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(3) A declaration filed by a person pursuant to paragraph (1)(A) of this subsection in connection with a commitment providing for the United States to insure or guarantee a loan shall contain the name of any registrant under the Lobbying Disclosure Act of 1995 who has made lobbying contacts on behalf of the person in connection with that loan insurance or guarantee.

(4) A person referred to in paragraph (1)(A) of this subsection shall file a declaration referred to in that paragraph

(A) with each submission by such person that initiates agency consideration of such person for award of a Federal contract, grant, loan, or cooperative agreement, or for grant of a commitment providing for the United States to insure or guarantee a loan;

(B) upon receipt by such person of a Federal contract, grant, loan, or cooperative agreement or of a commitment providing for the United States to insure or guarantee a loan, unless such person previously filed a declaration with respect to such contract, grant, loan, cooperative agreement or commitment pursuant to clause (A), and

(C) at the end of each calendar quarter in which there occurs any event that materially affects the accuracy of the information contained in any declaration previously filed by such person in connection with such Federal contract, grant, loan, cooperative agreement, loan insurance commitment, or loan guaranty commitment.

(5) Any person who requests or receives from a person referred to in paragraph (1) of this subsection a subcontract under a Federal contract, a subgrant or contract under a Federal grant, a contract or subcontract to carry out any purpose for which a particular Federal loan is made, or a contract under a Federal cooperative agreement shall be required to file with the person referred to in such paragraph a written declaration referred to in clause (A) of such paragraph.

(6) The Director of the Office of Management and Budget, after consulting with the Secretary of the Senate and the Clerk of the

of Representatives, shall issue guidance for agency implementation of, and compliance with, the requirements of this section.

(c)(1) Any person who makes an expenditure prohibited by subsection (a) of this section shall be subject to a civil penalty of not less than $10,000 and not more than $100,000 for each such expenditure.

(2)(A) Any person who fails to file or amend a declaration required to be filed or amended under subsection (b) of this section shall be subject to a civil penalty of not less than $10,000 and not more than $100,000 for each such failure.

(B) A filing of a declaration of a declaration amendment on or after the date on which an administrative action for the imposition of a civil penalty under this subsection is commenced does not prevent the imposition of such civil penalty for a failure occurring before that date. For the purposes of this subparagraph, an administrative action is commenced with respect to a failure when an investigating official determines in writing to commence an investigation of an allegation of such failure.

(3) Sections 3803 (except for subsection (c)), 3804, 3805, 3806, 3807, 3808, and 3812 of this title shall be applied, consistent with the requirements of this section, to the imposition and collection of civil penalties under this subsection.

(4) An imposition of a civil penalty under this subsection does not prevent the United States from seeking any other remedy that the United States may have for the same conduct that is the basis for the imposition of such civil penalty.

(d)(1)(A) Subsection (a)(1) of this section does not apply in the case of a payment of reasonable compensation made to an officer or employee of a person requesting or receiving a Federal contract, grant, loan, or cooperative agreement to the extent that the payment is for agency and legislative liaison activities not directly related to a Federal action referred to in subsection (a)(2) of this section.

(B) Subsection (a)(1) of this section does not prohibit any reasonable payment to a person in connection with, or any payment of reasonable compensation to an officer or employee of a person requesting or receiving, a Federal contract, grant, loan, or cooperative agreement or an extension, continuation, renewal, amendment, or modification of a Federal contract, grant, loan, or cooperative agreement if the payment is for professional or technical services rendered directly in the preparation, submission, or negotiation of any bid, proposal, or application for that Federal contract, grant, loan, or cooperative agreement or for meeting requirements_imposed by or pursuant to law as a condition for receiving that Federal contract, grant, loan, or cooperative agreement.

(C) Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed as permitting the use of appropriated funds for making any payment prohibited in or pursuant to any other provision of law.

(2) The reporting requirement in subsection (b) of this section shall not apply to any person with respect to

(A) payments of reasonable compensation made to regularly employed officers or employees of a person requesting or receiving a Federal contract, grant, loan, or cooperative agreement or a commitment providing for the United States to insure or guarantee a loan;

(B) a request for or receipt of a contract (other than a contract referred to in clause (C)), grant, cooperative agreement, subcontract (other than a subcontract referred to in clause (C)), or subgrant that does not exceed $100,000; and

(C) a request for or receipt of a loan, or a commitment providing for the United States to insure or guarantee a loan, that does not exceed $150,000, or the single family maximum mortgage limit for affected programs, whichever is greater, including a contract or subcontract to carry out any purpose for which such a loan is made.

(e) The Secretary of Defense may exempt a Federal action described in subsection (a)(2) from the prohibition in subsection (a)(1) whenever the Secretary determines, in writing, that such an exemption is in the national interest. The Secretary shall transmit a copy of each such written exemption to Congress immediately after making such determination.

(f) The head of each Federal agency shall take such actions as are necessary to ensure that the provisions of this section are vigorously implemented and enforced in such agency. (g) As used in this section:

(1) The term “recipient”, with respect to funds received in connection with a Federal contract, grant, loan, or cooperative agreement

(A) includes the contractors, subcontractors, or subgrantees (as the case may be) of the recipient; but

(B) does not include an Indian tribe, tribal organization, or any other Indian organization eligible to receive Federal contracts, grants, cooperative agreements, or loans from an agency but only with respect to expenditures that are by such tribe or organization for purposes specified in subsection (a) and are permitted by other Federal law.

(2) The term “agency” has the same meaning provided for such term in section 552(f) of title 5, and includes a Government corporation, as defined in section 9101(1) of this title. (3) The term "person" —

(A) includes an individual, corporation, company, association, authority, firm, partnership, society, State, and local government, regardless of whether such entity is operated for profit or not for profit; but

(B) does not include an Indian tribe, tribal organization, or any other Indian organization eligible to receive Federal contracts, grants, cooperative agreements, or loans from an agency but only with respect to expenditures by such tribe or organization that are made for purposes specified in subsection (a) and are permitted by other Federal law.

(4) The term “State” means a State of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, a territory or possession of the United States, an agency or instrumentality of a State, and a multi-State, regional, or interstate entity having governmental duties and powers.

(5) The term “local government” means a unit of government in a State and, if chartered, established, or otherwise recognized by a State for the performance of a governmental duty, the following entities:

(A) A local public authority.
(B) A special district.
(C) An intrastate district.
(D) A council of governments.
(E) A sponsor group representative organization.

(F) Any other instrumentality of a local government.
(6)(A) The terms "Federal contract", "Federal grant", "Fed-
eral cooperative agreement” mean, respectively,

(i) a contract awarded by an agency;

(ii) a grant made by an agency or a direct appropriation made by law to any person; and

(iii) a cooperative agreement entered into by an agenсу. . (B) Such terms do not include

(i) direct United States cash assistance to an individual;

(ii) a loan;
(iii) loan insurance; or

(iv) a loan guaranty. (7) The term "Federal loan” means a loan made by an agency. Such term does not include loan insurance or a loan guaranty.

(8) The term “reasonable payment” means, with respect to professional and other technical services, a payment in an amount that is consistent with the amount normally paid for such services in the private sector.

(9) The term "reasonable compensation" means, with respect to a regularly employed officer or employee of any person, compensation that is consistent with the normal compensation for such officer or employee for work that is not furnished to, not funded by, or not furnished in cooperation with the Federal Government.

(10) The term “regularly employed”, with respect to an officer or employee of a person requesting or receiving a Federal contract, grant, loan, or cooperative agreement or a commitment providing for the United States to insure or guarantee a loan, means an officer or employee who is employed by such person for at least 130 working days within one year immediately preceding the date of the submission that initiates agency consideration of such person for receipt of such contract, grant, loan, cooperative agreement, loan insurance commitment, or loan guaranty commitment.

(11) The terms "Indian tribe" and "tribal organization” have the meaning provided in section 4 of the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (25 U.S.C. 450b).

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1535. Agency agreements.
1536. Crediting payments from purchases between executive agencies.

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SUBCHAPTER IV-CLOSING ACCOUNTS 1551. Definitions, applicability of subchapter. 1552. Procedure for appropriation accounts available for definite periods. 1553. Availability of appropriation accounts to pay obligations. 1554. Audit, control, and reporting. 1555. Closing of appropriation accounts available for indefinite periods. 1556. Comptroller General: reports on appropriation accounts. 1557. Authority for exemptions in appropriation laws. 1558. Availability of funds following resolution of a protest.

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SUBCHAPTER III—TRANSFERS AND REIMBURSEMENTS

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$ 1535. Agency agreements 6,7

(a) The head of an agency or major organizational unit within an agency may place an order with a major organizational unit within the same agency or another agency for goods or services if

(1) amounts are available;

(2) the head of the ordering agency or unit decides the order is in the best interest of the United States Government;

(3) the agency or unit to fill the order is able to provide or get by contract the ordered goods or services; and

(4) the head of the agency decides ordered goods or services cannot be provided by contract as conveniently or cheaply by

a commercial enterprise. (b) Payment shall be made promptly by check on the written request of the agency or unit filling the order. Payment may be in advance or on providing the goods or services ordered and shall be for any part of the estimated or actual cost as determined by the agency or unit filling the order. A bill submitted or a request for payment is not subject to audit or certification in advance of payment. Proper adjustment of amounts paid in advance shall be made

6 Sections 1535 and 1536 are commonly referred to as the “Economy Act”.

7 For a provision requiring the Federal Acquisition Regulation to be revised to include regulations governing the exercise of authority under section 1535, see section 1074 of the Federal Acquisition Streamlining Act of 1994 (P.L. 103–355; 108 Stat. 3271; 31 U.S.C. 1535 note), set forth beginning on page 615.

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