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days of the Listerian era, when hospi- admitted, and we went tuto the dresstal gangrene was the chief foe of every ing-room to see the wounds being care hospital surgeon. The simpler type of fully examined, diagnosed and retheatre is that which, with the partial corded. Thoroughness and care were exception of two in the University Hos. again the dominant notes. Everything pital at Tokyo, is universal in the poor was done promptly and efficiently, and practical country of Japan. Sweet without the least bustle, worry, or asare the uses of adversity.

sertion of authority. Discipline in The methods of the Japanese sur- Japan is an instinct. The Roentgengeons are those of the most advanced ray room was well fitted up, without modern surgery all the world over. superfluous complications, and it was For years they have been trained a fascinating pleasure to watch the mainly by Japanese and German pro- gentleness of the nurses in arranging fessors, have been obliged to learn one and supporting the crippled limbs and foreign language, the one chosen be patients for examination. ing usually German, and have been en- A large amount of the work of a couraged to visit the German hospitals. naval hospital even in war time results They show therefore the faults as well from accidents on board ship, crushes, as the virtues of German methods. lacerations from machinery or falling The operative surgery in each hospital spars, engineering tools, and parts of is all done by the best surgeon, and guns. This affords therefore a good not, as in our better London system, experience in fractures, in which it is by many rising surgeons and capable noteworthy that Dr. Totsuka has al. students under the supervision of the most abandoned the custom of operachief surgeon, a system which trains tion much favored by many advanced many men to the best work, and is European surgeons. The best splintprobably to the actual advantage of the apparatus, however, 18. apparently unpatients. The Japanese surgeons again known, although in common use in follow the extreme modern school, London, whose confidence in their ability to ex- The medical side of the hospital was clude all sources of contamination from of little interest. The infectious ward a wound is such that they employ no was empty. Most of the cases were antiseptics; but to this end they have those of diseases common in peace to boil even the tap-water in which time; there were six of typhoid fever, they wash their hands. Experience a few of mild dysentery, and the usual however seems to show, in Japan as proportion of internal disorders. Nursin England, that this confidence is not ing—the most important agent after justified. One of their hospitals, at general health in the treatment of least, has had more than its fair share disease-appeared to be good, the star of suppuration. In other words, the consisting of six male attendants under Japanese, in this as in most depart- one chief attendant for each ward, exments of modern knowledge, have cept in the case of the two big pavilions adopted the most apparently thorough erected by the Red Cross Society, in method known in Europe; and they each of which thirty-six patients, lack as yet the experience which may twelve of them in five or six small show them, as it has shown us, where rooms at the end, were pursed by a it is defective and must be helped out Red Cross Sister and ten nurses, who by the older method, the use of antisep sleep in a house outside the hospital. tics.

In all the hospital contained cubicles A shipload of patients had just been for twenty officers, besides six private officers' rooms. The medical state con- of the principles that pervade the medi. sists of twelve surgeons, and their cal work both of their army and navy. hours now during the war are from They bave little more to learn from 8 A.M. to 6 P.M. on all days, without Europe, except the advantage of decenany interval or remission, however easy tralizing responsibility, to which refthe work may be. Much of their time erence has already been made in regard is spent in the common-room; but the to the surgeons; they have at least one regulation induces many officers to find supreme lesson to teach Europe and useful work to do that otherwise would ourselves, in their absolute devotion not be done.

to their work, their unprejudiced surThis rough sketch of the naval bos. vey and adoption of the world's knowlpital at Sasebo will hold good also for edge, and the confidence that such the military hospitals of Japan, and knowledge, systematization and devo will give a fairly representative idea tion have conferred upon them. The National Review.

Francis E. Fremantle.

MANDELL CREIGHTON.*

“I learned moch history at a Board “All that a man is, he is to himself and of Guardians," is a remark of Creigh- God. His work is in himself; all else ton's, printed in this excellent blog

is accidental. Life seems to me to con

sist in becoming more than in being, raphy, which gives a good deal of the

and in being rather than doing." secret of his development. He was not one man as a student, another as And this from a man whose amazing a teacher, a third as an ecclesiastical energy, both practical and speculative, statesman, a fourth as a Christian. wore him out in his prime, although he Every part of his activity was per- gave to the world the imperishable pos. vaded by a single aim. There were no session of his memory, and the inspirawater-tight compartments in his mind. tion of a mind and heart always on fire Everything he learnt as a parish for the highest; alive to the greatest priest at Embledon helped to widen principles as well as the smallest deand deepen his historical sympathies; tails of things; as happy romping with every hour of historical research helped children as in discussing the merits of him to form his judgments in regard George Sand, or the doctrine of Indulto modern problems as practical diffi gences. culties.

Mrs. Creighton's biography draws all The one aim of which we spoke is the threads together, and will afford to easily discovered from a perusal of his many who did not understand him the letters.

true presentment of one who was em

phatically the Great Bishop of London. "Our Ufe is the development of our

I do not speak of his achievements in personality." "To me the one supreme of human life is, and always has been,

regard to ritual difficulties, though to grow nearer to God; and I regard these were by no means small, and my own individual life as simply an brought out all that combination of opportunity of offering myself to Him."

tolerance, patience, and strength, which

was so eminently his characteristic. "Life and Lotters of Mandell Creighton, Sometime Bishop of London.” By his wife. Yet the measure of his success was London: Longmans, Green & Co. 1904. only surpassed by that vital hold on

principles, and apprehension of the true the recesses of human nature or social mission of the Church of England, life. He understood politics better than which are likely to bear fruit in the most statesmen, and art more deeply far future. But neither administration than many a critic; and of the literanor conflict were more than the occa- ture of European culture since its insions of his activity. His enduring gift fancy was a master and an admirer. to London and to the world was him. Here was a man who combined in a self. He solved in his own person the unique degree scholarship and culture, problem which is in the mouths of the knowledge of the past with symmany, and the hearts of nearly all, who pathy for the present and hope for the live in the modern world. Is it possi- future; and, to these intellectual ble to be a Christian, and in any real achievements (not gifts), added & sense imbued with the intellectual practical capacity which might be the ideals of modern culture? That a man despair of the organizer. And yet may be very learned, and even very this man, because he felt that sceptithoughtful, and yet a Christian, can cism "parrows the real problem, reonly be denied by those persons whose fuses to face the actual facts,” and original criterion starts from the as- owing to his belief that “the great sumption, conscious or unconscious, question about oneself is the formation that nobody but a fool is a believer. and nurture of this central point of our But the interests of men like Maurice, being, this personality," was driven to or Lightfoot, or Cayley, were predomi- assert that "Christ stands the central nantly theological, or historical, or point of personality," that Christ was mathematical; and, great as these men "the light of the world, not only of were, and fruitful as were and will be the Church.” As he says in the same their ideas, they did not in themselves letter:afford a solution of the problem, which presses more nearly to the hearts of

Relationships founded on a sense of

lasting affection are the sole realities men, than ecclesiastical circles often

of life. This is obvious; it is the buradmit.

den of all literature. It leads straight Now, Creighton, so far as one man's to Christ. Faith is personal trust in a life can, afforded a solution of this person" problem. He was a man soaked in the

And again: atmosphere of the modern world, who took one of his guiding principles from “Outward things, systems, doctrines Goethe, who read the fiction of five na are only useful as they keep open the

way to Jesus, and point to Him, as the tions, who studied the outgrowth of the

one object of the soul's desire. · modern from the mediæval world, as few Englishmen have done. His pas. This is the fundamental secret of sion for knowledge was inexhaustible. Creighton's life-obscured for many by His reverence for intellectual freedom his brilliance and paradox, and for and political liberty was apparent in others by his hatred of sentimentalism, every speech he uttered—"almost a I t is to be observed that this cuts both craze for liberty,” he said himself. He ways, and that Creighton's whole posiwas one of the earlier supporters of tion, founded on the reality of self, “Wagner"-the very symbol of nine would have been opposed to those exteenth century culture. He never wrote treme forms of altruism, often misa line, or uttered a sentence, without taken for Christianity, which merge the exhibiting the power of intellect guided individual development entirely in 80by purpose to wrest some secret from cial improvement, and are logically, only

tenable by disbelief in immortality. plified the value of knowledge, PerFar too many people nowadays are haps his most remarkable quality was under the delusion that, whatever be his amaziugly wise judgment-the rehis creed, Tolstoy, in his ethics, is sult, it is clear, of the severe systemfundamentally Christian. All the many atic study by which alone he disciplined letters of Creighton's, bearing on his with enduring strength an intelligence inner life, ought to be read and pon- whose quickness might easily have dedered by those of his admirers-neither generated into mere dilettantism, and few nor foolish-who admire him with its acute insight into cynicism. These reservations, and wonder how so great volumes afford ample proof that a mind could be Christian. It is not Creighton did not become what he was merely that Creighton accepted Chris- without an effort long and continued, tianity apart from his intellectual life; and that mere cleverness and mental the point is, that they were intimately alertness would of themselves have no united, and that the strength of his more saved him, than they do others, judgment and the breadth of his sym- from frittering away his abilities into pathies are directly due to his faith futility, or sharpening his wits merely in Him, Who said: "I have come that into censoriousness. To those who saw they might have life, and might have Creighton only in the full maturity of it more abundantly.”

his splendid gifts; who observed his This is a fact. It must be explained strange intellectual serenity and his by those who hold opposite views. subtle moral force, exercised without Creighton puzzled the world when he appearance of struggle or arrière was alive. It is to be hoped that the pensée; who perceived his amazing contemplation of his personality, at last grasp of every kind of work at once, fully expressed, will go on puzzling it, leaving him still an unclouded brain; and will be a source at least of en- who heard the judgment, calm and quiry to those who want to know how unprejudiced, of a mind whose powers culture in its completest sense is com- seemed almost miraculously balanced, patible with Christianity, no less than it may well have seemed that he was of warning to those many Christians what he was by grace of nature, and who misconceive their faith.

that he was so great because he could This is, I think, the supreme lesson not help himself. Far from it. Even of Creighton's life: "The end of man at the end of his life, there is an inis the development of his character," teresting piece of self-revelation in a as Humboldt said; this is only possible letter to his daughter. He discusses through a life in which love is the rul. whether he ought not to adopt the coning principle, inspiring mind as well ventional pomposity of the Anglican as heart; and to talk of love without episcopate. an eternal object is impossible. Love is the evidence of religion; and its

'If you are going to be yourself, you

must pay for it; but ought a bishop to analysis is its true apology.

have anything to pay? Of course he But, of course, there are many other must have something; but can I strugpoints. His sense of the supreme gle on in the effort to educate people value of knowledge, and the difficulty at large? This frequently comes into of attaining it, is only too much needed my mind. Ought I to get rid of myin a world which finds its daily food

self and become doll and solemn? in The Daily Mail, and seeks its philos. There are other similar touches, as ophy in lady novelists. It is, again, in where he laments in early life his inaCreighton's own life that we see exem- bility to resist the “temptation to be

worried and pressed.” This alone is greatness of one whose peace of mind proof that it was only by severe strug- was at all times assured by his faith, gle that he acquired that marvellous but whose outward activity was an unleisure of mind which in later years, ceasing and laborious effort to deepen amid a thousand pre-occupations, als his sympathies, to annibllate his deways enabled him to listen to anyone fects, not to rest satisfied with either who had anything to say to him, and the knowledge or the power of the moled him to tell one of his clerics: "I'm ment, never busy," in the midst of a rush of "The most alert and universal intelbusiness which would leave most men ligence in the island," said Lord Rosestupefied. Again we find him, in early bery. It was true; and the reason is life, lamenting his lack of intellectual to be found, not so much in his native large-heartedness. Such a lament talents, dazzling though they were, as seems almost incredible to those who in the untiring strength of will with reflect on the width of his sympathies which he strove to understand all and the depth of his tolerance. But he points of view, to discover the real was right. Little as he changed in es- meaning of every kind of fact that sentials, it is clear that his breadth was presented to his eyes, and, above of sympathy came to him, not easily, all, to get into personal sympathy with but only because he strove so hard to every human being with whom he had acquire it. "The perfection of charac- to do. He did not find this easy. The ter by effort” is, in fact, the message of greatness of his life is the greatness his life to other workers, not the con- of a man whose sympathies and inquering of success by original genius. terests were always widening, because It is a great boon that Mrs. Creighton he strove against every kind of narrowshould have taken off the veil ofre ness; because he was ruled by a fundaserve which hid from many his moral mental humility of spirit which strove struggles, no less than his religious to discern in every mind, however feeling. The greatness of Creighton is stunted, something of the Divine, and not the greatness of a man Uke Sheri. to bring out of every character, howdan, whose brilliancy of intellect tri- ever meagre, that element in it which umphed in spite of moral limitations, God must love. accepted without resistance. It is the

J. Neville Figgis. The Independent Review.

LIFE'S LITTLE DIFFICULTIES.

THE “PIED-A-TERRE.” Mrs. Torr to Mr. Cyril Ashlar. building. To have some such pied-dThe Eyrie. Welwyn. terre is so sweet. The total cost should

not be more than £800. Mrs. Tort Mrs. Torr presents her compliments would like Mr. Ashlar to follow the to Mr. Ashlar, and would be very glad lines of the cottage which he designed if he would make out for her some sim- for Mrs. Prole, with whom Mrs. Tort ple plans, in his charming characteris. is staying. It was, in fact, Mrs. Prolo tic way, for a small cottage in the who gave her Mr. Ashlar's name as country which Mrs. Torr is thinking of the very best architect for the purpose.

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