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their improvement. What shall we say were, they would soon assert themof the condition of the people which in selves and make the necessary chanrespect of household tenure and benef- nels for their activity. Here, I think, icent municipal activity depends so we touch the real source of decay. much upon these laws? Are the prob. And yet it is difficult to believe that lems of education and of ecclesiastical nature is not as prolific to-day as yesorganization completely solved? The terday in men ardently eager to work question of colonial relations deserves for the public good. The sources of a better fate than that of being brought reforming energy have not dried up. forward at the fag-end of platform Has there been any change in the ordeclamations in favor of Protection. ganization of public life limiting or In our better times the statesman in- denying the facility of entrance into terested in it would have addressed his the House of Commons of the power most careful argument to his fellows that once found its way there? in the House of Commons. Who again. The change in our electoral machincan fail to see how much work might ery, under the operation of which membe done through Parliament in the de- bers are returned by single-member velopment of international friendship constituencies, has quietly effected a and the reduction of armaments? No radical change in the character of the failure of subjects can excuse the limni House itself. Local influences formerly tation of private members' opportuni produced irregularly enough a great ties in the House of Commons. Nor can variety in the compositiou of the House any defence of it be found in the plea of Commons. When a man was patron that newspapers now do the work of his own borough or lord of his own which was done by such men as district he was independent enough, Hume, Cobden, Lord Ashley, Moles, and if self-will often produced nothing worth and their compeers. Newspapers but wilful eccentricity it sometimes exchronicle and pursue the work of pressed a rough invaluable commonothers. The editor of a daily news. sense. When again there were two paper can hardly afford to look beyond members to be returned for a constithis nose. When debates originate in uency, it was common and almost Parliament, newspapers perforce report necessary to run, as candidates, reprethem and offer some comment upon sentatives of two wings of a party, them. The flip-flap opinions thus ex- thus producing in the House of Compressed, backing and filling with wind, mons different grades of political opinmay not be of much value; but they ion. And again, it was not an accident draw attention to what is going on, the that, with the redivision of the counreal, motive power lying in that force try, there sprang into existence federal to which they simply testify.

party organizations, highly centralized, The energy of Parliament has de which have become more and more clined, Parliamentary authority de. actively engaged in the formation of clines with it, and the nation has suf programmes, the introduction of canfered thereby. There is no want of didates, and, most of all, in the direct subjects requiring discussion, and no management of elections. A General substitute for Parliamentary discussion Election may happen so hurriedly as has been found. There remains, how not to find this widespreading machinever, the parlous plea tbat the neu of ery fully prepared for its work; but past generations are wanting. The there is generally sufficient forewarneager reforming spirits of the past are ing, and in bye-elections the machinery not in the House of Commons. If they is constantly exhibited in full opera

tion. The result is seen in a decline transformation. If, instead of singlein the quality of candidates and in member constituencies, we had constitthe growing poverty of Parliamentaryuencies of half-a-dozen members, and life. Any one who would wish to provisions enabling different groups of study the process in detail may be electors within each constituency to get recommended to read Ostrogorski's a representative for themselves if they book, “Democracy and the Organiza- were of adequate size to justify the ition of Political parties," a monument claim, we should at once emancipate of years of careful and acute industry electors and candidates. We should devoted to a patient study of political give the first the strongest of motives developments here and in the United for securing a direct representation States. The elaboration of the “ma- of themselves in the Legislature, and chine" has not reached the degree of we should give the elected a secure perfection among ourselves that it has standing-place on which he could rely across the Atlantic, but the process is as long as he was true to himuself and of the same character. The force of held the faith which aniinated his individuality declines. Large views followers. Under such a scheme each and the advocacy of great ideas are large provincial town would be one discredited. The men who are in re constituency, and the elements of quest are those who will fall into their political life within it would be in living places according to pattern, and there connection with the House of Comis such a standardization of items that mons. Difficulties such as those conno difficulty can be found in replacing nected with the claims of labor to repany link that accidentally drops out. I resentation would disappear, and the repeat that this is not realized among Conservative member would not be in ourselves everywhere and at once imminent peril, though he remained "dark horses" will creep in provided

an obstinate Free-Fooder. Parliament

an obstinate Free-Tooder Pa they can keep their qualities in ob- would have all the variety and vigor scurity at first, which is a bád prepa- of life. I do not enter into an exposiration for subsequent independence- tion of the machinery of election, by but it is sufficiently realized to deaden which this real representation is efenthusiasm for causes among the elec- fected. It has been proved over and torate and to produce that lack of ener

over again to be very easily workel, ergy in the House of Commons which

and the experiment could be tried any lies at the bottom of the decay of winter evening by any set of men or Parliamentary life and of Parliamen women that liked to put it to the test. tary authority.

If we cross the narrow seas to Belgiuin Generations do, without doubt, differ we should find a system of proportional from one another iu vitality; and it representation · working there to the may be that we are passing through great satisfaction of all parties, who a somewhat listless period. But we have found in it a solution of difficul. may as well make as good use as we ties which at one time threatened the can of the materials we have. The na nation with anarchical convulsions. tion is still rich enough in public. Why do we not adopt some similar spirited thinkers and workers, and method here? The real objection is Parliament might be rich too, if we found in use and wont and the avercleared away the obstructions which sion of those who are "in" to entermake narrow and difficult the ways tain any suggestion of changes in the into it. À coniparatively simple ways which they have found sufficient change holds the promise of a complete for themselves. But there are two their improvement. What shall we say were, they would soon assert themof the condition of the people which in selves and make the necessary chanrespect of household tenure and benef- nels for their activity. Here, I think, icent municipal activity depends so we touch the real source of decay. much upon these laws? Are the prob. And yet it is difficult to believe that lems of education and of ecclesiastical nature is not as prolific to-day as yesorganization completely solved? The terday in men ardently eager to work question of colonial relations deserves for the public good. The sources of a better fate than that of being brought reforming energy have not dried up. forward at the fag-end of platform Has there been any change in the or. declamations in favor of Protection. ganization of public life limiting or In our better times the statesman in- denying the facility of entrance into terested in it would have addressed his the House of Commons of the power most careful argument to his fellows that once found its way there? in the House of Commons. Who again T he change in our electoral machincan fail to see how much work might ery, under the operation of which membe done through Parliament in the de- bers are returned by single-member velopment of international friendship constituencies, has quietly effected a and the reduction of armaments? No radical change in the character of the failure of subjects can excuse the limi. House itself. Local influences formerly tation of private members' opportuni produced irregularly enough a great ties in the House of Commons. Nor can variety in the composition of the House any defence of it be found in the plea of Commons. When a man was patron that newspapers now do the work of his own borough or lord of his own which was done by such men as district he was independent enough, Hume, Cobden, Lord Ashley, Moles- and if self-will often produced nothing worth and their compeers. Newspapers but wilful eccentricity it sometimes exchronicle and pursue the work of pressed a rough invaluable common. others. The editor of a daily news. sense. When again there were two paper can hardly afford to look beyond members to be returned for a constithis nose. When debates origiuate in uency, it was common and almost Parliament, newspapers perforce report necessary to run, as candidates, reprethem and offer some comment upon sentatives of two wings of a party, them. The flip-flap opinions thus ex- thus producing in the House of Compressed, backing and filling with wind, mons different grades of political opinmay not be of much value; but they ion. And again, it was not an accident draw attention to what is going on, the that, with the redivisiou of the counreal, motive power lying in that force try, there sprang into existence federal to which they simply testify.

party organizations, highly centralized, The energy of Parliament has de- which have become more and more clined, Parliamentary authority de- actively engaged in the formation of clines with it, and the nation has suf- programmes, the introduction of can. fered thereby. There is no want of didates, and, most of all, in the direct subjects requiring discussion, and no management of elections. A General substitute for Parliamentary discussion Election may happen so burriedly as has been found. There remaius, how not to find this widespreading machinever, the parlous plea that the men of ery fully prepared for its work; but past generations are wanting. The there is generally sufficient forewarneager reforming spirits of the past are ing, and in bye-elections the machinery not in the House of Commons. If they is constantly exhibited in full operation. The result is seen in a decline transformation. If, instead of singlein the quality of candidates and in member constituencies, we had constitthe growing poverty of Parliamentary uencies of half-a-dozen members, and life. Any one who would wish to provisions enabling different groups of .study the process in detail may be electors within each constituency to get recommended to read Ostrogorski's a representative for themselves if they book, "Democracy and the Organiza were of adequate size to justify the tion of Political Parties," a monument claim, we should at once emancipate of years of careful and acute industry electors and candidates. We should devoted to a patient study of political give the first the strongest of inotives developments here and in the United for securing a direct representation States. The elaboration of the "ma of themselves in the Legislature, and chine” has not reached the degree of we should give the elected a secure perfection among ourselves that it has standing-place on which he could rely across the Atlantic, but the process is as long as he was true to himself and of the same character. The force of held the faith which aniinated his individuality declines. Large views followers. Under such a scheme each and the advocacy of great ideas are large provincial town would be one discredited. The men who are in re- constituency, and the elements of quest are those who will fall into their political life within it would be in living places according to pattern, and there connection with the House of Comis such a standardization of items that mons. Difficulties such as those conno difficulty can be found in replacing nected with the claims of labor to repany link that accidentally drops out. I resentation would disappear, and the repeat that this is not realized among Conservative member would not be in ourselves everywhere and at once imminent peril, though he remained "dark horses" will creep in provided an obstinate Free-Fooder. Parliament they can keep their qualities in ob- would have all the variety and vigor scurity at first, wlrich is a bad prepa- of life. I do not enter into an exposiration for subsequent independence- tion of the machinery of election, by but it is sufficiently realized to deaden which this real representation is etenthusiasm for causes among the elec- fected. It has been proved over and torate and to produce that lack of ener

over again to be very easily workedl, ergy in the House of Commous wlich and the experiment could be tried any lies at the bottom of the decay of winter evening by any set of men or Parliamentary life and of Parliamen women that liked to put it to the test. tary authority.

If we cross the narrow seus to Belgiuin Generations do, without doubt, differ we should find a system of proportional from one another iu vitality; and it representation working there to the may be that we are passing through great satisfaction of all parties, who a somewhat listless period. But we have found in it a solution of difficul. may as well make as good use as we ties which at one time threatened the can of the materials we bave. The na nation with anarchical convulsions. tion is still rich enough in public Why do we not adopt some similar spirited thinkers and workers, and method here? The real objection is Parliament might be rich too, if we found in use and wont and the avercleared away the obstructions which sion of those who are "in" to entermake narrow and ditticult the ways tain any suggestion of changes in the into it. A coniparatively simple ways which they have found sufficient change holds the proprise of a complete for themselves. But there are two

pleas which are advanced in front of, necessity. The Tadpoles and Tapers and by way of covering, this real obwho have not probed things to the stacle. The first is that members so same depth doubtless feel a genuine independently elected are bound to be apprehension of any danger that can troublesome, unmanageable fellows. touch the two-party system. They may Experience does not support this appre. be comforted with the assurance that bension. In our best days the strong it is not easily destructible. It has est advocates of particular ideas were its roots in human nature, and the real found to be thoroughly practical mem- question of public policy is whether bers of the House of Commons, and the it might not be to our advantage that forces of self-adjustment may be the strictness of its discipline should be trusted to maintain a well-developed abated. Who can pretend that the organization out of such elements. process of dividing politicians into two Parliamentary life has become smooth- camps and of drilling the men in each er in Belgium, where Liberals and So to think alike and speak alike over cialists, once in mortal enmity, are against the men of the other tends to able to co-operate together in common the development of sincerity or assists causes, and even members of the left in the apprehension of truth? The late wing of the Clerical party fine off in Lord Carnarvon confessed one day the way of amity towards men of other that he had discovered with pain that parties. The second plea is that the the Conservative party was an organtwo-party system would be destroyed. ized bypocrisy. A cynic would remark The necessity of the two-party system that the discovery erred only in its is a postulate politicians are fond of limitation; and there is truth enough assuming. I have noticed that Mr. Bal- in the sneer to justify us in bidding the four often refers to it-not, indeed, as a timid to be of good heart, even though thing proved, but as something which the two-party system be broken down it is convenient to take for granted. at its edges. After all, there is some. He is a very clever man, and I am per- thing in the large generalization that suaded he has no settled conviction on the way of freedom is the way of safe.. the subject. If questioned he would ty and not of peril. A reform which give it the go-by, and he would prob- liberates the development of thought ably evade discussion because in his and of counsel among the citizens of a. moments of speculation he has seen nation carries a recommendation in how short of proof is the case for its advance of itself. The Monthly Review.

Leonard Courtney..

THE VROUW GROBELAAR’S LEADING CASES.

VASCO'S SWEETHEART. "As to that,” said the Vrouw Grobe on the wall, and only the Belshazzars laar, answering a point that no one had cannot read them. raised, "it bas been seen over and over "But the marks go deeper than a again that sin leaves its mark. Do lowering brow or a cruel mouth. Men you not trust or avoid a man because may die and leave behind them no there is honor or wickedness in his monuments save their sin. of such a face? Ah, men's faces are the writing case I remember one instance,

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