority upon the European upon the country. The Sultan would gendarmerie officers. But this would oppose serious reforms of detail as lead to endless conflicts with the Turk stoutly as he would fight any general ish Prefects and Governors. It would and immediate remedy. The only satisbe useless to arrest criminals unless factory course is to nominate a Eurothe courts were reformed. And to com- pean Governor independent of the pel the Turks to pay the gendarmerie Porte, endowed with full powers and without reforming their whole financial responsible only to Europe. system would simply mean that the The Speaker.
BOOKS AND AUTHORS.
The four hundredth anniversary of pathy the essential qualities of the the birth of John Knox will occur in Dutch artists. He especially combats May. The Putnams will publish at the idea that Dutch painting is mere that time the Knox volume in their technique, taking as his text the someHeroes of the Reformation series. The what dogmatic pronouncement to that author is Professor Henry Cowan, D.D., effect in the first chapter of Ruskin's of Aberdeen University.
Modern Painters. The conclusion
which he reaches is that the Dutch G. P. Putnam's Sons are about pub painters were as elemental artists as lishing an English sociological work by those of any other century, and that, L. T. Hobhouse, which should interest although the nature which they chose American students of social questions. to illustrate was inferior in beauty to The titles of such chapters as “The that on which Titian and Giorgione School of Cobden," "The Imperial embroidered their gorgeous decorations, Idea,” “The Useful and the Right" no art may justly be condemned for the pique curiosity.
humbleness of its materials. The one
weak point of the Dutch artists, in his Lovers and critics of art will wel view, is their incapacity to improve on come Sir Walter Armstrong's mono- the realities of external nature. The graph upon "The Peel Collection and form chosen for the volume is a large, the Dutch School of Painting" of which slender octavo, which admits not only E. P. Dutton & Co. are the American of an ample and legible page for the publishers. Taking as his theme the letter-press but of the reproduction splendid collection brought together by upon an adequate scale of some of the the second Sir Robert Peel, in which most striking examples of the Dutch were included fifty-five examples of the school of art. Of these there are four Dutch school and twelve of the Flem- photogravures, and twenty-four other ish, the author passes under review full-page illustrations. and treats with appreciation and sym
It is in the spring-time, the far-famed brilliant August day there is no rain cherry-blossom time, when all Japan nor sign of any in dusty Tokyo-has makes holiday beneath spacious cano- been none, they say, for weeks past. pies of pink and white bloom, or a little The Genza, that wide main thoroughlater, when the giant wistarias display fare of the Mikado's capital, with its their hanging mauve trusses, while incongruous tramcars and multitudiirises, tree-peonies and azaleas create nous perspiring foot-passengers, is baka riot of color in the land, or else in ing and shimmering in the heat; the autumn, after rains and storms have untiring little Jinrikisha-man in the passed away and the woods are ar- shafts, whose white mushroom hat goes rayed in scarlet and gold, that the ever- bobbing along on a level with your feet increasing army of tourists from the as you sit beneath a sun umbrella, has West is wont to overrun these pleasant to mop his brow continually, though Eastern resorts, testifying to its appre- he never relaxes his pace; the masons, ciation thereof in the sbrill, nasal, or busy over their work of demolition and guttural accents of the divers nation- deplorable reconstruction, bave disalities which it represents. During the carded all the clothing that can be summer, travellers, save such as are decently discarded in a city so bent bound for the mountains, are warned upon becoming European in aspect and off from Japan by the guide-books. habit. The transmogrifying process is July and August are months of oppres- being carried out only too rapidly and sive, damp heat and frequent rains; thoroughly. Everywhere the old flowers, except the lotus, are few at wooden houses, with their overhanging that season, and the mosquito is a bur- tiled roofs, are coming down, to be reden.
placed by meaningless, unsuitable, However, seasons vary, and on this flimsy structures of brick and stucco: *Written in 1903.
Europe, or rather America, is being re