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ae attests the progress which the education of women has made in India. The magazine was to make its first appearance last month at Cochin under the title of the Sarad, and it will be edited by three Nair ladtes who have been educated in English schools. The magazine is written and printed in the vernacular.
It was announced without authority that the "Correspondence of Queen Victoria," which is being arranged by Mr. Arthur C. Benson and Lord Esher, would be published in December by Mr. John Murray. This was an error. These important volumes will not be published for some months. The mass of the documents which have to pass under the examination of the editors is very great, and is far from being exhausted.
Five volumes were disposed of last month in London at private sale for about $100,000. The volumes were originally part of the collection of manuscripts and early printed works formed by Guglielmo Libri, and their value is due chiefly to their elaborate early metal bindings. They were sold at auction at Sotheby's about forty years ago for just over £630, and have been in the family of the purchaser ever since. The most important of the five volumes is an Evangelarium, a sixth century manuscript written in beautiful uncial letters, with a silvergilt binding of the tenth or eleventh century.
M. Charles Causse, better known as Pierre Mael, who died recently, was one of the most prolific of contemporary French novelists, although he was but forty-two years old, and his early career was in the navy. His first great success was "Le Torpilleur 29." A mere list of his seventy odd books would fill a column. Most of these
ran into several editions. His death has been followed by the interesting literary revelation that he had a collaborator, M. Charles Vincent, who, in accordance with an agreement arranged between the two, will "carry on," in commercial parlance, the business under the old name.
Reverend John Mackenzie Bacon, whose name is pleasantly familiar to readers of The Living Age as the author of scientific articles and narratives of experiences as an aeronaut, died recently. On the theme with which he had popularly identified himself he published two books within recent years— "By Land and Sky" (1900) and "The Dominion of the Air: the Story of Aerial Navigation" (1902). Earlier books which are credited to him are: "A Short Analysis of Paley's Evidences of Christianity" (1870), "Hints on Elementary Statics" (1870), "Short Notes on the Acts of the Apostles" (1870), "On the Gospel of St. Matthew" (1883) and "On the Gospel of St. Luke" (1885).
A volume which has its obvious uses, though it makes no strong appeal as literature, is that entitled "Thoughts for the Occasion, Fraternal and Benevolent." It is compiled by Franklin Noble, D.D., and adds to historical and other information regarding the various fraternal and benevolent organizations, large and small, amiable suggestions to those who are called upon to be orators upon occasions interesting to the orders, and a surprisingly large collection of speeches and addresses made by the leaders of these organizations upon similar occasions in the past. With this volume within reach no one need be at a loss as to what is suitable to say when called upon for "the good of the order." E. B. Treat & Co.
BEING HER FRIEND. THE RED-EARTH COUNTRY.
Being her friend, I do not care, not I, How gods or men may wrong me, beat me down; Her word's sufficient star to travel by. I count her quiet praise sufficient crown.
Being her friend, I do not covet gold. Save for a royal gift to give her pleasure; To sit with her, and have her hand to hold, Is wealth, I think, surpassing minted treasure.
Being her friend, I only covet art, A white pure flame to search me us I trace,
In crooked letters on a throbbing heart, The hymn to beauty written on her face.
THE ROMANCE OF THE NEW TESTAMENT.
["The Bible in most parts, is a cheerful book; it is our pipiug theologies, tracts, sermons that are dull and dowie." —Robert Louis Stevenson, Letters, L, 309]
O pale-faced Theologian whose soft hands
And ink-stained fingers never gripped the oar
Or swung the hammer; weary with your books,
How can your slumbering senses comprehend
The breadth of virile purpose of the men
Who bore their joyous tale through quickened lands
That blows across the Galilean hills?
Elliott E. Millt.
In the red-earth country the cider-apples grow
In a boon-wealth of leafage, as every wean must know.
Silver run the rivers first, then brown towards the sea, But the Dart of many colors is the dearest stream to me.
Brown beneath her alders, 'neath her
willows green, Clear agate shallows where her trout
are seen; Blue beneath the sapphire sky where
no trees o'erhead Meet to make soft shadows on the river
In the red-earth country still the red deer run, Free and fearless creatures, dappled
sire and son; Still they wind the bugles, still the
belling hounds Fill the air of Exmoor with a mort of
In the red-earth country hours and days go by,
Fishers wed with fishers' weans, moormen live and die
Where the moor grows purple far past Wistman's Wood,
And the gypsy woman weds with gypsy blood.
In the red-earth country, in the deepcut lanes,
Popples burn like drops of blood pressed from out Earth's veins,
Hops lean down to catch the sun in a net of lace
Fine enough for curtain to a fairy place.
In the red-earth country would that I might be,
Lying on the heather, or sailing on the sea.
Hearing high on Exmoor the wind begin the tune,
The Seven Whistlers mimic at the dark o' the moon.
Though the war in the Far East has now been in progress for the best part of a year, there has as yet been no attempt, so far as the writer is aware, in any English work accessible to the general public to sum up its naval lessons and to apply their teaching to the peculiar conditions of the British Empire. The British Admiralty has been in the closest touch with all that has happened, but the results which it has ascertained have naturally not been communicated to the world, though the influence of the war is plainly to be seen in various new departures of British naval policy. Yet the naval operations have been of unusual importance and interest even to the unprofessional reader, as they may be said to have thoroughly tested the implements and strategy of modern naval war, upon success in which the very existence of England depends.
The test has been on a considerable scale, whence the difference between this war and the conflicts between
Japan and China in 1894-5 and between the United States and Spain in 1898, where one side was far inferior to the other in material strength as well as in skill, and where actions between hostile fleets of battleships did not occur, because in either case one navy was without battleships. In this war the material employed has been of the very newest and best; the Japanese fleet was ahead of most of its European competitors in obtaining the most perfect appliances, while the Russian ships, notwithstanding unfavorable reports which have been circulated in England, were excellent. The force of the two combatants at the opening of the struggle was as follows:
First-class battleships 6 .. 7 Armored cruisers (modern) 8 .. 2 Other cruisers 10 .. 9
Destroyers 19 .. 23
The Russian force was indisputably weaker, but not so much so as to render its position hopeless, while Japan was hampered by the fact that Russia had a considerable fleet in Europe, which sooner or later was certain to attempt to Intervene In the war. Hence Japan had to nurse her strength to the utmost, and her admirals were ordered in the most imperative terms to refrain from risking their heavy ships. To these orders the inconclusive issue of several of the actions must be ascribed.
On the eve of war the general impression on the Continent was that the Russian fleet in the Far East would easily be able to hold its own. he Yacht published an interesting article in which the Japanese personnel was declared to want just the very qualities it has displayed—vigorous initiative, technical skill in gunnery and the handling of fleets, unity of purpose, and, in a word, all that States endeavor to obtain by maintaining organized navies. Though the English public had formed a juster estimate of the Japanese navy, competent writers in the British press thought that the struggle for the command of the sea would be a desperate one, and that in obtaining so great a prize the Japanese must lose heavily in ships and men. The Russian navy was known to have paid great attention to gunnery, and there was good German authority for the high quality of its shooting. It had not, like the Spanish and Chinese navies, neglected target practice; indeed, on the eve of war the continual firing carried out by the fleet at Port Arthur was one of the reasons which led intelligent neutrals to forebode war.
The first lesson of this war, in which it confirms previous experience, is the advantage of a prompt offensive. The Russian fleet at Port Arthur had been warned of the imminence of hostilities, but does not appear to have taken the warning seriously. There were some precautions on the eve of the Japanese
attacks of February 8 and 9, but the ships did not protect themselves by getting out nets, constructing booms and keeping their crews at quarters. The Japanese torpedo boats appeared about midnight, and fired twenty-three torpedoes, of which a very small number took effect. But though the damage done was far less than we should have expected, on that fatal night Russia lost her chance of commanding the sea with her fleet in the Far East Two battleships and one cruiser were badly injured, and probably it was only the skill and presence of mind of the junior officers on board them that saved them from total destruction. The blow struck was stunning, and had it been instantly followed up by the Japanese, Port Arthur would have fallen within the first three weeks of war.
The unreadiness of the Russians does not appear to have been altogether understood at Tokio, or else there were conditions, of which we know nothing, that intervened to prevent the seizure of Dalny—an event expected after the first blow at Port Arthur—since the opportunity was allowed to pass. On the morning after the torpedo attack. Admiral Togo appeared off Port Arthur and shelled the Russian fleet, but only inflicted upon it slight additional damage. His attack was not pressed, clearly because he was not allowed to risk his ships, though many of his junior officers would have preferred more resolute tactics. From this point on for several weeks there was no serious fighting between the fleets. The Russians made no more grave mistakes, though they displayed a great want of initiative, and failed to use their torpedo craft with energy. The Japanese maintained a mild blockade of Port Arthur, and the two fleets virtually neutralized each other. But the Russians had abandoned all claim to the command of the sea.
The value of a perfect co-ordination of political and naval action is a second lesson of this war. When matters were growing serious, in the winter of 1903-4, the Japanese navy underwent a special battle-training—constant firing at long range with heavy guns, under war conditions, torpedo work at night. In bad weather, using live torpedoes, manoeuvring at night without lights, night-firing, and the rehearsal of operations that were actually to form part of the war when it began. Hence the immense self-confidence which the Japanese displayed, and the complete preparedness of their fleet when the hour for action came. Plans were practically worked out immediately before war, and not pigeonholed at the Japanese admiralty. In fact, the Japanese navy took a "flying start"
This power of intelligent preparation, so that the maximum of force may be exerted in the minimum of time, is what we mean by the word organization, and the study of all modern wars Rhows It to be the chief factor in giving success. Here, happily, there are signs that the British Admiralty is taking action, and that in the future useless exercises, of no military value, will be eliminated from the training of our fleet, so that its whole energy will be concentrated upon readiness for war. Yet the danger always remains that the military section of the Admiralty may be obstructed in its efforts by the civil section or by the Cabinet, which may refuse to vote the funds required, not understanding the vital importance of the measures proposed.
A third lesson of the war in the Far East has been the importance of the Napoleonic principle of concentration of force. The Russian Admiralty did not place in the Far East a fleet equal to the Japanese, though without any great difficulty it could have done so, since there were a number of older
battleships and cruisers in the Baltic that might have been very serviceable had they been stationed at Port Arthur or Vladlvostock. Possibly the want of docking and repairing facilities was the explanation of this mistake. But even accepting this explanation, it does not account for the fact that when war was imminent isolated ships were not recalled and placed in safety. Thus three vessels, the Variag, gorietz, and Mandjur, were lost to the Russian flag with their crews for the whole of the war, and the Japanese were given an easy victory at Chemulpo. The present British Admiralty is taking steps to do what the Russians left undone, and to withdraw weak and old ships from exposed positions. Yet not till the advent of Sir J. Fisher to Whitehall was this policy of concentration adopted, so easy is it for the obvious to escape the attention of those whose main energy is absorbed in routine work.
In the first twenty-four hours the Japanese navy had asserted its temporary command of the sea (temporary because the arrival of the Baltic fleet was always to be feared, and might transform the conditions), yet It Is instructive to note that the greatest difficulty has been experienced in blockading the Russian ports. Up to May, indeed, Port Arthur was only watched while Vladlvostock was practically left unmolested to the date of writing. The peculiar geographical conditions of the Far East enable the Japanese to adopt this policy, since the Vladlvostock ships could not well escape from the Japan Sea without being sighted from the Japanese coast, and thus could not suddenly fall upon the communications of the Japanese fleet at the Elliot Islands or the Japanese army in Korea. The Straits of Korea were held by Kamlmura with four armored cruisers, a force slightly superior to the Vladivostock ships, but this disposition left the Russians free to cruise