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lasted about four hours. The Jesuit required secrecy ; but Mr, Amyraut protested, according to the declaration he had made at first to Mr. de Villeneuve, - that he would communicate the whole matter to his colleagues, but that he would be answerable for their prudence and discretion. The same evening he gave them an account of the conference, and made no conscience of speaking of it, as occasion offered, after the Cardinal and Father Audebert were both dead.”
Concord between Protestants and nominal Papists would have been practicable, had the Gallican Church effected a secession from that of Rome, which she was more than once on the point of doing; but, in that case the union would not have been betweeen Protestants and Roman Catholics, but between two parties, both of whom had separated from the Popish communion. Grotius had fluctuated greatly in his hopes and expectations of beholding the establishment of this desirable union. Soon after his arrival at Paris as ambassador for Sweden, he saw so much of the flexible nature of the Popish institutions, and of the door which that corrupt church opened at its pleasure to mischievous innovations, as induced him to indulge in boding misgivings respecting a successful issue.
horted David Blondel, the most learned of the [French] Reformed pastors, to publish a book which he has written against the usurped rights of the Roman Pontiff.” That able work against Popery was soon afterwards published at Geneva.
* On the 13th of December, 1635, he writes thus to Camerarius, the Swed. ish Ambassador at the Hague : “ I perceive a yearly, nay, a daily increase hoth of superstition and of the Pope's kingdom, to the grief even of those who, having been born in that communion, remain members of it. A book has been lately published concerning the Scapular of the Carmelites, [ạ dress worn over their shoulders,] which gives an assured promise to those who die in this habit, that they cannot possibly be damned; and that they will not even be dragged about in Purgatory beyond the first Saturday after their decease.-Another book bas likewise been published which ascribes to Mary the prayers addressed to God, with no other change than the gender of the words, thus, Our mother, who art in heaven, and so on to the end of the prayer. When the Doctors of the Sorbonne were desirous of preventing the publication of these books, the King's Council prohibited them from interfering. What surprise therefore can be expressed about the refusal to licence any more publications favour of the royal authority, and against the parasites of the Pontiff, who claim for their master a jurisdiction over the lords of the earth, when many attempts of this description on the part of the Sorbonne and of the Parliament, are at present frequently suppressed by orders from the King's Council? The book which Peter Aurelius has written in behalf of the authority of the Bishops, and against the Jesuits who spurned the episcopal jurisdiction, has been censured hy some Bishops convened together by Cardinal Richelieu. I have deemed it of importance to give you an intimation of these things, in order to make it apparent, that there is not only no hope of amendment, but that all things are actually in a state of deterioration.'
On the 19th of June, 1638, he addressed the subjoined remarks to the Chancellor Oxenstern : “ With this despatch I likewise transmit a royal decree, which will furnish much matter for conversation in France, but much more at Rome. This edict, like many others before it, forbids any money, or promissory notes for the payment of money, to be remitted out of the kingdom to Rome, for the purpose of purchasing Bulls for Bishoprics, Canonries, and benefices; and this is the cause assigned, because the prices
When the Scotch Presbyterians afterwards entered into a con spiracy against their lawful sovereign, and sought to obtain from him by force of arms those immunities which they ought
of those commodities are enhanced, contrary to former treaties.' Many will think this to be the foundation of a dissent from Rome; but I am prevented from entertaining such a sentiment, when I behold those men imprisoned and persecuted who defend the ancient sentiments of France. But, since the King has invested Cardinal Richelieu with bis patronage, to copfer Bishoprics, Canonries, and Benefices, I suppose the Cardinal is desirous of gaining another object-ibe delegation to himself, as Legate or Primate, of the Pope's power of approbation; and because kings can extort nothing from the Court of Rome, except through the impulse of fear, the Cardinal terrifies the Romish gentry by threatening them with the danger of his making a still greater dissent [from the Church] so that they dare deny him nothing. The present Pontiff readily foresees the magnitude of the evils which would befal the kingdom of France, were his successor to be more attached to the Spanish interest, and were he to manage the French affairs so as to make them serviceable to Spain ; and the Pope's equity on this point communicates additional hopes to the Cardinal.-But I am induced to indulge in no hopes of moderation on the subject of religion, when I see an association formed here, wbich is called the Congregation for propagating the Faith, and which frequently holds its sessions in Paris with great parade : It lays powerful foundations for a second Inquisition ; for its spies are dispersed through all the provinces and towns of France, and all things are reported by them here, especially by the Capuchins, that is, the society to which this Hyacinthus belongs, who is the inventor of the contrivance.
But the most remarkable instance of the animadversions of Grotius on these topics is contained in a letter to Chancellor Oxenstern, in January, 1639 : “ There was lately published in Paris, through the exertions of great men, a book containing splendid documents of the liberties of the kingdom and church of France, which have been produced from Royal edicts aud from Acts of Parliament. In it, the kingdom and church of France claim their own liberties, not as having been received by way of gift from the Roman Poutiffs, but as retained from ancient manners and defended by perpetual usage. This is a work which is worthy to be read even by foreigners; for in it are apparent, both the artifices of the Popes, who have during many years been attempting to extend their power, and the very difficult labours which they encounter, who, to captivate the minds of the populace, relinquish their rights to a power that is always on the increase. The Pope's Nuncio understood well the great injury to himself which this publication would produce; and, after many contrivances and endeavours by his assistants and monks, he has at length prevailed with the king's
council, in the vame of the king himself, to forbid the further sale of this book which had been composed in favour of the king and his kingdom. Thus, under kings who are either ignorant or indolent, as much damage is frequently sustained as can with great difficulty be repaired by their successors. And it is a most wonderful circumstance, that books written in favour of the rights of king's cannot obtain a licence at Paris, while works composed in opposition to kings and their just rights are published every day at Rome. A short time before his death, Father Joseph was desirous of obtaining the Archbishopric of Rheims; and, had his life been prolonged, I believe he would have been created Cardinal. The luss which the Elector of Bavaria has sustained by the death of that man, is greater than that of France. For his better defence the Cardinal [Richelieu] has taken a thousand dragoons into his immediate service, in addition to his own body-guard. Many even of the king's bodyguards enrol themselves under his standard, because the pay and perquisites of the soldiers retained by the Cardinal are more certain than those of the king's troops."
What an appalling picture is here drawn of the favourite of a despotic monarch! After this able exposition of the politic conduct of the Roman Pontiff, and of the abject servility of those whose ambition prompted them to obtain ecclesiastical honours from him, who can doubt of the aversion which
to have procured in a more constitutional manner, the insidious policy of the Church of Rome began to display itself in that affair by a plausible liberality in its agents, and an apparent relaxation of its ancient rigour. Flattering proposals of reconciliation were tendered both in France and England; and Cardinal Richelieu himself advanced the projects of the Pope by fomenting the disturbances between the English monarch and his people.* It must never be forgotten, that the Scotch rebellion was the grand cause of the last strenuous efforts of Grotius in procuring peace and amity among professing christians; (see page 275,) and since he found a union between the different Protestant denominations to be impracticable, he tried by means of mutual concessions to produce an agreement between Protestants and Papists. Considering his peculiarly favourable opportunities for observation at that crisis, it cannot be said that Grotius had formed too sanguine calculations. Though he
appears from the first to have been fully aware of the difficulties to be encountered, yet, after the fall of Archbishop Laud, he still thought his scheme of pacification worthy of being adopted." In a letter to his brother in January 1641, Grotius said:
Grotius felt against the increasing influence of Popery? And who can express any surprise at his endeavours to destroy that influence, by his pacific method of infusing into the diseased body the only means of a radical cure,the introduction of purer and more scriptural principles ? But, it will be seen, the chief members of the body refused to accept the sanctifying remedies which Grotius prescribed. *“Cardinal Richelieu was no small incendiary in this difference betwixt the King and Scots ; for the King making it always a great master-piece to keep the balance even betwixt France and Spain, that, neither of them being too strong for the other, the affairs of Christendom might be the evener poised, he [the Cardinal] knew the French design of driving the Spaniard out of Flanders and the rest of the Netherlands could not be effected, unless the Kiug were embroiled at home: So that he sent his chaplain and almoner, Mr. Thomas Chamberlayn, a Scotchman, to assist the confederates in advancing the business, and to attempt all ways of exasperation, and not to depart from them till he might return with good news in this project. Con also, the Pope's agent to the Queen, a Scot by nation, and one Reed of the same country, were very active ; and many Scotch Jesuits, at this time in England, were not idle; and Hamilton's chaplain had often secret communication with Con: All which practices were discovered in a great part by one Andreas Habernsfield, a nobleman of Bohemia, then become physician to the King's Sister, the Palsgrave's relict, who made it also apparent that many of the nobility of England, and the chief favourites at Court (among whom the Earl and Countess of Arundel, Secretary Windebanke, and Endymion Porter,) were named to be acquainted, and consenting with their transactions. To this the King, out of the bounty of his nature, gave not much credit."- Phillips's Continuation.
ť In the preceding notes it is perceived, that, in the midst of his most sanguine expectations of effecting unity and concord, Grotius often manifested the misgivings of his well-informed understanding, by pertinent allusions to posterity, to whom, he hoped, his labours would
prove beneficial. Of this description is the following extract, addressed to his brother in July, 1642: “ It is our Divine Master who commands us to labour for the concord of the Church ; and if the issue does not correspond with the attempt, we must expect the fruits of our labour from the Master himself. We ought not to
“ I have not yet seen Du Moulin's book De Vate: If I can discover any thing in it that is worthy of refutation, I shall be able to place it as an Addendum to the second edition of my Appendix. When this book [the Appendix] is published, many of the Protestants will perceive, that the way to effect a reconciliation between the Churches is much easier than they had supposed. For, by the Pope's good leave it will be possible to retain those things in which the Reformation is believed principally to consist, provided the Pontiff be not exasperated by injuries. On this subject I have spoken nothing rashly; and Cardinal Richelieu thinks the affair will succeed : Such undoubtedly are the expectations which he has expressed to many persons. The Archbishop of Canterbury is now under punishment for having entertained a most honourable and praiseworthy purpose,_which has frequently been the fate of other good men. But the prosperous success of seditions
have regard only to our own age, but also to posterity; though I have seen men as far advanced in years as myself, who have not despaired of yet beholding the accomplishment of this event in France. The change effected in D'Or [his conversion to Popery] is the same as formerly took place in that very learned individual, P. Pithou; and Casaubon himself bad determined to adopt the same plan if he had remained in France, for Cordesius was one among others to whom he imparted his resolution. It is my most earnest wish to see those vices cured which have crept into the church, and I shall not be backward in tendering my advice. But we must reflect again and again, whether it would be proper and useful to wish to heal these evils by a divorce, especially when it is evident from the doctrines [of the Gospel], that the Spirit of God is not present with those who form new parties. 'Besides, the conduct of separatists affords an inlet through which other vices obtain an entrance; and when the licentiousness of secession is once introduced, it always produces new parties, which never co-alesce with each other."
The reports concerning Casaubon's inclination to Popery were numerous, but unfounded: The reason of them all may be traced to his transcendent attachment to antiquity, and to the ill treatment which he received from the Genevan Calvinists. See page 431.
* It is a fact not generally known, that Grotius advised Archbishop Laud to effect his escape from confinement : He could not indeed recommend the same method as that pursued most successfully by himself: For the Archbishop was a solitary bachelor ; and, on a perusal of the preceding extracts from the letters of Grotius,-that allude to the devoted affection of his wife, and even to the troubles to which she and his children were exposed through his misfortunes,-and on comparing them with the monotonous imprisonment of Laud, much of that sympathy which might be expected to exist in both these instances will be found to be destroyed in that of the Archbishop in consequence of his celibacy. Thus, the troubles occasionally attendant on a married life, must not always be viewed as absolute misfortunes ; for, by the providence of God, they frequently operate in various ways to a man's great advantage, and are ultimately converted into blessings.--The noble auswer which the excellent Prelate returned to the very learned bearer of the proposal, is highly deserving of record, on account of the view which it affords of the unsubdued courage and integrity of the Archbishop's spirit. I give it from Twells's Life of Dr. Pocock, and the extract is itself a continuation of the paragraph quoted in page 619 :
“'In a short time Mr. Pocock left Paris, and came for England; where, taking London in his way to Oxford, he found, what he had heard several reports of before, namely, a great change of affairs since he left the nation, and a sad face of things. A turbulent party among the Scots,-who, when
ought not to make us abandon the truth and our desire of peace. For such furious attacks did not terrify Erasmus, Cassander, and Melancthon, or prevent them from contributing
upon very groundless pretences they had armed themselves the last year, had met with all the kindness and satisfaction which a very gracious Prince could give them, --renewing their sedition, had now invaded the northem parts of the kingdom. And in the Parliament, which was convened to find out the proper means of sending these disorderly and ungrateful people home, tou many there were who were so far from promoting a just defence against them, that some of them approved, and others resolved to make use, of their designs. This unhappy correspondence between those that raised these troubles, and several of them that were now called upon as only able to quiet them, disappointed all the peaceable endeavours of a pious and good king, and even began to shake the very foundations of the kingdom. The thing that was now first and most violently attacked, was the
Ecclesiastical Government established by law. This hierarchy, as it is agreeable to the word of God, and warranted by the constant practices of the church of Christ in all places and at all times, so it had for fourscore years, reckoning from the beginning of Queen Elizabeth's reign, stood both the glory and the defence of the Church of England. And, as a learned gentleman was pleased to express his sense of the matter, • upon the account of its anti
quity alone, it must be concluded now to need repair.' But repairing or mending was but a mean attempt for the violent zeal of some others : Wherefore they were for making an utter destruction of all the roots and branches of it, even a total abolition. That this last course might be taken, was earnestly desired by such as, doubtless, had made a deep search into the nature of the thing, to wit, some thousands of tradesmen in and about the city of London, who were ready also to demand, what they thus requested, at the doors of the Parliament. And these were soon seconded by tive and twenty hundred Kentishmen, who had found, by experience,' as they said in their petition, ' Episcopacy. to be very dangerous both to church and commonwealth.' The ecclesiastical government itself being thus struck at, it could not be expected that the Governors should escape. Accordingly, the chief of these, the Archbishop of Canterbury, was early, accused of high-treason; and several of those who had been justly punished in the courts wherein he was concerned, for seditious and immoral practices, were let loose against him to worry him even to death.
“ The Archbishop, having been ten weeks in the custody of Mr. Maxwell, Gentleman Usher of the Black-rod, waiting for the charge which was to be brought up against him, was committed to the Tower, March 1, 1640; about which time or a little after, Mr. Pocock came to London. And hé thought himself under the same obligation to go and pay his duty to bis Patron now in his confinement, as if he had been still on the height of his former prosperity either at his Palace at Lambeth, or his lodgings in White ball. Being admitted to his presence, doubtless, the vast difference of circumstances which he now beheld, from those he had formerly seen him in, could not but fill his mind with the just sevse of the uncertainty of human greatness, and the transitoriness of worldly honour and power, even when established ppon innocence and virtue. He now saw a man, who, beside his bigh station in the church, had been for many years the favourite of a great and good Prince; a man, whose advice was most followed in affairs of state, which he still gave according to bis best wisdom and with undoubted inte grity; a man, whose requests to the throne were seldom or never denied ; for it was manifest that he managed no private interest for himself or his relations ; but had long devoted all that he had to the public good : This man, Mr. Pocock now saw fallen from that eminence on wbich he stood, become the object of popular hatred and contempt, reproached, accused, and shut up in prison, there to expect the bitter effects of the malice of his enemies and the madness of the people.
“ The Archbishop received Mr. Pocock with many expressions of a very great esteem, and a most bearty kindness; he thanked him for the pains he had been at, in procuring so many curious manuscripts for him in the East,