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It has been ingenuously confessed, not only by all the Ancients, but likewise by Modern Divines, (among whom let it suffice to have praised Thomas as one witness,) that the Free Will of man is incompetent to the performance of any good thing, except so far as it is moved and aided by God. Nor is there so much impiety as certain persons think in those assertions about Free Will which some of the Fathers and of the Moderns have made, provided their expressions be received in a right manner, and in such a sense as it was the wish of the writers themselves that they should be received.
BUCER. In his lapsed and sinful state, man is not capable, of and by himself, either to think, to will, or to do that which is really good; but it is necessary for him to be regenerated and renewed in his intellect, affections or will, and in all his powers, by God in Christ through the Holy Spirit, that he may be qualified rightly to understand, esteem, consider, will, and perform, whatever is truly good. I ascribe to Divine Grace THE COMMENCEMENT, THE CONTINUANCE, AND THE CONSUMMATION OF ALL GOOD ; and to such an extent do I carry its influence, that a man, though already regenerate, can neither conceive, will, nor do any good at all, nor resist any evil temptation, without this preventing and exciting, this following and co-operating Grace.
ARMINIUS. The Bishops of Ely and Lichfield, [Andrews and Overal,] were always accustomed to say, “ that, as long as men maintained the true doctrine of the Antece“ dent Will [of God] or of Conditional Decrees, there could not be much danger “ in disputing about Predestination and Free Will.” The correctness of this sentiment appears to me more and more evident.
GROTIUS. The sum of that which I contend for is briefly this : That the God of Heaven hath not APPOINTED any creature to do wickedly, but hateth sin with an unfeigned and perfect hatred, and doth not give a necessity to all events, but to those alone which are agreeable to his holiness and are the objects of his absolute unconditional decrees : That God's DECREE OF REPROBATION was eternally respective, and respective of sins as well actual as original : That God's DECREE OF ELECTION was eternally respective of our being in Christ, and of our abiding in Him unto the end : That God's execution of his Decrees are in a just conformity to his Decrees : That Jesus Christ is a GENERAL but a Con. DITIONAL SAVIOUR,-a Saviour to all who do the duties by him required, to none without it: That they who stand may fall for ever, and must therefore very watchfully take heed lest they fall, ever “giving all diligence to make their calling and election sure.'
DR. THOMAS PIERCE.
CALVINISM AND ARMINIANISM
THEIR PRINCIPLES AND TENDENCY:
OF GENERAL REDEMPTION,
AS HELD BY THE MEMBERS OF THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND,
AND BY THE EARLY DUTCH ARMINIANS,
Melanchthonis ac Johannis Arndi discipulos ferme videas bonos ac lenes: Contra, Calvini
asperos, et tales qualem in maximam partem humani generis Deum esse sibi imaginantur.
Civil Magistrate, who, in all causes over all persons, is acknowledged by us supreme
HENRY HAMMOND, D. D.
In the Life of the Rev. PHILIP HENRY, written by his son Matthew, the following anecdote is related concerning this trag, ical occurrence: “ At the latter end of the year 1648, he had leave given him to make a visit to his father at Whitehall, with whom he stayed some time. There he was Jan. 30, when the King was beheaded, and with a very sad heart saw that tragical blow given. Two things he used to speak of, that he took notice of himself that day ; which I know not whether any of the historians mention. One was, that at the instant when the blow was given, there was such a dismal universal groan among the thousands of people that were within sight of it, (as it were with one consent,) as he never heard before ;* and desired he might never hear the like again, nor see such a cause for it. The other was, that immediately after the stroke was struck, there was, according to order, one troop marching from Charing-cross towards King Street, and another from King Street towards Charing-cross, purposely to disperse and scatter the people, and to divert the dismal thoughts which they could not but be filled with, by driving them to shift every one for his own safety. He did upon all occasions testify his abhorrence of this unparalleled action,t which he always said was a thing that could not be justi
portentous aspect, through the negligent supineness or the foreign trilling of those who had been entrusted with the supreme management of affairs civil and ecclesiastical. It was then too late for Charles to indulge in of success, from the unrighteous experiment of applying arbitrary power as the sole remedy for existing abuses in the body politic; and for Archbishop Laud to expect any salutary results from the severe and objectiouable manner in which he seconded his royal master's views with regard to ecclesiastical maladies, and suppressed the unfruitful peculiarities of Calvinism, the latter of which had under various devices been too much encouraged in the reign of his father.”
* It is related concerning Francis Newman, Fellow of All Souls, “a person of great parts and a good carriage,” that on passing by Whitehall when the King was decapitated, the horrid act had such an effect upon his spirits, as produced speedy dissolution. For, when he had returned to Mr. Heywood's house at Westminster, who was allied to him by marriage, he fell into a violent agony; and, retiring immediately into his chamber, he told those friends who surrounded him, (though he was then, to all appearance, as well as he had ever been,) that he should never stir out of ihat room alive, as he felt his heart breaking under the weight of grief which he had
conceived at the sight of that murderous deed ; and was oppressed by the • foreboding thoughts of the disastrous consequences which would ensue.' His prognostications were soon verified; and, within a few hours, in that chamber he became a martyr at once to sorrow and to affection for his beloved monarch. See the next note.
of Mr. Henry, it is seen, testified his abhorrence, by keeping the anniver. sary of that black day as a fast., Dr. Parr gives the following account of Archbishop Usher's observance of the same day : “ He kept the 30th of January as a private fast as long as he lived, and would always bewail the scandal which the King's death cast, not only on our nation, but on religion itself, saying, that thereby an advantage was given to Popery, and that from thenceforward the priests would with greater success advance their designs against the Church of England and the Protestant Religion in general.
« Nor will it be improper here to relate a passage which happened to the Lord Primate at the time of his Majesty's execution: The Lady Peter