« PreviousContinue »
or five other photogravure illustra- first published the poem in the "Philotions from drawings by Miss Nelly biblon" in 1856. No autograph of "The Erichsen and Miss Adelaide Marchi. Fall of Hyperion” is known to exist,
and the present manuscript was lost Among some Ibsen letters recently for many years, but was lately found published in Germany is one which by the Earl of Crewe, who has given was written to the King in 1866 soon permission for its publication. It conafter the publication of "Brand." The tains twenty-one hitherto unpublished letter is a frank appeal for aid. The lines, and supplies many important cor. author tells the King that "Brand" has rections of the printed text. It is now aroused great interest outside the printed in full, with an introduction borders of his fatherland, but, he adds, by Mr. de Sélincourt, throwing light on "I cannot live on the expressions of the relation of the two poems, “Hypethanks I have received," and he pleads rion” and “The Fall of Hyperion." for a special grant of four hundred thalers in order “to afford me the pos- The Nobel prize for Literature has sibility of living my life as a poet.” again been carried off by a FrenchHe continues in this wise: "I am not man. On the first occasion, M. Sullyfighting for a future free from care, Prudhomme was the winner. In the but for my life's work, which, I firmly recent award, it goes to M. Mistral. believe and know, God has provided M. Mistral is a native of Maillane for me, a work which seems to me the (Bouches-du-Rhône), where he was most important and needful for Nor- born in September, 1830. He has deway-to awaken the people and to cided to devote the sum he receives teach them to think largely. It rests to the purchase of the old Palais with your majesty if I must quit the d'Arles, which is to receive the battlefield, where, as I know, the weap- Provençal Museum he himself founded ons have been granted to me for the there. Another Nobel laureate is Don conflict, and this would be the hardest José Echegaray, the eminent Spanish of all for me, for until this day I have mathematician and dramatic author. derer left the field."
Don Echegaray, who was born in
Madrid in 1835, is generally regarded The publication of the Oxford Uni as the greatest living dramatist in Tersity Press collotype facsimile of the Spain. Three of his plays were transautograph manuscript of Keats's “Hy lated into English about ten years ago; perion" was postponed until January, two—“the Great Galeoto” and “Folly in order to allow other manuscripts or Saintliness"-were rendered in prose which have only recently come to light by the late Hannah Lynch and pubto be included in the volume. The lished together (1895), while in the chief new discovery contains the al- same year was published Mr. James tered version of the same poem which Graham's translation of Echegaray's the poet composed in the autumn of three-act drama, "The Son of Don 1819, under the title of “The Fall of Juan." The latter book, which inHyperion: A Vision,” a copy of which cluded a very useful biographical came into the possession of the late sketch of the poet, formed one of the Lord Houghton, who appears to have well-known Cameo Series. recopied it for the printer when he
Yet though the power to raise the dead Treads earth no more, we still may
try To smooth the couch where sick men
lie, Whispering—to hopeless heart and
So spread these faintest plumy vans, To win more speed, to woo more
ASTOR, LENOX AND
THE LIVING AGE: 1 Weekly Magazine of Contemporary Literature and Thought.
The greatest excitement has pre- were informed that they could do so vailed in Russia for the last few weeks only in private, and that their consince it became known that representa- ference would be treated as a private tives of the Zemstvos of thirty-four gathering, but that their resolutions provinces of the Empire were going to could be handed by a few delegates to meet at St. Petersburg in order to dis- the Minister of the Interior, and cuss the necessary reforms in the through his intermediacy to the Emgeneral political organization of the peror. This is how this Conference, country. The very fact that such an which surely will become an important authorization had been granted was historical date, took place on the 19th, equivalent to an invitation to discuss a 20th, and 21st of November at St. scheme of a Constitution; and so it was Petersburg. understood everywhere. When the The decisions of the Conference were Zemstvo delegates were leaving their expressed in eleven resolutions, which, respective provincial towns they were as will be seen presently, are now besent off by groups of enthusiastic coming the programme of an agitation friends, whose parting words were: which is gradually spreading all over "Return with a Constitution!"
Russia. Moreover, in contrast with all Their original intention was to make the petitions addressed to the Tsar on of their conference a solemn official previous occasions by certain Zemgathering which would speak to the stvos, the present memorandum is Government in its official capacity, but couched in far more dignified language at the last moment the Minister of the and in definite terms. It begins by Interior refused to grant the necessary mentioning "the abnormal character of authorization; and as the Zemstvo State government which has developed delegates declared that they were since the beginning of the eighties decided to meet nevertheless, they [1881), and consists in a complete estrangement of the Government from the expression of the real wants of the people, and the absence of that society and the free exercise of public mutual confidence which is necessary opinion, freedom of conscience, religion, for the life of the State" (Section 1).
speech, and press, as also of meeting
and association, must be guaranteed. “The present relations between the
(7) The personal and political rights Government and the people”—they say of all the citizens of the empire must further on—"are based on a fear of be equal. the people's self-administration, and on
(8) Self-administration being the the exclusion of the people from the
main condition for the development of management of State affairs" (Section
the political and economical life of the
country, and the main body of the 2). The result of it is that while the
population of Russia belonging to the bureaucracy separates the Supreme
class of the peasants, these last must Power [read The Emperor] from the be placed in the conditions that are nation, it thus creates the very condi necessary for the development of selftions for an entire lawlessness in the help and energy, and this can only be administration, in which the personal obtained by putting an end to the pres
ent subordinate and lawless position of will of every functionary takes the
the peasants. Therefore it is necessary; place of law (Section 3). This destroys
troys (a) to equalize the rights of the peasconfidence in the Government and ham. ants with those of all other classes; pers the development of the State (6) to free them from the rule of the (Sections 3 and 4). Consequently, the Administration in all their personal Zemstvos express the following de- and social affairs; and (c) to grant them siderata, which deserve to be given in
a regular form of justice.
(9) The provincial and the municipal full, because in such history-making
institutions which are the main organs documents as this the wording is al- of local life must be placed in such conmost as important as the general idea: ditions as to render them capable of
performing the functions of organs of b) In order to put an end to this self-administration, endowed with wide lawlessness of the Administration, the powers. It is necessary for this purinviolability of the individual and the pose: (a) that the representation in the private dwelling must be proclaimed Zemstvos should not be based on class and thoroughly carried out in life. No principles, and that all forces of the body can have a punishment or any population should be summoned, as far restriction of his rights inflicted upon as possible, to take part in that adhim without a sentence having been ministration; (b) that the Zemstvo inpronounced to this effect by an inde- stitutions should be brought nearer to pendent magistrate. For this purpose the people by instituting a smaller selfit is moreover necessary to establish administrative unit; · (c) that the circle such a responsibility of the members of of activity of the Zemstvos and the the Administration as would allow of municipal institutions should include their being legally prosecuted for each all the local needs; and (d) that these breach of the law, in order thus to institutions should acquire the necessecure legality in the actions of the sary stability and independence, withfunctionaries.
out which no regular development of (6) For the full development of the their activity and their relations to the intellectual forces of the nation, as also organs of the Government is possible. Local self-government must be ex- development of lawlessness in the Adtended to all the parts of the Empire. ministration and breed popular discon
1 The smallest self-administrating unit is would be limited to the village community. It dow the district (" uyezd"), which embodies must be said that all the peasant self-governfrom 100,000 to 200,000 inhabitants. The next ment, introduced in 1861, had been entirely unit below it, the canton ("volost") has also a wrecked under Alexander III. by the introself-administration, but only for the peasants. duction of special “land-chiefs," nominated The Zemstvo resolution asks for a “self-gov- by the Governor of the Province, and endowed erned canton," composed of all the inhabi- with unlimited rights. tants, while the peasant self-government
(10) For creating and maintaining a tent, which both stand in the way of close intercourse between the Govern- mutual confidence and unity between ment and the nation, on the basis of the Government and the population, the the just-mentioned principles, and for Conference finds that the repeal of this the regular development of the life of law is desirable. Besides, taking into the State, it is absolutely necessary consideration that the system of ad. that representatives of the nation, con. ministratively inflicted penalties, which stituting a specially elected body, has been applied lately on a large scale should participate in the legislative in virtue of that law, has produced a power, the establishment of the State's great number of victims of the arbudget, and the control of the Adminis. bitrary actions of the Administration tration. [The minority of the con- who are now suffering various penalties ference, consisting of twenty-seven per and limitations in their legal rights, sons, accepted this paragraph only as the Conference considers it its duty to far as the words "should participate in express itself in favor of a complete the legislative power."]
remission of all penalties inflicted by (11) In view of the gravity and the mere orders of Administration. It exdifficulties of both the internal and ex presses at the same time the hope that ternal conditions which the nation is the Supreme Power will introduce now living through, this private con- pacification in the country by an act ference expresses the hope that the of amnesty for all persons undergoing supreme power will call together the penalties for political offences. representatives of the nation, in order to lead our Fatherland, with their help,
The Press was not permitted to menon to a new path of national develop
tion the Zemstvo Conference, or to disment in the sense of establishing a closer union between the State's au
cuss its resolutions; but the latter were thority and the nation.
hectographed in thousands of copies at
St. Petersburg, reprinted in a more or This memorandum, signed by 102 less clandestine way in many cities, delegates out of 104—two abstaining and spread broadcast all over Russia. was handed to Prince Sviatopolk On the other side, as soon as SviatoMirsky, and through him to the Em- polk Mirsky had made his declarations peror. Four more resolutions were about the need of "confidence between taken later on by the same Conference, the Government and the nation”-conand they offer a special interest, as firming his declarations by the release they represent a first attempt at legis. of a small number of "administrative"
lation upon a definite subject in the exiles—the Press at once adopted quite a · form, well known in olden times in this new tone. The need for a new deparcountry, of a Royal petition. Three of ture, under which the nation would be these resolutions, which concern edu- called to participate in the government cation, blame the Government for its of the country, began to be expressed negative attitude in this matter, and in a very outspoken way. All the main ask full freedom for the Zemstvos to questions concerning the revision of deal with it; while the fourth demands taxation, the necessity of not merely the abrogation of the state-of-siege law returning to the original law of the and an amnesty in the following terms: Zemstvos (altered in 1890), but of re
vising it in the sense of an abolition of Considering that the Law of the 26th of August 1881, embodying the Meas
the present division into "orders"; the ures for the Maintenance of Order in necessity of re-establishing the elected the State (state-of-siege law] is one Justices of the Peace, and of granting of the chief causes which favor the a thorough self-government to all the