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sublime rules of Logic, Metaphysics and Morality, acquired an activity, which had been lost to it for many centuries.

5thly. I turn now to ancient languages and philology as another branch of learning, which is eminently indebted to the Reformation. The study of languages was indispensable to a masterly knowledge of Orientalism, and of sacred and profane antiquities. A profound knowledge, especially of Hebrew and Greek, was absolutely necessary. The cultivation of Latin followed of course. 66 Who does not know (says Villers) that in Protestant Countries, the knowledge of Greek is perhaps more common, than that of Latin, in most Catholic countries.” It is obvious that in the controversy between the Reformers and the Romanists, a critical knowledge of all the ancient languages, above all, of the Hebrew and Greek, would be indispensable, to enable the former to rival, surpass and conquer the latter. No one, at the present day, who looks back through the 16th, 17th and 18th Centuries can question, but that services of incalculable extent and value, have been rendered by the Protestants, to the cause of languages and Philology.

6thly. Modern Languages and National Literature pass next in review. At the date of the Reformation, the modern idioms, excepting Italian, were comparatively rude and uncultivated. In the rest of Europe, a Latin jargon was the language of the schools and of books. The learned might treatin Latin, what scholars only were able to read; and therefore, Mathematics, Physics, Philosophy, might appear with tolerable advantage, in this dress. But how could nations have a Literature, without a vulgar tongue, without a people, or, as it may be said, without a public? All classes, all ages, all sexes, are the proper audience of the literary writer. He must speak the language of courts and of taverns, of closets and of camps, of citizens and of peasants. His business is with all minds, all hearts; and more particularly with those, most ingenuous and open to all impressions, with those who know least of Latin. In order therefore that each nation might have a Literature, it was necessary to write in its own language, it was necessary that all parties should be accustomed to read. A great event, a powerful interest, a subject which should become the favorite topic of every one, which should agitate all minds, which should find access every where, was wanted. Then alone would be found authors, willing to write for the people, and a people, who would read their writings with eagerness. The Reformation was such an event. Brought forth within the narrow boundary of a Latin-speaking public, it could never have been consummated, within such limits. It was requisite that it should quit them, and gain millions of heads, to arm millions of hands in its defense. An appeal to the people was the first step of the Reformers; and this must necessarily have been made in their language. This controversy, which had left the schools, and become the great business of Europe, was the first active principle, by which modern languages were fertilized. To these disputes on Religion we are indebted for the restoration of the fine and good style. The universal animosity between the Papists and Reformists, the long troubles of Germany and Switzerland, those of the League in France, those of the Low Countries, those of Scotland and England, became so many furnaces, in which the different languages of these countries were elaborated and purified. The German Bible of Luther is the principal classical foundation of what is called high German. The same is eminently true of the English Bible of James 1. It may be also added, that inhabitants of towns and of the country, who hear divine service regularly in their own tongue, who sing rich pieces of sacred poetry in it, acquire by these means a crowd of ideas and a taste, which would be otherwise unattainable. The investigating and reasoning spirit of the Reformation was also introduced into works of imagination, and took refuge in the theoretic department of the Belles Lettres, in the systems, connected with sentiment and taste, with the beautiful and sublime.

7thly. Our attention is next directed to the department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences. At first, it might be supposed that the Reformation, which affected so powerfully Theological, Historical and Philosophical studies, could not have exercised any direct influence over the methodical and Natural Sciences. But if Man has once received an extraordinary impulse, if unusual activity and a spirit of curiosity and research are created, it follows that the human mind cannot remain inactive, as to any thing within its scope ; and, therefore, that the study of Mathematics and Physics must have been very much improved by the Reformation. The Philosophical spirit, revived by the Reformation, exercised its influence in a very marked manner, on these studies. Could it, indeed, be otherwise ; since thinking and reasoning, the vital principles of the Reformation, are the es

sence of Mathematical science, and, since matter of fact, practical observation, and experimental truth, were, at once, the result of the Reformation, and the only wise, efficient means for the improvement of Physics. It was not enough to extend and perfectionate these Sciences in themselves. Protestants desired also to unveil the sublime theory, to scrutinize their foundations, and fix their bases. The Philosophy of Nature, distinct from that generally called Physics, also acquired a consistence and development, which make it one of the most sublime branches of knowledge. The infant state of tactics, before the thirty years' war, is well known. Gustavus Adolphus was their Reformer. Frederick the Great, nearly a century after, completed the work of the Swedish hero. The Reformation thus brought modern tactics to a degree of perfection, at which they will doubtless remain, as to their essential elements.

8thly. Let us now attend to the all-important branch of History. By its new method of studying religion, of examining it, and of establishing its evidences, Protestantism gave birth in Europe, and especially in its own bosom, to a more profound culture of profane, as well as of sacred and ecclesiastical antiquity. The Reformation, in the writings of Grotius, Puffendorf, Buchanan, Thuanus, and others, restored history to its true form. Since their time, it has been united to criticism and philosophy. Grotius is superior to most modern historians, and Mably prefers him to Tacitus ; because he had meditated deeply on the rights and duties of society. Buchanan is another example of the power of study. His history breathes an air of dignity, generosity, elevation. The only modern historians, whom we venture to compare with the ancients, such as Burnet, Clarendon, Robertson, Hume, Gibbon, Muller, Schiller, &c. were all Protestants. Literary history, that species of his, tory, which is employed to exhibit a picture of the progress or variations of the human mind, in the Sciences and Arts, is also indebted to the same impulse of the Reformation, for its very existence. Since that period, history, in all its des partments, has been treated in a more philosophical manner. Great lessons and precepts have been drawn from it. The mind become more scrutinizing, has endeavored to bring together the unformed aggregate of scattered facts; it has seized a guiding clew in the labyrinth of ages: by this, it has discovered the progress of humanity. Hence arose the philosophy of History,

9thly. The general subject of Education shall close these successive remarks, on the branches of knowledge, which have been improved in an eminent degree, by the Reformation. Almost all the system of knowledge to be acquired, having changed its aspect, a great alteration must have been effected, in the scheme of public instruction. Luther first felt and labored successfully to produce this reform. The other principal Reformers being, as he was, Professors in the Universities, turned their attention to these establishments, and to the secondary schools. The vices of that monachal and scholastic period, were banished, as far as practicable. The spirit which they introduced, survived them, and finished this noble and important work.

Within the last three centuries, more than twenty Universities have been founded in Germany, of which three-fourths are Protestant. There are 36 Universities in Germany, 19 Protestant and 17 Catholic, while the Catholic population is double the Protestant. No reasonable person, says Villers, will doubt that the Protestant Universities have the advantage in the instruction given. It will not, says he, be thought very inconsistent to say, that there is more real knowledge in one single University, such as Jena, Halle or Gottingen, than in the eight Spanish Universities of St. Jago de Compostella, Alcala, Orihuela, &c. The Protestants have founded and endowed a great number of schools; because their eristence depends on their being the best informed. The Reformation is essentially learned-it received its impulse from Science, and can only be supported by Scienceknowledge is an affair of State in the reformed nations. To the Reformation, the young of that day, and all that have followed them, and all that shall follow us, are indebted for the mildest, and at the same time, the most efficacious methods of instruction.

I have thus considered the effects of the Reformation, on all the important branches of learning : and it is impossible not to admit, according to my best judgment; that more has been done, in three centuries by the Protestants, in the profound and comprehensive, the exact, rational, and liberal development, culture and application of every valuable department of knowledge, both theoretical and practical, with a view to public and private improvement, than has been done by all the rest of the world, both ancient and modern, since the days of Lycurgus.

My second position was, that the principles of the Refor. mation have become the focal point of the whole circle of

knowledge, and that, by their powerful and harmonizing influence, the elements of anarchy and chaos of more than twenty centuries, have been arranged in order, at once no'vel and beautiful. Perhaps, I might be content to refer to all that has been already said, as furnishing the amplest proofs of my opinion; but it is indispensable to show that this sentiment is correct, not only in relation to the past, but also in relation to the present and the future.

The present is matter of fact: and may, therefore, be safely left to the proofs already offered, in regard to the past. They are so entirely identified in causes and character, and the whole present state of the reformed nations is so direct and obvious a consequence of their past condition, that whatever has been stated and established with regard to the past, may be assumed, as equally true of the present. Our attention, therefore, shall be confined to the future state of Protestant countries, with regard to Science, in the most general acceptation of the term. This, then, is our question-shall Science, hereafter, compared with its actual condition, be retrograde, stationary, or progressive?

Considering the genius of government and the state of society ; the nature and objects of every institution ; the liberal, independent, elevated character of thinking and reasoning, of public spirit, and private sentiment : together with the universal anxiety for improvement, which pervades and animates every department of political and civil, of religious and philosophical, of social, domestic and individual interests, we may safely affirm, that nothing short of that power, which turned back the shadow on the dial of Ahaz, can give to Protestant communities, a retrograde impulse. And, under the sanction of the same principles and reason"ings, we may conclude, with a similar confidence, that He only, who stayed the Sun in his onward course, for Moses and Joshua, is able to suspend the advance of the Protestant world, in its career of improvement.

The Reformed nations will then go forward, and our inquiry is, what shall be the character of their progress ? Judging from the actual, present state of those countries, we hazard nothing in affirming, that the departments of knowledge already noticed, will continue to be cultivated with an energy and enthusiasm, every way commensurate with the history of the past. This conviction rests on the fact, that the grand results of the Reformation, are in their very nature immutable, imperishable. Let us review them.

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