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course of this irruption, general he had a more military turn, and Ilakow met with a party of Tartars, was, by much, a better officer than and defeated them, is highly pro- any in their army. The concern bable; every body knows, that the they expressed for his death, and Tartars have no great inclination the acknowledgments they made for those sort of engagements that of the great services he had done afford nothing but blows; and that, the Porte, testify the mischief; he as they have no point of honour in had done to the enemy. The view, when they have plundered a Grand Signior appointed his necountry, they consult nothing but phew, Dowled Gherai, whó had the means of escape, and the pre- heen his vizir, and acquired some servation of their booty.

reputation in that station, to be We cannot avoid to express our his successor, in prejudice of his regret, at the extreme faultiness of eldest son, who had accompanied all the accounts that have been him in all his expeditions. published of the transactions of About the time of the invafion this war, No regular detail of of New Servia, the confederates of facts has ever been given, and Bar, who, aflisted by some parties many of the accounts that have of Turks and Tartars, had again appeared, were so extravagant as become formidable in Podolia, to supersede all possibility of belief. were routed by the Russians, and Vague, contradictory, and unsa- obliged to recross the Nielter, with tisfactory as they are, we are the loss of their cannon, and some obliged to make use of them, for magazines they had formed. want of better information; and While these transactions passed can only endeavour to judge, from on the borders of Poland, great the consequences, what degree of preparations were made in Concredit was due to them. Our own Itantinople for opening the camgazette, which used formerly to paign. When the grand convey some information, and vizir was ready to bethough not the most early, or the gin his inarch, the standard of molt ample, yet supported by the Mahomet was displayed, and car. belt authority, from fome krange ried with great pomp and folemnity reserve or negligence, has scarcely through the city to the camp, all so much as announced the war the Turks attending it in procesbetween there great powers. The fion. Upon this occasion, it is accounts that have been given of death for any Christian to appear battles won, that were never fought, in the ftreets, or even to looks end of conquests made, that exifted through a door, or window; and a only in idea, make it necessary to proclamation to that purpose had receive those, that seem somewhat accordingly been made. The cus better attested, with a great degree riosity of two ladies was, however, of reserve and limitation.

too strong to be reltmined either The Kap of the Tartars died by the proclamation, or the dangera Soon after his return, in consequence and had like to have been attended of the violent fatigues he under- with the molt dreadful coplesentin this expedition. His death guences. Was a great loss, so the Turkana as The wife and danckte of the

Apr. 2d.

Sieur Broynard, the resident from ceffary baggage, and great nam the court of Vienna, were the bers of useless domestics, are conheroines, who scorned to betray fequently unwieldy and flow in the rights of the fex, or to sacri- their motions. Though the grand fice: their Christian freedom to vizir began his march from ConMahometan bigotry or rage. These ftantinople early in April, yet ladies accordingly placed them- the delays incident to such incumselves at a window ; from whence brances, and the diffieulty of rethey beheld the procession; but gulating fo vast and undisciplined were foon perceived by the Turkish a multitude, retarded him in such populace, who in the greatest rage a manner, that it was near the and fury, immediately assaulted latter end of the month, before he the ambasador's house. The could advance from Adrianople, house happened to be strong, and with the grand army, towards the the domestics numerous, who ran Danube to their arms, and made a vigorous In the mean time prince Galdefence. A dreadful fray ensued, litzin, who commanded the Rura in which a great number of lives fian army on the banks of the were loft; but the populace having Niefter, thought this a proper time at length made their way into the to attempt something decisive, behouse, they found the minister's fore the arrival of the great Turkish lady, and brought her down into force in that quarter. Having acthe court, where they were mak. cordingly crossed the Niester with his ing preparations to strangle her, whole army, he advanced to Chocwhen fortunately a party of Jani- zim, where he encampt in sight of a zaries arrived, who saved her life, body of 30,000 Turks commanded and dispersed the outrageous croud by Caraman Pacha, and entrench

· The grand vizir expresied greated under the cannon of the town. sorrow for this insult, and begged The prince having made the minister would look upon it, the

necessary difpofi- Apr. 30. as an act only proceeding from tions, attacked the l'urks in their the blind fury of an infatuated entrenchments early in the morning, multitude; he at the same time and notwithstanding an obstinate assured him that he fould have defence, and a dreadful fire from all the reparation that it was posli- the fortress, at length beat them ble to procure. A few hours after, out of the trenches. The Turk's the vizir sent the imperial mini- endeavoured to cover their retreat, fter a rich prefent of jewels for his by detaching a large body of calady, and a bag, which was found valry to attack the right wing of the to contain the heads of the three Rusian army; but they had such principal rioters. · The Grand Sig- a warm reception from the artillery, nior also sent the chief interpreter that they soon retired in great disof the Porte with a rich present, to order. General Stoffeln, and prince apologize, directly in his own name, Dolgorucki, were then ordered to for the affront.

purfue the fugitives, at the head The Turkith' armies being al- of eight battalions; which they ways encumbered with women, did fo effectually, that they folwith immense quantities of unne- lowed them into the suburbs of

Choczim,

Choczim, and their pursuit was at eagerly pursued by the beater length only stopped by the pallisa- enemy in Poland. The circumdoes of the fortress. Soon after the stances that attended this retreat town was set on fire by the red- were so extraordinary, that even hot balls, and a great number of an attempt was not made to deJews and Christians took refuge in fend the passages of the river, and the Russian camp.

the Turkish cavalry over-run the This account of the affair was neighbouring country, burnt some given after the retreat of the Rus- small towns, and destroyed some fian army over the Niester; and Russian magazines. as it was the last, so it was by The reasons asiigned in the Rufa much the most intelligible of those fian accounts for retiring from that had been published at Peters- Choczim, were, that it was garriburg. The first, which had been soned by 18,000 men well provided brought express to court by the with artillery ; that several great Russian adjutant-general, and bodies of Turkish troops appeared seemed thereby authenticated, was in the neighbourhood; that the filled with the most glaring absure country was so wasted, that the dities. The officer who com army could not be supplied with manded a battery on the Russian provisions ; and that Prince Galright wing, was not only said to litzin, not having sufficient artilhave defeated the whole Turkish lery along with him, suspended cavalry by two discharges of his his intention of besieging the artillery, but also to have routed place for the present. the entire army; the Janizaries The defire of establishing a beand other soldiers having imme- lief of success was not however, diately run away from their trenches confined to the Russians. A pompand abandoned the camp, for fear, ous account was published in Conof the third of these dreadful ftantinople, of the great victory fires.

gained by the Ottoman troops over From this advantage over the their enemies; and the Grand SigTurks in their trenches, together nior went publicly to the mosque with the defeat on the same day, to return thanks to Heaven, where by general Proforowski, of a con the Iman bestowed on himthe fiderable detachment that was, flattering title of Gazi, or Con. coming to reinforce their army, it queror. might have been reasonably sup In the mean time, general Ropoled, that Choczim would have manzow made an attempt upon fallen immediately into the hands the important fortress of Oczakow, of the Russians. · In the midst which, in the manner, as well as however of this rapid tide of suce the succeis, seemed similar to that cers, which seemed already to de- made by prince Gallitzin upon termine the fate of the campaign, Choczim. This town, which is without any reverse of fortune the capital of the Budziac Tartary, with which we are acquainted, we lies on the western hore of the great see the victorious prince Gallitzin river Nieper, or Boristhenes, where repass the Niester with precipita- it falls into the Black Sea; and tion, while he is closely and along with the advantage of a toVol. XII.

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Jerable port, commands the paf- ter of the globe. A bloody fage of that river. These circam engagement was fought May 9. Stances, as well as its central fitu- between the Calmucks, and those ation, lying nearly mid-way, be. Tartars that inhabit the banks of tween the entrance into Crim the Kuban, lying between the Black Tartary, by the Ifthmus of Precop and the Caspian Seas. This enon the east, and the mouths of the gagement lasted from two in the Danube on the south-west, render afternoon, to sun-set; when the it a place of the utmoft importance Calmucks, by the help of some to the Turks; so that it may be Russian officers, with a detachment properly considered as one of the of dragoons and coffacks, and two principal keys of all the interme- pieces of cannon, gained the vicdiace provinces. It was besieged tory, having made a great flaughby count Munich in the year 1737, ter, and taken above 5000 hortes. when a bomb having blown up the No prisoners were made upon this principal magazine, and set the dccasion, as the Calmucks gave no town on fire, the Raffians, during quarte the confusion, took it by storm ; in On the other hand, the European which affault, the celebrated gene- Tartars penetrated into the Ruffian rals, Lowendahl and Keith, were Ukraine on the side of Backmuth, wounded. They were, however, where they again renewed all those obliged to abandon it the ensuing devastations, of which they had year, after it had cost them above before given such fatal specimens 20,000 men; it being found im- in the province of New Servia. practicable to support or protect The expeditions in these parts, à garrison at so great a distance, give frequent occasion to remind in the midst of desart countries, ús of the spirit of wars in the which cannot be entered by an earliest times, the principal actions hottile army, without its carrying of which consiited in either deevery necessary along with it, even stroying the people, or making to water, that would be requisite them captive, and in driving away for the vi&tualling of a fleet. vaft flocks, and numerous herds of

At this time, a small Turkish cattle. army was encamped under the Prince Gallitzin had again re. walls, which the Russian general covered the Niefter, and encamped attacked in it trenches, notwith- on its banks. Detachments from standing the fire of the town; but bosh fides continually passed that was repulsed, its was said, with river, which occafioned a great very great loss. This action was number of bloody kirmishes, and represented at Conftantinople as an the ruin of the neighbouring important victory.

countries. The Grand Signior, who While the contending powers had entered into this war as an were attacking each other in every ally and protector of Poland, now vulnerable part on the side of Eu- ordered a manifesto to be delivered rope, the Tartar Asiatic nations to the foreign ministers, in which in their different interests, extended he declared war againit the king the rage of war into another quar- of that country, and threatened

with the fevereft enmity all those example of order and discipline to Poles who did not coincide with the other troops, were now almost his patriotic views, by aflifting the as licentious as any of the rest. Ottoman forces and the Confeder- The peftilence also raged in the ates, in restoring its liberty, and camp, which added to the difficulin the expulfion of the Russians. ties that the general had to enAt the same time he promised counter. support and protection to all those As far as we can judge by his who aflisted in this design. This conduct, and from such accounts example had been set by the Ruf- as have appeared, the grand vizir fians, who long before issued a de- seemed well qualified for the arclaration, that a simple acquief- duous task to which he was apence or neutrality, would not be pointed. Sensible of his own dedeemed sufficient causes of protec- feas, he endeavoured to supply by tion safety; but that all Poles, his natural caution, prudence, and who did not avowedly declare fagacity, the want of military themselves on their fide, were to knowledge and experience. He caube treated as rebels. By these in- tiously abstained from bringing an human declarations, the unhappy overgrown and tumultuous crowd Polanders were reduced to the cruel to a general action, but endeadilemma, of being treated as re- voured by degrees to habituate them bels by.one of their officious friends to discipline, and to the regularity and protectors, let them take which and order of a camp. In the mean fide they would; nor was a quiet time he made effectual use of the and humble submision to the pow- superiority of his cavalry: the ers in being, sufficient to preserve forces on the frontiers were contitheir lives or properties.

nually supplied by strong detachIn the mean time the grand Tur- ments, who had an opportunity of kish army moved very slowly, and trying their courage and acquiring the vizir had uncommon difficulties experience, without a defeat being to encounter. It may be easily attended with any dangerous conconceived how hard it was to pre- sequence. serve or establish order among such These seem to have been the oute ferocious crowds, composed of dif lines of this general's conduct, and ferent nations, who hated or def- the principles upon which he conpised one another; who were to cinued so long a time encamped at tally unacquainted with all manner Isackee, upon the banks of the of discipline, and who never be Danube. In the mean time prince fore had been in a camp, nor had Gallitzin made preparations for seen any kind of service. The of. paling the Niester, and for again ficers were as incapable of agreeing attempting the fortress of Choczim. among themselves, as they were To this purpose he left general of obeying their superiors ; and the Rennecamp with a confiderable several corps which they com- body of troops in his camp, to manded having espoused their quar- divert the attention of the enemy sels, have been upon the point of on the opposite side. This madeciding them by arms. The ja- neuvre had the desired effect, while Bizaries, who always used to set the the prince at the head of the greater

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