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Ambassador, in his quality of Ambassador, on account of the difference which subsists between the religious sentiments which they maintain, and those professed by the kingdom of which he is the representative.” And in another, a few days, later in its date, he says: “ The reason why I was unwilling to be seen among the Charenton congregation in another quality than that of Ambassador, is, not only because that dignity cannot be laid aside in public, but because, when I had gone there, I should have carried with me as Ambassador from Sweden, the authority of the Augsburgh Confession, and what is comprehended in that document you need not be told.”+ The truth is, had Grotius been received in the capacity of a Lutheran Ambassador, it would have been viewed, by the men who invited him to Charenton, as virtually the triumph of Arminianism :This dreadful concession they were desirous to avoid.
Arrived at Paris as the representative of Majesty, Grotius immediately engaged with spirit in the arduous duties which his dignified office required him to perform, and of which the affairs of the Christian Church formed no inconsiderable portion. Gustavus Adolphus had, from the commencement of his Germanic expedition, perceived the absolute necessity of present, and of which Grotius makes the following mention in a letter from that city :
“ The sentiments of three Bishops, concerning the methods of effecting peace and concord among the professors of the gospel, have been published in England. The pamphlet contains many things, which, if our counirymen [the Dutch] were possessed of wisdom, they might convert to their own profit. I have also seen a manuscript composed by the pastors of the Church at Paris or Charenton, which is withheld from publication lest it should prove injurious to them (at the French Court). Nothing can with propriety be advanced on this subject [of unity] which will not militate against the laboured attempts of the Synod of Dort."
Both these tracts appear to have been embodied into one pamphlet and printed together in 1634, under the title of Aliquot Theologorum Gallic, et trium Ecclesice Anglicanæ Episcoporum, Sententia de pacis rationibus inter Evangelicos usurpandis. The names of the three English Bishops were Mortou, Davenant aud Hall: the two latter had been deputed to Dort, and strenuously endeavoured afterwards to undo all that they had assisted to effect at that Synod. Bishop Morton was a Prelate remarkable on many accounts, but more particularly for being one of the advisers of king James when his majesty issued his royal“ declaration concerning lawful sports to be used,” which ultimately became a disgrace to our country, and the cause of much disunion. The accouut which his biographer Dr. Barwick gives of that transaction is exceedingly interesting; but every impartial person must own, that the disease, bad as it was, could not be worse than the remedy. In perusing the account, the reader must recollect that the good Bishop's advice was not asked till " the king bad willed to give" the inhabitants of Lancashire “ the satisfaction” which they required, and that when he found the king thus determined, “ he considered of six limitations or resırictions, by way of condition, to be imposed nipon every man who should enjoy the benefit of that liberty ; bis Majesty added a seveuth, saying only, that he
would alter them from the words of a Bishop to the words of a king;' This exonerates Bishop Morton in a great measure from being the author of that obnoxious measure.
+ In one of his letters Grotius calls Arminianism, with great propriety, SemiLutheranism. In the conversation between him and the French pastors, (page 222,) of which this is the result, they candidly stated that they had written to Rivet at Leyden “ about receiving the Dutch Renonstrauis into communion with them;" and the sudden and otherwise unaccountable
cementing together in a religious union all the Protestant States and Communities in the North of Europe ; for as long as they stood at that great distance from each other to which the Synod of Dort had driven them, they not only became severally a prey to the ravaging tyranny of the Church of Rome in the person of the Emperor Ferdinand, but, as disunion is weakness, they suffered their Protestant neighbours to fall into the hands of the common enemy, while they remained in a state of Pharisaic quiescence, and virtually said to them, “Stand by yourselves, come not near to us; for we are holier than you.” (Isai
. lxv, 5.) In a very interesting letter addressed from Paris, in 1635, to his friend Holing, who was on a tour in Abyssinia, and had previously visited various countries in the East, Grotius thus relates the benevolent labours of the King of Sweden and of his successor: “ I cannot sufficiently admire the magnanimity of your spirit, who have subjected yourself to such a number of inconveniencies through an ardent desire of knowing the state of distant nations, and especially the condition of their christian inhabitants. In those countries you behold, what is obvious enough in our part of the globe, how difficult it is to heal the ancient divisions of the Churches. Gustavus the great King of Sweden, for whose daughter the Queen I am now Ambassador at the Court of France, convened at Leipsic not long before his death an assembly of the Protestants of both persuasions, [that is, Lutherans and Calvinists,] between whom, you know, the subjects in controversy are not very numerous, but are much of the same slight description as those about which the christians of the Greek and Coptic Churches in the districts around Egypt profess themselves at disagreement. By his authority, the King caused both parties to separate amicably, and with fair hopes of restoring unity. But the lamented decease of that great monarch hindered the further execution of the salutary measure which had been thus auspiciously commenced. Neither was England backward in transmitting her recommendation of this blessed undertaking, in the person of Duræus,* who came to Frankfort change in their conduct is in proof of the kind of pacific advice which that individual had given. This is the true solution to all their demurs, about assigning a separate seat to Grotius as a Lutheran ambassador.
* Grotius there became personally acquaiuted with Duræus, Calixtus, Bergius, and other peace-makers, and derived exquisite pleasure from their society and conversation. In a letter to Duræus in 1637, Grotius thus relates his own early predilection for promoting union and concord in the churches of Christ : « Reverend Mau, The object which you pursue with such labour and assiduity, is that which, from the time when I first gained some knowledge of good things, I have always desired to pursue, and I still indulge the same wishes : That object is, to effect a closer union, in heart and by plain and conspicuous proofs of friendly feeling, between those churches which for very weighty reasons have seceded from the Roman Pontiff. From my personal experience I am fully aware of the great difficulties which present themselves against the execution of this laborious undertaking; some of thern arising from political considerations or the suspicions of divines ; others of them, from the self-complacency with wbich every one looks upon his own opinions, or from a desire to exalt private opinions too highly, and
on the Mainė, with letters of introduction from many of the English Bishops, at the very time when another Convention of the Protestant States were holding their deliberations in that city. But this affair, which was in itself sufficiently difficult, was rendered still more complicated by the harsh and intolerant answer which Dr. Hoë [a Lutheran] from the Court of Saxony, returned to those whom he called Calvinians. Yet the great body of the Ambassadors who had been deputed to that Convention, promised that they would so manage this affair in their several countries, as to make the sincerity of their wishes for such a union apparent.—The ministers of Charenton have not only abated from much of their former rigour, but have in a letter confirmed Duræus in his sacred design, by adducing a number of powerful arguments. They likewise invite me to their communion, though they know that I have generally adopted the doctrinal sentiments of Melancthon. I will not refuse this invitation, if I can accept it on such equitable terms as are not repugnant to christian liberty : For I am quite ready to unite with another denomination of Protestants in offering after the same manner (at the altar of God] our joint tokens of brotherly love, provided I shall find their minds equally wellprepared. This I shall do, not without some hopes of the example spreading itself still more extensively. The present Primate of England is a man of the greatest learning and prudence, and kindly lends his authority and advice to promote this general christian union.”
Grotius had been present at the Frankfort convention with the Chancellor Oxenstern, whom he soon afterwards accompanied to Magdeburgh, as he was then retained in the service of Sweden, but had not received his appointment to any particular office. In a letter from that city, after severely animadverting on the intemperate conduct of Doctor Hoë, he thus addresses James Puteanus : “ How much more correctly do your Frenchmen act, who promise themselves to become our helpers equally in peace as in war, and undertake at the same time the management of the affairs of the Elector of Saxony, of the Swedes,
and of the Roman Catholics, and, beside all this, pay large subsides annually to Calvinistic princes.” This short paragraph is the key to all the ulterior exertions of Grotius, to insure the peace of the Church, and to promote union among all denominations of Christians. This pacific project became a favourite measure with Cardinal Richelieu, who, to under the appearance of piety to withdraw themselves as far as possible from others. But none of these circumstances ought to terrify a man from performing a most excellent service, if it can be effected; if it cannot, he may undoubtedly enjoy the consciousness of such an upright and sublime inten. tion. I will noi cease to do what I have hitherto done,--to recommend to that great man, the Chancellor Oxenstern, your piety and learning, and the pureness and sincerity of the desires of your heart in tryiyg to accomplish
purpose. I will ardently pray for your success, and shall be glad at all times to know the degree of progress you are making.”
humble the pride of Spain, had prevailed on the king of France to join the Protestant Confederacy; to which the king of England had formerly become a party, for the sake of assisting his relative the Elector Palatine in recovering his hereditary dominions.* No method seemed so likely to keep together and to
* A stronger proof of the crooked and vacillating policy pursued by the early ministers of King Charles, is not on record, than that which they adopted for the restoratiou of the Elector Palatine, whose cause was first patronized on account of the insulting conduct of the Court of Spain. See page 598. The kings of France and Denmark and the Dutch Republic entered with spirit into the views of the British Court in the first year of King Charles's reign, and concluded a treaty for restoring the liberties of Germany ; but the unfortunate attempts of the King of Denmark in the North of Europe, those of the English on the coast of Spain, and the absurd breach with France the year afterwards, destroyed all hopes of immediate success, and left the Emperor Ferdinand and the other members of the Catholic league completely at liberty to proceed vigorously in the work of devastation and refined proselytism. The King's subsequent application to the Emperor at Ratisbon, by Sir Robert Austruther, was equally unsuccessful. When Gustavus Adolphus arose in splendour, the king of England elected him into the noble order of the Garter, and formed great hopes from the exertions of that royal warrior. Two of the most treacherous servants that Charles possessed, were employed to assist in the Swedish expedition -Sir Henry Vane as Ambassador to Gustavus,--and the Marquis of Hamil ton as cominander of the English forces, which were sent for his succour.At that period thc Protestant confederacy seemed to be very pear the accomplishment of its wishes in Germany, and was strengthened by the accession of new allies : But the death of Gustavus the Great at Lutzen quashed the sanguine expectations of the Elector Palatine, who had for ten years been feeding on false hopes; and to that catastrophe were ascribed his sudden indisposition and decease, within three weeks after that of his royal friend and patron:
The ministers of King Charles might consider it good policy to display their abilities at counter-plotting, by their frequent yet fruitless applications to the Emperor of Germany and the King of Spain in behalf of the Elector, But this subserviency to the House of Austria
was made the ostensible ground of the French King's, apathy in the affairs of England, when they were brought to a crisis; and Grotius often alludes to it in his letters :
On the 13th of July, 1641, he writes thus : “ If the Bishops be removed in England, it is certain that several of the nobility will be offended at the change of church-government, and will unite themselves in communion with the Church of Rome. The lower orders wish it to be believed, that, after the death of the Earl of Strafford, a new conspiracy was formed, to which France became a party. Though I think the King of France wishes well to his sister, the Queen of England, and is displeased at beholding, such à near example of the lowering of the regal dignity, yet I am compelled to doubt whether he be willing to do any thing for the King of England, before he has fully withdrawn him from the Emperor and the King of Spain.”
Phillips's brief account of the fluctuating affairs of the Palatinate is worthy of being perused. “There was an Imperial Diet held this year, [1636) for the electing of a king of the Romans; and the king sent thither the Earl of Arundel, his Ambassador, to treat with the Emperor and the Princes for the restitution of the Palatine to the Palsgrave. But that embassy could effect nothing; for the Duke of Bavaria, who had in his possession the Upper Palatinate and the electoral dignity, would by no means hear of any propositions to part with either. But the Lower Palatinate he might have had upon some terms which the emperor proposed; but our Ambassador was not instructed to accept of any thing in diminution of the Elector's Right: So that the Palsgrave had no fruit of this embassy. Yet were his hopes a little raised by an overture of marriage made at this time betwixt the king of Poland and one of his sisters, which was almost effected by the
render effective the discordant materials of which that grand confederacy was formed, as a religious union; and Grotius had instructions to promote that object in France, in every way legation of Prince Radzovil here in England. But the emperor privately obstructed it, and, by the insinuation of the Jesuits, so instigated the clergy of Poland against it, because of her religion, that the treaty was broken oft, and the King afterwards married the lady Cecilia, second sister to the Emperor.--The Prince Elector and his brother Prince Rupert went to Holland about this time, in order to a design which was put in practice the next year to attempt something with an arny in the Palatinate. The assistance and credit of the king's purse, did so prevail under-haud with the prince of Orange and the States of the United Provinces, that a small beginning of an army was raised, with which they advanced into Westphalia and besieged Lemmingen. But Hatsfield, one of the Emperor's Generals, came so soon upon them, that they effected nothing, but were forced to fight to great disadvantage, having bad 2000 men slain, and most of the rest dispersed, and many prisoners taken, amongst which were Prince Rupert and the Lord Craven ; the Priuce Élector bimself escaped by flight, and retired to the Hague.
“ The Prince Elector, in July this year,  arrived at the Court of England in prosecution of a design he had to get command of the army of Duke Bernard Saxon Weymar lately dead, which consisted of a gallant number of Swedes, Germans, and other nations. The king did like very well of the business, and proposed it to the French Embassador, offering that the Prince should join in perpetual league with France, and that he would contribute what he could to his assistance. The Embassador seebied to be very well pleased with the offer, and told the king, that he doubted not but his master would approve of it, and that Cardinal Richlieu, the chief minister of that State, would be willing to serve the king and the prince therein : and thereupon he dispatched a messenger to Paris, to 'acquaint the French king with the matter. But in the mean while it was suggested to the king, that Richlieu under-hand fomented the troubles of Scotland, whereby the confederate covenanters had been encouraged to write a letter to that king for assistance; so that the reality of Richlieu was so much suspected, that the prince was advised to go privately through France to Duke Bernard's army, of which it was believed'he might by his appearance easily get the command. The Prince therefore in November passed over to Bullen, and from thence endeavoured to pass by disguise through France, but at Lyons be was discovered and taken prisoner. And the King of France interpreted this action of the Prince of no fair intentions towards him, because it was done in a time of treaty, so that he was kept under a strict guard."
In a subsequent note I shall prove Grotius to have been a consummate politician as well as a man of piety. In several of his letters be notes it as a sad defect in the policy of England, that the cause of the Palatinate, which offered a good pretext for a foreign war, was not undertaken with greater spirit, for the purpose of allowing the fury of the religious malcontents to expend itself abroad, instead of overturning the government at home. Besides, it is known to those who are conversant with that eventful period of our history, that a war in favour of the Elector's claims in Germany would have been exceedingly popular, and not the less so on account of its being at first made a party question by the Puritans,-though none of them were more zealous or sincere in their endeavours to obtain an acknowledgment of that unfortunate family's just rights, than were Archbishop Land and the English Arminians. But the execution of this scheme was prevented by two powerful causes already specified in this note,—the plotting of Cardinal Richelieu, and the treachery of two of the King's ministers whose design can be proved to have been the discomfiture of his best-concerted projects. Another lay in the want of adequate supplies, wbich, in consequence of his quarrel with the Parliament, his Majesty was unable to obtain.-But Grotius was a more powerful and efficient friend to the exiled Queen of Bohenia and her family, than any other man in Europe. It was through his influence with the French Court, that the imprudent young Elector was released from