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This fagacious enemy, The enemy's army confifted of lebte of their great fuperior y 14,000 horie, 12,000 matchlock in tre £ed, causioofy avoided guns, and fix battalions of feaComing to a general engagement; poys. This battle was more obftian objeto which they as eagerlynately contefted, than almoft any Lought, till they were worn out that the Englith had ever fought and waked, by a continued and in this part of the world. The fruitless succeffion of pursuits and field was alternately loft and won marches. In the mean time, he several times; and the engagement, frequently and fucceisfully attack which began at eleven o'clock in ed their detached parties, and cut the forenoon, was not over till five off their convoys; upon which oc- in the afternoon. Hyder Aly was cafions they lost a great number of at length obliged to retreat, leave men, Europeans as well as natives; ing the field covered with dead boand he ravaged the country in such dies; among which are reckoned, a manner as to complete its ruin. three elephants, nine camels, and These successes raised his character 700 horses. The loss on our side so high, that adventurers from was considerable, above three hunall parts joined him, and his ca- dred being killed and wounded, valry was augmented to above among whom were several brave 90,000, to which however his in- officers. Some of our officers were fantry bore no proportion. The also taken prisoners, and we loft Maratta princes were also entering two pieces of cannon ; so that, upinto alliances with him, and he on the whole, it seems to have been became so daring, as to advance a very disputed affair. with a body of horse almost to the If any consequence attended this gates of Madrass. In every respect action, it was only that it gave he seems, at this time, to have Hyder Aly a new proof of the vaft 'been the most formidable enemy superiority of our troops, which that we had ever met among the 'no numbers, discipline, or conIndian powers.
duct, on his side, could counterA detachn.ent of the company's balance. In other respects the war forces, onder the command of col. went on as before, and the devasWood, had made an unsuccessful tations of the enemy were carried attempt to take a fort called Mul- on with their usual success. The waggie by storm. This repulse divisions and discontents among the was attended with the loss of some officers and council increased every oficers as well as private men, day, and were productive of the
which, together with the small worst consequences. Government number of our detachment, en- grew daily more and more weak, *couraged Hyder, at the head of a divided, and perplexed. The con. great part of his army, to march tracts were ill performed, the feato the protection of the fort. Col. poys deserted in companies, and Wood, notwithstanding the great the army was ruined. disparity of their forces, did not The revenues of the establime- . hesitate, with only 460 ment of Madrass, being unequal
and 2300 to the great expences of the war, 7768. feapoys, to attack him. large remittances were made from
Oct. 4, Europeans,
Bengal to anfwer that purpose. that the company's principal ferThese remittances were obliged tlements were, at any time, in any to be made in a base kind of degree of danger, Hyder Aly's gold coin, by which the com- whole force yas utterly incapable pany was said to be at a loss of of taking the city of Madrass, even 40,000l. in the difference of ex- though we had had no army in the change only. These effects of the field to cover it. But the case was, war, consequently, put a stop to that we had always an army which the investments that were usually he durft no engage; and all that made from Madrass to China; no made him dangerous, was the fasalver being now firring in the gacity with which he avoided fightcountry, and the manufactures at ing. The expence of the war, the a fand from the fear of the enemy. damage done to their allies by ra
Such were the consequences of vaging the country, and the embarthis ill-judged war, entered into, faliment occalioned thereby to their as it is plausibly afferted, without commerce, were very prejudicial, necelty, badly conducted, and and therefore it was very imprucontinued with an obftinacy as in- dent to enter into it; but they are defensible, as the motives that only such losses as the company gave rise to it were adious. It must always be subject to, when does not appear that Hyder Aly it ever quarrels with the Maratta had committed any act of hostility, chiefs, or any other of the counor given any cause of offence to try powers, who command great the company, which could have bodies of horse. Such wars justified a war. On the contrary, hauft the revenues of the company, it is afferted, that their thips were but do not seem capable of endanpermitted to trade in his ports gering its security: without molestation, and their ser In the mean time, Hyder Aly vants had a free intercourse with his having given our army in the Cardominions, till the very moment natic the flip, marched, at the head of the rupture. We also find, that of a body of horse, within a few as soon as terms of peace were miles of Madrais. This motion, proposed, notwithstanding the ad- together with the apprehension of vantages he had gained, he wil- an alliance which he has forming lingly listened to them, and as rea with one of the most powerful of dily acquiesced in equitable condi- the Maratta princes, induced at tions. We must also do the justice length the presidency of Madrass to a brave and able enemy, to ob- to enter into a negociation of peace ferve, that this war was not at with him. This was a measure tended with the acts of treachery, the Indian chief was very well difbreach of faith, and inhuman mas- pored to, and the preliminaries Jacres, which were so frequent in were accordingly foon adjusted. the contests we have had with the The presidency required a truce of other powers of this country; but fifty days, which was the only progood faith, ability, and humanity, posal that Hyder Aly refused, judge are generally found in company. ing, with his usual sagacity, that
It is not however to be inferred so long a time may give an opfrom the ill success of this war, portunity for collecting fresh forces;
in which case it would not be diffi Hyder Aly carried every one of cult to find a pretence for breaking "his guns fáfe from the field. By off the treaty. He accordingly li- this means, and the care he took mited the time for carrying it in- to prevent his forces being incumto execution to seven days, which bered with baggage, nothing could proved sufficient for the purpose. exceed the celerity of their mo
The conditions of tions; so that while our troops April 3,
peace were simple and 1769.
were forming, his horfe being imequitable. The forts
The forts mediately drawn up with a good and places taken on either side countenance, always gave an opwere restored, and both parties portunity to the foot to make a safe were to sit down with the expences retreat, without our being able to they had been at. A perpetual bring either to a close engagement. league, offenfive and defensive, was During these transactions, Suagreed upon, and the number of jah Doula had increased his forces troops to be furnished in such cases, to such a degree, as to form a as well as their pay, was stipulated. considerable army, which he apThe prisoners on both sides were plied himself, with the most unweareleased, and a free trade respec- ried diligence, to discipline, and tively allowed both in the Carnatic put into a formidable condition. and Hyder Aly's dominions, These motions having juftly excited
Hyder Aly shewed uncommon the attention of the secret comabilities through the course of this mittee at Bengal, three gentlemen war. Sensible of the great fupe- were dispatched to that prince, with riority of the English in the field, directions to make a strict enquiry he not only cautiourly avoided ge into the motives of them. This neral engagements, but he also conduct, and the spirited remonformed his army upon such prin- strances made upon the occasion, ciples, that he could not be obliged produced the desired effect. Sujah 20 fight when he did not like. He Doula consented to disband a great totaly laid aside the heary un part of his army, and concluded a wieldy cannon that were used by new treaty with the company, by the Indian princes, inftead of which which he is tied up from ever ina he carried nothing to the field but creasing it beyond a certain ftipu. neat light field-pieces, fix and three lated number, which will be fufpounders, which were most excel. ficient to support the civil iently equipped and mounted, and ment, without being in any degree as well served. A remarkable proof formidable. of which was, that in the whole The consequences of this ill-adcourse of the war, we were never
vised and unfortunate war in the able to take a single piece of can Carnatic, were not confined to the non from him.
For though we East-Indies; the alarm was caught took a great quantity of artillery at home, where the distance of at the battle of Errour, of which the object, and the uncertain know. we gave an account in our last vo. ledge of the danger, having full lume, they were all the property room to operate upon the imagiof the Nizam; and, not withiland nation, multiplied, as is usual in ing the grcatness of the defcat, such cases, the fears of the people
concerned in a most amazing de- entrusted, occasioned great debates, gree. India stock fell above 60 and a continued succession of geper cent. in a few days. It was in neral courts to be held. The vain that the directors produced friends and relations of the gentletheir dispatches from India, and men, who already had great apfewed that the war could not be pointments in India, and who attended with any real danger, and formed a very considerable party, that the company had never been were of courle averse to the fendin a more flourishing state; the epi. ing ont of supervisors. Many odemical disorder had taken its ef- thers were influenced by different feat, and must now spend its force motives to oppose it: some had before it could be removed. particular objections to the gen
In the mean time, the directors tlemen appointed, others from printhought it necessary to take some ciple did not think it safe to trust effectual measures to put a stop to any man, or body of men, with the abuses and mismanagements too much power. By this means which had so much disgraced the every inch of the ground was discompany's government in India, puted, new obje&ions were conand which had been so pernicious tinually started, and no resolution to its interests, both there and at relative to this measure could pass, home. Tothis purpose it was thought without its being first put to the necessary, that three gentlemen of ballot. character, as well as of great abi When the powers to be granted lity and experience in the compa- to the supervisors were at length ny's affairs in that part of the concluded upon, and the commisworld, should be invested with ex- fion for that purpose accordingly traordinary powers, and sent thi- paffed, fome unexpected obje&tions ther under the character of fuper- made by the ministry, together visors, with full authority to exa with an extraordinary proposal, mine into, and re&tify the con- that the company should give to a cerns of every department, and a servant of the crown a principal full power
of controul over all their hare in the direction of their af.
other servants in India. fairs in India, occafioned a new June 14. Mr. Vanfictart,
Mr. delay, and prevented for some time Scrafton, and Col. Ford, all of the expediting of this measure, whom had before served with re The directors having considered putation, the two first in a civil, the great weight that a naval force the latter in a military capacity, would give to their negociations in that part of the world, were with the Indian princes, and being accordingly appointed to this ser- sensible of the good effects that it vice.
might have produced in the preThough the bad conduct of the sent war, had, during the course company's servants in India was of these debates, applied to gonot controverted, and the necessityvernment for two ships of the line, of some such measure was gene- and some frigates, to be sent upon rally allowed, yet the mode of it, that service. No direct answer wasand the degrees of power with made to this application; but as which the supervisors were to be it was known that Sir John Lindsey
řas appointed to the command might be said before the proprie of the ships intended for this ex- tary at large." pedition, it was looked upon as In consequence of this letter, a tacitly.complied with. The com- long train of correspondence, be. pany would at any time have been tween the ministry and the direcentitled to the protection of go- tors, upon a subject with which vernment, and the large annual they were before wholly unasfevenue which it now paid, seemed quainted, was now Faid before the more particularly to give it a right proprietors. It appeared by the to expect not only protection but powers, which the former required favour. As the application had to be granted to the commanding however been only made by the naval officer, that he was in fact directors, it was thought proper, to to superintend the fupervisors, as
give it the more weight, that it well as all the company's political hould have the fanction of a ge- affairs in India. The directors acñeral court, and thereby become knowledged, that they were wil. the act of the whole company. A ling to allow the king's naval com
motion to that purpose mander a certain degree of power, July 27. was accordingly made, in conjunction with the governor and unanimously agreed to, and and council of Bengal; but that another court appointed to be held, there were many fufficient reason's to receive the answer of govern- which prevented their acquiefcence ment, and to put the finishing with the request at large; as well hand to all measures relative to from the danger of entrusting any the departure of the supervisors. one person with such extraordinary Aug. 11.
At this court a letter powers, as the perpetual opportu.
was read, which had nity of interference, which would Been received the night before from thereby be given to government in Lord Weymouth, one of the fe- ali their affairs. At the same time cretaries of fate, in which it was they informed the proprietors, that said, "That the commission ap- the commision had already underpointing the present supervisors to gone the revision of courcil, and India, had been taken into consi- had received the fanction of some deration by his majesty's servants, of the most eminent law opinions and that it was their opinion, that in the kingdom as to the legality in some respects it was illegal. of every part of it. A short day
That he was sorry to find, in an was then appointed for the holding answer which he had received from of another general court, to confi. the directors respecting the ap. der farther of this subject. pointment of a naval officer, with At this court ano
Aug 15. full powers to adjust all maritime ther letter was read afairs in India, that they had not from the fame minister, which had totally
. accecded to it. He now been received that morning. In therefore begged of the directors, this he acquainted the court, that that they would reconsider the com- by the antwér which he trad remision in general; and that the ceived to his lal, he imagined that particular article, of granting un- they had in some degree misunderlimited powers to a naval officer, food him; that it never had been