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ican Samoa, Guam, Wake Island, Eniwetok Atoll, Kwajalein Atoll, Johnston Island, and Canton Island, but shall not include any other territory under the jurisdiction of the United States or any United States base or possession within a foreign country.

SEC. 9. (41 U.S.C. 351 note] This Act shall apply to all contracts entered into pursuant to negotiations concluded or invitations for bids issued on or after ninety days from the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 1965).

SEC. 10. (41 U.S.C. 358] It is the intent of the Congress that determinations of minimum monetary wages and fringe benefits for the various classes of service employees under the provisions of paragraphs (1) and (2) of section 2 should be made with respect to all contracts subject to this Act, as soon as it is administratively feasible to do so. In any event, the Secretary shall make such determinations with respect to at least the following contracts subject to this Act which are entered into during the applicable fiscal year:

(1) For the fiscal year ending June 30, 1973, all contracts under which more than twenty-five service employees are to be employed.

(2) For the fiscal year ending June 30, 1974, all contracts under which more than twenty service employees are to be employed.

(3) For the fiscal year ending June 30, 1975, all contracts under which more than fifteen service employees are to be employed.

(4) For the fiscal year ending June 30, 1976, all contracts under which more than ten service employees are to be employed.

(5) On or after July 1, 1976, all contracts under which more than five service employees are to be employed.

CONTRACT DISPUTES ACT OF 1978

(Public Law 95-563) Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That this Act may be cited as the “Contract Disputes Act of 1978”.

DEFINITIONS

SEC. 2. (41 U.S.C. 601] As used in this Act,

(1) the term "agency head” means the ad and any assistant head of an executive agency, and may “upon the designation by” the head of an executive agency include the chief official of any principal division of the

agency; (2) the term "executive agency” means an executive department as defined in section 101 of title 5, United States Code, an independent establishment as defined by section 104 . of title 5, United States Code (except that it shall not include the General Accounting Office): a military department as defined by section 102 of title 5, United States Code, and a wholly owned Government corporation as defined by section 846 of title 31, United States Code, the United States Postal Service, and the Postal Rate Commission;

(3) the term "contracting officer” means any person who, by appointment in accordance with applicable regulations, has the authority to enter into and administer contracts and make determinations and findings with respect thereto. The term also includes the authorized representative of the contracting officer, acting within the limits of his authority;

(4) the term "contractor” means a party to a Government contract other than the Government;

(5) the term “Administrator” means the Administrator for Federal Procurement Policy appointed pursuant to the Office of Federal Procurement Policy Act;

(6) the term “agency board” means an agency board of contract appeals established under section 8 of this Act; and

(7) the term “misrepresentation of fact” means a false statement of substantive fact, or any conduct which leads to a belief of a substantive fact material to proper understanding of the matter in hand, made with intent to deceive or mislead.

APPLICABILITY OF LAW SEC. 3. [41 U.S.C. 602] (a) Unless otherwise specifically provided herein, this Act applies to any express or implied contract (including those of the nonappropriated fund activities described in sections 1346 and 1491 of title 28, United States Code) entered into by an executive agency for

(1) the procurement of property, other than real property in being;

(2) the procurement of services;

(3) the procurement of construction, alteration, repair or maintenance of real property; or,

(4) the disposal of personal property. (b) With respect to contracts of the Tennessee Valley Authority, the provisions of this Act shall apply only to those contracts which contain a disputes clause requiring that a contract dispute be resolved through an agency administrative process. Notwithstanding any other provision of this Act, contracts of the Tennessee Valley Authority for the sale of fertilizer or electric power or related to the conduct or operation of the electric power system shall be excluded from the Act.

(c) This Act does not apply to a contract with a foreign government, or agency thereof, or international organization, or subsidiary body thereof, if the head of the agency determines that the application of the Act to the contract would not be in the public interest.

MARITIME CONTRACTS SEC. 4. (41 U.S.C. 603] Appeals under paragraph (g) of section 8 and suits under section 10, arising out of maritime contracts, shall be governed by the Act of March 9, 1920, as amended (41 Stat. 525, as amended; 46 U.S.C. 741-752) or the Act of March 3, 1925, as amended (43 Stat. 1112, as amended; 46 U.S.C. 781–790) as applicable, to the extent that those Acts are not inconsistent with this Act.

FRAUDULENT CLAIMS SEC. 5. (41 U.S.C. 604) If a contractor is unable to support any part of his claim and it is determined that such inability is attributable to misrepresentation of factor fraud on the part of the contractor, he shall be liable to the Government for an amount equal to such unsupported part of the claim in addition to all costs to the Government attributable to the cost of reviewing said part of his claim. Liability under this subsection shall be determined within six years of the commission of such misrepresentation of fact or fraud.

DECISION BY THE CONTRACTING OFFICER SEC. 6. [41 U.S.C. 605] (a) All claims by a contractor against the government relating to a contract shall be in writing and shall be submitted to the contracting officer for a decision. All claims by the government against a contractor relating to a contract shall be the subject of a decision by the contracting officer. Each claim by a contractor against the government relating to a contract and each claim by the government against a contractor relating to a contract shall be submitted within 6 years after the accrual of the claim. 1 The preceding sentence does not apply to a claim by the government against a contractor that is based on a claim by the contractor involving fraud. The contracting officer shall issue his decisions in writing, and shall mail or otherwise furnish a copy of the decision to the contractor. The decision shall state the reasons for the decision reached and shall inform the contractor of his rights as provided in this Act. Specific findings of fact are not required, but, if made, shall not be binding in any subsequent proceeding. The authority of this subsection shall not extend to a claim or dispute for penalties or forfeitures prescribed by statute or regulation which another Federal agency is specifically authorized to administer, settle, or determine. This section shall not authorize any agency head to settle, compromise, pay, or otherwise adjust any claim involving fraud.

1 Paragraph (2) of section 2351(a) of the Federal Acquisition Streamlining Act of 1994 (P.L. 103–355; 108 Stat. 3322; 41 U.S.C. 605 note) provides:

(2) Notwithstanding the third sentence of section 6(a) of the Contract Disputes Act of 1978, as added by paragraph (1), if a contract in existence on the date of the enactment of this Act

(b) The contracting officer's decision on the claim shall be final and conclusive and not subject to review by any forum, tribunal, or Government agency, unless an appeal or suit is timely commenced as authorized by this Act. Nothing in this Act shall prohibit executive agencies from including a clause in government contracts requiring that pending final decision of an appeal, action, or final settlement, a contractor shall proceed diligently with performance of the contract in accordance with the contracting officer's decision.

(c)(1) A contracting officer shall issue a decision on any submitted claim of $100,000 or less within sixty days from his receipt of a written request from the contractor that a decision be rendered within that period. For claim of more than $100,000, the contractor shall certify that the claim is made in good faith, that the supporting data are accurate and complete to the best of his knowledge and belief, that the amount requested accurately reflects the contract adjustment for which the contractor believes the government is liable, and that the certifier is duly authorized to certify the claim on behalf of the contractor.

(2) A contracting officer shall, within sixty days of receipt of a submitted certified claim over $100,000—

(A) issue a decision; or

(B) notify the contractor of the time within which a decision will be issued.

(3) The decision of a contracting officer on submitted claims shall be issued within a reasonable time, in accordance with regulations promulgated by the agency, taking into account such factors as the size and complexity of the claim and the adequacy of the information in support of the claim provided by the contractor.

(4) A contractor may request the tribunal concerned to direct a contracting officer to issue a decision in a specified period of time, as determined by the tribunal concerned, in the event of undue delay on the part of the contracting officer.

(5) Any failure by the contracting officer to issue a decision on a contract claim within the period required will be deemed to be a decision by the contracting officer denying the claim and will au

(October 13, 1994) requires that a claim referred to in that sentence be submitted earlier than 6 years after the accrual of the claim, then the claim shall be submitted within the period required by the contract. The preceding sentence does not apply to a claim by the Federal Government against a contractor that is based on a claim by the contractor involving fraud.

thorize the commencement of the appeal or suit on the claim as otherwise provided in this Act. However, in the event an appeal or suit is so commenced in the absence of a prior decision by the contracting officer, the tribunal concerned may, at its option, stay the proceeding to obtain a decision on the claim by the contracting officer.

(6) The contracting officer shall have no obligation to render a final decision on any claim of more than $100,000 that is not certified in accordance with paragraph (1) if, within 60 days after receipt of the claim, the contracting officer notifies the contractor in writing of the reasons why any attempted certification was found to be defective. A defect in the certification of a claim shall not deprive a court or an agency board of contract appeals of jurisdiction over that claim. Prior to the entry of a final judgment by a court or a decision by an agency board of contract appeals, the court or agency board shall require a defective certification to be corrected.

(7) The certification required by paragraph (1) may be executed by any person duly authorized to bind the contractor with respect to the claim.

(d) Notwithstanding any other provision of this Act, a contractor and a contracting officer may use any alternative means of dispute resolution under subchapter IV of chapter 5 of title 5, United States Code, 2 or other mutually agreeable procedures, for resolving claims. In a case in which such alternative means of dispute resolution or other mutually agreeable procedures are used, the contractor shall certify that the claim is made in good faith, that the supporting data are accurate and complete to the best of his or her knowledge and belief, and that the amount requested accurately reflects the contract adjustment for which the contractor believes the Government is liable. All provisions of subchapter IV of chapter 5 of title 5, United States Code, shall apply to such alternative means of dispute resolution.

(e) The authority of agencies to engage in alternative means of dispute resolution proceedings under subsection (d) shall cease to be effective on October 1, 1999, except that such authority shall continue in effect with respect to then pending dispute resolution proceedings which, in the judgment of the agencies that are parties to such proceedings, require such continuation, until such proceedings terminate. In any case in which the contracting officer rejects a contractor's request for alternative dispute resolution proceedings, the contracting officer shall provide the contractor with a written explanation, citing one or more of the conditions in section 572(b) of title 5, United States Code, or such other specific reasons that alternative dispute resolution procedures are inappropriate for the resolution of the dispute. In any case in which a contractor rejects a request of an agency for alternative dispute resolution proceedings, the contractor shall inform the agency in writing of the contractor's specific reasons for rejecting the request.

2 Subchapter IV of chapter 5 of title 5, United States Code, referred to in subsection (d), is set forth beginning on page 729.

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