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dox. Chrysostom, who was then requirements of the English Church, bishop, was not to be outdone. At the little provision was made for the musiexpense of the Empress Eudoxia, who cal tastes of congregations. The "Veni was then his friend, he organized Creator" in the Ordination services, counter-processions, with hymns, silver and the creeds and canticles in the crosses, wax tapers, and other spectac- daily prayers and at Holy Communion, ular attractions. As a natural conse- might be "said or sung"; but nothing quence riots ensued, there was blood was definitely ordered to replace the shed on both sides, and, the Empress's hymns in the old breviaries. chief eunuch being injured, public Luther, fond of music, and well acsinging by Arians was suppressed by quainted with popular taste, had taken edict. Nevertheless, the custom of care to make full provision of hymns nocturnal hymn-singing on special oc in the vulgar tongue for German casions, though introduced in this Protestants; and Cranmer appears to stormy manner, was continued in the have made some attempt to follow his Church.
example, and to introduce English Hymns were extremely popular in hymns into the services of the Rethe Eastern Church before they made formed Anglican Church; but betheir way to the Western communities fore the Prayer-book took its present The Arian disputes played their part form a new fashion in hymnody had here also. St. Augustine tells us that arisen. when Justina, mother of the Emperor Clement Marot, a servant of the Valentinian, who favored these her. French King, Francis the First, with etics, wished to remove Bishop Am the aid of a youth called Theodore brose from his see, devout people as. Beza, translated the Psalms of David sembled to protect him, and kept guard into French verse; and these verses, in the church. “Then it was first ap- dedicated to the French King and to pointed that, after the manner of the the ladies of France, and set to cheerEastern churches, hymns and psalms ful tunes, became exceedingly popular. should be sung, lest the people should Calvin promptly perceived that metrigrow weary and faint through sorrow, cal translations from the words of the which custom has ever since been re- Bible were more conducive to the tained, and has been followed by al. spread of Reformation doctrines than most all congregations in other parts versions of Latin hymns, and seizing of the world." Ambrose was himself upon Marot's Psalter appended it to a distinguished writer of Latin hymns; his catechism, while it was with equal and tradition attributes to him the promptitude interdicted by the Roman authorship of the Te Deum.
Catholic priesthood. The example set From this time onwards hymns ap- in France was followed in England. propriate to the canonical hours, to the Thomas Sternbold began a translation ecclesiastical fasts and festivals, to com- of the Psalms, which was continued memorations of saints, and to other by John Hopkins, a Suffolk clergyman, offices of the Church rapidly multiplied, who added, amongst others, the everand were collected in the various famous “Old Hundredth.” The work breviaries used in different dioceses was carried on by English refugees at and religious houses by the authority Geneva during the Marian persecution, of bishops or ecclesiastical superiors. and brought into use in England after
At the time of the Reformation, when the accession of Queen Elizabeth. As the old Latin service-books were re- many as six thousand persons are devised, translated, and adapted to the scribed as singing together from its
pages after sermons at St. Paul's and has some quaint littls hymns which Cross, with thrilling effect.
are omitted in later copies of the colQueen Elizabeth, by an injunction is lection. The "New Version,” made by sued in the first year of her reign, William the Third's chaplain, Dr. after allowing the use of “a modest Brady, and the poet laureate, Nahum and distinct song in all parts of the Tate, was published with an Order in common prayer of the Church, so that Council dated the 3rd of December, the same may be as plainly understand. 1696, permitting it “to be used in all ed as if it were read without singing," churches, chapels, and congregations proceeds to permit, "for the comfort as shall think fit to receive the same": ing of such that delight in music," the and in May 1698 the Bishop of Lonsinging of "a hymn or suchlike song don-Dr. Compton-recommends it as to the praise of Almighty God" at the "a work done with so much judgment beginning or end either of Morning or and ingenuity” as he is persuaded Evening Prayer, "in the best sort of "may take off that unhappy objection melody and music that may be con- which has hitherto lain against the veniently devised,” always providing singing psalms." that the sense of the hymn may be What “that unhappy objection" may "understanded and perceived." This have been is not stated, but it is clear injunction, and the insertion, a hun- that the new version never entirely dred years later, of the words in the displaced the old in popular estimation. rubric after the third collect at Morn. So late as 1852 copies of the Prayering and Evening Prayer, “in quires book were published with both verand places where they sing, here fol- sions appended, though others of the loweth the anthem," are generally con- eighteenth and nineteenth centuries sidered to be the only authorities for exist, some with the old and some with singing metrical hymns whose words the new version only. are not taken from Holy Scripture. A German, Charles Moritz, who
How far the metrical version of the travelled in England in 1782, gives an Psalıns by Sternhold and Hopkins was interesting account of a Sunday spent regularly authorized has often been in the village of Nettlebed. Having debated. It certainly claimed such au- borrowed a Prayer-book from the landthority. I possess a copy printed in lord of his inn, he studied it during 1629 "for the Companie of Stationers," breakfast, and comments as follows: bearing on its title-page the words “Cum privilegio Regis Regali," and
It being called a prayer-book, rather
than, like ours, a hymn-book, arises stating that it is
from the nature of the English serSet forth and allowed to be sung in
vice, which is composed very little of all churches, of all the people together,
singing, and almost entirely of praybefore and after Morning and Evening
ing. The Psalms of David, however, Prayer, and also before and after ser
are here translated into English verse, mons: and moreover in private houses
and are generally printed at the end
of English prayer-books. for their godly solace and comfort, laying apart all ungodly songs and ballades: which tend onely to the nour
The service began at half-past nine, ishing of vice and corrupting of youth and the village boys were drawn up
"as if they had been recruits to be This copy of the Psalms and metrical drilled," to salute the parson, who arversions of the Canticles is also enriched rived on horseback. They are de"with apt notes to sing them withall,” scribed as "well-looking, healthy boys,
neat and decently dressed, with their have been written by Tate himself. hair cut short and combed on the fore. “Hark! the herald-angels," however, head, according to the English fashion, which appears in all the nineteenthTheir bosoms were open, and the white century editions of this supplement, frills of their shirts turned back on must have been added later, probably each side."
after the publication of Wesley's The English service, Moritz thinks, hymns in 1779. The publishers of these must be very fatiguing to the minister, supplementary hymns seem to have so large a part falling to his share. arranged the order in which they Before the sermon there was a little should be printed, and to have made stir, several musical instruments ap- additions from time to time, without peared, and the clerk said, in a loud troubling themselves about official voice: “Let us sing, to the praise and sanction of any kind. Nevertheless, glory of God, the forty-seventh psalm.” custom, or a hazy recollection of Orders This, in the old version, which was in Council, evidently in popular opinion probably heard by our traveller, begins: extended to the supplements the ægis
cast over the metrical versions, and Ye people all, with one accord, clap
some persons of an older generation hands and eke rejoice, Be glad and sing unto the Lord with
still recollect a kind of uneasy feeling sweet and pleasant voice.
which prevailed when hymns from
other collections made their way into The tunes, he says, “were particularly churches. These unauthorized hymnals lively and cheerful, though at the same appear to have come into partial time sufficiently grave and uncommon- use seventy or eighty years ago. ly interesting." English church music, Bishop Heber's widow published in he declares, often affected him even to 1827 a collection of hymns for Church tears.
seasons, written by her husband, with
the addition of several by Milman and In the afternoon there was no ser
others, and in so doing she expressed vice; the young people, however, went to church and there sang some few the hope that they might be generally psalms. Others of the congregation adopted for congregational use. Others were also present. This was con followed, and many, like myself, may ducted with so much decorum that I remember when it was customary to could hardly help considering it as
sing one metrical psalm and one hymn actually a kind of church service.
in the course of a service, -a guarded statement in which one In 1861 the first edition of Hymns may safely concur! Moritz was so de Ancient and Modern appeared, and three lighted with this peaceful village that years later the compilers were able to when the time came to depart he could state that 350,000 copies had already hardly tear himself away.
been sold, while it was lately anReference has been made to the nounced that the sales of the various hymns printed at the end of the old editions had reached forty millions. version, some of which were omitted The Hymnal Companion, first published in later editions, while others took in 1870, has also obtained wide poputheir place. In like manner Tate and larity, especially in churches where the Brady published hymns and transla doctrinal tone of Hymns Ancient and tions of the canticles in a supplement Modern is considered too high. The to their version sanctioned by Queen Society for Promoting Christian Anne; and the favorite "While shep- Knowledge was even earlier in the herds watched their flocks" is said to field, baving issued a collection of hymns in 1852, which, in its later form gregational Church Hymnal; the Church of Psalms and Hymns, is still obtaina- Aymnary, authorized for use by the ble. For over thirty years, however, Church of Scotland and allied Presthe Society has also published its well. byterian bodies in Scotland, Ireknown collection called Church Hymns, land, and the Colonies; the Church of which an entirely new edition was Hymnal, authorized by the General issued in 1903.
Synod of the Church of Ireland; and Before considering the hymnology of the authorized Hymnal of the Episcothe present day we may quote the pal Church of America. opinion of the late Lord Selborne re. No fewer than sixty-seven hymns corded in his excellent article on have been found in all eight books, “Hymng" in the ninth edition of the three more in seven books, but not in Encyclopædia Britannica. Speaking of the Scotch Hymnary. “There is a the numerous collections then issued fountain" is omitted from Church by various religious denominations for Hymns. No translation of “Dies Ira" their own congregations, and of those appears in the Congregational collecwhich, though devoid of official au- tion, but the hymn is included, either thority, had become popular in the in Walter Scott's or in Irons' version, English Church, he wrote:
in all the others; while two favorite
hymns, Heber's “Brightest and best" In these more recent collections an and Dr. Sears' "It came upon the midimproved standard of taste has become
might clear,” are excluded only from generally apparent. There is a larger
Hymns Ancient and Modern. Had time and more liberal admission of good bymns from all sources than might
permitted, further search would have have been expected from the jealousy,
doubtless proved that many more so often felt by churches, parties and hymns are common to the majority of denominations, of everything which these hymnals, if not to all; but it is does not bear their own mint-mark; a not unreasonable to take these seventyconsiderable (perhaps too large) use of
four (all of which are included in the translations, especially from the Latin; and an increased (though not as yet
Irish, American, and Wesleyan collecsufficient) scrupulousness about tam
tions) as fairly representing the prefpering with the text of other men's erence of the English-speaking peoples, work.
and they are certainly varied in origin
and sentiment. This liberal admission of hymns not Six are by Charles Wesley, five by bearing exclusive mintmarks is still Bishop Heber, four by Dr. Watts; Cowstriking in the hymnals of divers re- per, Bonar, and H. Lyte are each ligious bodies, as is shown by a some responsible for three, and two apiece what close examination of the follow- come from Bishop Ken, Charlotte ing eight representative books: The Elliot, Mrs. Alexander, the Rev. S. J. new edition of Hymns Ancient and Stone, and C. Dix. One hymn, Vodern; the latest edition of the “Through the night of doubt and Hymnal Companion to the Book of Com- sorrow,” is translated from the Danish; mon Prayer; the Church Hymns of the another, “Guide me, 0 Thou great ReSociety for Promoting Christian deemer," was written in Welsh by the Knowledge; the Methodist Hymn-book, Rev. W. Williams, and turned into issued last June by a committee of the English by the author with the help English Wesleyan Conference in con- of P. Williams; while eight are transjunction with other Methodist bodies lations from old Greek and Latin in England and Australasia; the Con- hymns. “Dies Iræ" has already been
noted: the other seven (included in all selves a guarantee of the high stand.. eight collections) are "Art thou ard, devotional and poetical, maintained weary?" and "The day is past and in the volume. Exceptionally good is over," from the Greek; “All glory, the selection of children's hymns; and laud, and honor," "Jerusalem the gold- the committee throughout their work en,” and “Jesu, the very thought" seem to have borne in mind the memofrom the Latin (these five being chiefly randum of Dr. Bright quoted in the translated by the Rev. J. M. Neale), preface; "I do not think that the origand the well-known Latin hymns inal texts ought to be deemed sacro“Adeste fideles” and “Veni Creator," sanct, but the alteration ought to be the latter said by tradition to have been done with a very careful hand, and written by Charlemagne.
only under conditions which make it The remaining thirty favorites are practically necessary.” original English hymns by various au- The Wesleyan or Methodist Hymn. thors of the last three centuries, from book has a very interesting ancestry. R. Baxter, born in 1615, who wrote We are told in the preface to the “Lord, it belongs not to my care," to present volume that John Wesley's first the Rev. S. Baring-Gould, the present compilation was printed in Georgia iu Rector of Lew Trenchard, who has 1737, and was followed by several. stirred so many hearts with his "On- others in which various changes were ward, Christian soldiers." Though it effected. In 1779 Wesley wrote his must be noted that the coinpilers of famous preface for the hymn-book pubthese different hymnals have not al- lished in London, which was intended ways hesitated to "tamper with the for general use amongst his congrega-text,” or else to select from several tions, and of this book the present recurrent versions the one best suited to vised version claims to be the “lineal their particular shades of theology, we descendant." It is an exhaustive colmay still rejoice that so many great lection, containing no fewer than 981 thoughts expressed in melodious words hymns, for the most part well adapted have found favor in shrines thus to the ends which Wesley desired to diverse, and that the lines of Lowell attain by Poetry "as the haudmaid of have been once more justified:
Piety"; these are raising or quickening Moravian hymn and Roman chant
the spirit of devotion, confirming faith, In one devotion blend,
enlivening hope, kindling and increasTo speak the soul's eternal want ing love to God and man. Here and Of Him, the inmost friend;
there are lines which sound rather One prayer soars cleansed with martyr strange to modern ears; but these are fire,
no doubt preserved as a tribute to old One choked with sinner's tears,
associations. In heaven both meet in one desire,
The Congregational Hymn-book conAnd God one music hears.
tains most of the well-known hymns The Society for Promoting Christian of the Church Universal, but it strikes Knowledge was peculiarly fortunate in occasionally an original note, as in a the composition of the committee which hymn intended to be sung “Before a served for six years in preparing the Parliamentary Election," which petinew edition of Church Hymns. Among tions: those who from time to time assisted The heat of party strife abate, in this arduous task the names of And teach us how to choose Dr. Bright, Dr. Walsham How, Dr. Good men and wise to guide the State, Julian, and Mr. Palgrave are in them. The evil to refuse.