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Copies of Federal Procurement Regulations in Federal Register and Code of Federal Regulations form may be purchased by Federal agencies and the public, at nominal cost, from the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. Copies of Federal Procurement Regulations in loose-leaf volume form may be obtained by Federal agencies from the General Services Administration, in a very limited quantity, and may be purchased by the public from the Superintendent of Documents.

§ 1-1.006-4 Coordination.

In the development of Federal Procurement Regulations, there will be solicited the views of interested Federal agencies and, where appropriate and feasible, the views of interested business and professional organizations. The Regulations will be coordinated with the Small Business Administration to assure adequate consideration of small business interests.

§ 1-1.007 Arrangement.

§ 1-1.007-1 General plan.

The general plan, numbering system, and nomenclature used in the Federal Procurement Regulations conform with Federal Register standards approved for the FPR.

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The numbering system permits identification of every unit. The first digit represents the chapter number allocated to each agency, followed by a dash. This is followed by the part number which may be one or more digits followed by a decimal point. The numbers after the decimal points represent, respectively, the subpart, section (in two digits), and, after the dash, subsection, paragraph, subparagraph, and further inferior divisions. For example, this division is called (section) "§ 1-1.007-2," in which the first digit denotes the chapter, the second the part, the third the

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Federal Procurement Regulations will be cited in accordance with Federal Register standards approved for the FPR. Thus, this section, when referred to in divisions of the Federal Procurement Regulations, should be cited as "§ 11.007-3 of this chapter." When this section is referred to formally in official documents, such as legal briefs, it should be cited as "41 CFR 1-1.007-3." Any section of Federal Procurement Regulations may be informally identified, for purposes of brevity, as "FPR" followed by the section number, such as "FPR 1-1.007-3."

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As used in these Regulations, the term "deviation" includes any of the following actions:

(a) When a prescribed contract clause is set forth verbatim, use of a contract clause covering the same subject matter which varies from that set forth.

(b) When a standard or other form is prescribed, use of any other form for the same purpose.

(c) Alteration of a prescribed standard or other form, except as may be authorized in the Regulations.

(d) The imposition of lesser or, where the regulation expressly prohibits, greater limitations than are imposed upon the use of a contract clause, form procedure, type of contract, or upon any other procurement action, including but not limited to, the making or amendment of a contract, or actions taken in connection with the solicitation of bids or

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In the interest of establishing and maintaining uniformity to the greatest extent feasible, deviations from the Federal Procurement Regulations shall be kept to a minimum and controlled as follows:

(a) The head of each agency exercising procurement authority shall prescribe a formal procedure for the control of deviations within the agency. A copy of the procedure shall be furnished to the General Services Administration.

(b) In individual cases, deviations may be authorized by the head of the agency or the officers designated by him for this purpose, in accordance with procedures established by the agency. In each instance the file shall disclose the nature of the deviation and the reasons for such special action.

(c) Deviations in classes of cases shall be considered on an expedited basis jointly by the agency desiring the deviation and the General Services Administration unless, in the considered judgment of the agency and with due regard to the objective of uniformity, circumstances preclude such joint effort. In such case, GSA will be notified of the deviation.

(d) Except as otherwise authorized, when any deviation in a contract form provision is authorized, physical change may not be made in the printed form but shall be made by appropriate provision in the schedule, specifications, or continuation sheet, as provided in agency procedures.

§ 1-1.010 Interagency Procurement Policy Committee.

For the purpose of advising and assisting the General Services Administration in its Government-wide program for the development of uniform procurement policies and procedures, an Interagency Procurement Policy Committee, chaired by GSA, has been established. It is comprised of representatives of procurement and related Federal agencies designated by the heads of the agencies concerned.

[30 F.R. 9766, Aug. 5, 1965]

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"Executive agency” means any executive department (including the Departments of the Army, the Navy, and the Air Force) or any independent establishment in the executive branch of the Government, including any whollyowned Government corporation.

§ 1-1.203 Federal agency.

"Federal agency" means any executive agency or any establishment in the legislative or judicial branch of the Government (except the Senate, the House of Representatives, and the Architect of the Capitol and any activities under his direction).

§ 1-1.204 Head of the agency.

"Head of the agency" means the Secretary, Attorney General, Postmaster General, Administrator, Governor, Chairman, or other chief official of an executive agency, unless otherwise indicated, including any assistant chief official of an executive agency and, for the military departments, the Under Secretary and any Assistant Secretary of the Departments of the Army, Navy, and Air Force.

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§ 1-1.208 Contract.

"Contract" means establishment of a binding legal relation basically obligating the seller to furnish personal property or nonpersonal services (including construction) and the buyer to pay therefor. It includes all types of commitments which obligate the Government to an expenditure of funds and which, except as otherwise authorized, are in writing. In addition to a twosignature document, it includes all transactions resulting from acceptance of offers by awards or notices of awards; agreements and job orders or task letters issued thereunder; letter contracts; letters of intent; and orders, such as purchase orders, under which the contract becomes effective by written acceptance or performance. It also includes contract modifications.

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and the guano islands, but does not include the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. § 1-1.218 Negotiation.

"Negotiation" means the procedure for making contracts without formal advertising.

§ 1-1.219 Contract modification.

"Contract modification" means any written alteration in the specifications, delivery point, rate of delivery, contract period, price, quantity, or other contract provision of an existing contract, whether accomplished by unilateral action in accordance with a contract provision or by mutual action of the parties to the contract. It includes (a) bilateral actions, such as supplemental agreements and amendments, and (b) unilateral actions, such as change orders, notices of termination, and notices of the exercise of an option.

§ 1-1.220 Procurement item.

"Procurement item" means any personal property or nonpersonal service, including construction, alteration, repair, or installation, which is the object of procurement.

Subpart 1-1.3-General Policies § 1-1.301 Methods of procurement.

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shall have compiled with applicable laws and regulations relative to obtaining supplies or services from Government sources and from contracts of other Government agencies. These include excess and surplus stocks in the hands of any Government agency, Federal Supply Schedules, General Services Administration Stores Stock, Federal Supply Service Consolidated Purchase Programs, Federal Prison Industries, Inc., and National Industries for the Blind.

(b) Irrespective of whether the procurement of supplies or services from sources outside the Government is to be effected by formal advertising or by negotiation, competitive proposals ("bids" in the case of procurement by formal advertising, "proposals" in the case of procurement by negotiation) shall be solicited from all such qualified sources as are deemed necessary by the contracting officer to assure such full and free competition as is consistent with the procurement of types of supplies and services necessary to meet the requirements of the agency concerned.

§ 1-1.302-2 Production and research and development pools.

(a) Description. A production or research and development pool is a group of concerns (1) which have associated together for the purpose of obtaining and performing jointly, or in conjunction with each other, contracts for supplies or services, or for research and development, for defense use or to effectuate the purposes of the Small Business Act; (2) which have entered into a pool agreement governing their organization, relationship, and procedure; and (3) whose agreement has been approved either in accordance with section 708 of the Defense Production Act of 1950, as amended (Defense Production Pool), or in accordance with sections 9(d) or 11 of the Small Business Act (Small Business Pool). Pool participants are exempt from the "manufacturer or regular dealer" requirement of the WalshHealey Public Contracts Act. (See subpart 1-12.6.)

(b) General rule. Except as provided in this § 1-1.302–2, a pool shall be treated for purposes of Government procurement on exactly the same basis as any other prospective or actual contractor.

(c) Ascertainment of status. The contracting officer is responsible for ascertaining whether a group of firms seeking to do business with the Government

is a pool. In ascertaining the status of a group representing that it is a pool, contracting officers may rely on a copy of the Small Business Administration (SBA) or the Office of Emergency Planning (OEP) notification of approval of the pool. If the contracting officer has any question as to whether a given pool has been approved, he shall consult the regional office of the SBA. Each executive agency should expeditiously disseminate to appropriate contracting officers information received from SBA or OEP concerning the approval of production pools.

(d) Contracting with pools.

(1) A bid or proposal of a pool is not eligible for award to the pool unless submitted either by the pool in its own name or by an individual member expressly disclosing that it is on behalf of the pool. Except as to contracts to be awarded to incorporated pools, the contracting officer shall prior to award to a pool require to be deposited with him a certified copy of a power of attorney from each member of the pool who is to participate in the performance of the contract authorizing an agent to execute the bid, proposal, or contract on behalf of such member. A copy of each such power of attorney shall be appended to each executed copy of the contract retained by the Government.

(2) Membership in a pool shall not of itself preclude individual members from submitting bids or proposals as individuals on appropriate procurements. Bids or proposals submitted by an individual member of a pool shall not be considered when the individual member has participated in the bid or proposal submitted by the pool.

(e) Responsibility of pool member. Where a member of a production pool has submitted a bid or proposal in its own name, the pool agreement shall be considered in determining the pool member's responsibility pursuant to § 1-1.310. § 1-1.302-3 Contracts between the Government and Government employees or business concerns substantially owned or controlled by Government employees.

(a) Contracts shall not knowingly be entered into between the Government and employees of the Government or business concerns or organizations which are substantially owned or controlled by Government employees, except for the most compelling reasons, such as cases

where the needs of the Government cannot reasonably be otherwise supplied.

(b) When a contracting officer has reason to believe that an exception as described in paragraph (a) of this section, should be made, approval of the decision to make such an exception shall be handled in accordance with agency procedures and shall be obtained prior to entering into any such contract. [30 F.R. 9589, July 31, 1965]

§ 1-1.303 Approval signatures.

Approval signatures on contracts or purchase authorizations should be minimized to the greatest practical extent and, in the event that multiple approval signatures are required, they should, where possible, be obtained concurrently. § 1-1.304 [Reserved]

§ 1-1.305 Specifications.1

"Specification," as used in this § 11.305, is a clear and accurate description of the technical requirements for a material, product, or service, including the procedure by which it will be determined that the requirements have been met. Specifications for items or materials contain also preservation, packaging, packing, and marking requirements. The identification of categories and intended use of such specifications are as follows:

(a) Federal. A specification covering those materials, products, or services, used by or for potential use of two or more Federal agencies (at least one of which is a civil agency), or new items of potential general application, promulgated by the General Services Administration and mandatory for use by all executive agencies.

(b) Interim Federal. A potential Federal specification issued in interim form, for optional use by agencies. Interim amendments to Federal Specifications are included in this definition.

(c) Military (MIL). A specification issued by the Department of Defense, used solely or predominantly by and mandatory on military activities. (This definition includes both fully coordinated and limited coordination military specifications.)

(d) Departmental. A specification developed and prepared by, and of interest primarily to a particular Federal civil

1 Other instructions concerning specifications are contained in the Federal Property Management Regulations, Part 101-29.

agency, but which may be of use in procurement by other Federal agencies. [29 F.R. 10104, July 24, 1964, as amended at 30 F.R. 16110, Dec. 28, 1965]

§ 1-1.305-1 Mandatory use of Federal Specifications.

Federal Specifications shall be used by all executive agencies, including the Department of Defense, in the procurement of supplies and services covered by such specifications, except as provided in §§ 1-1.305-2 and 1-1.305-3.

§ 1-1.305-2 Exceptions to mandatory use of Federal Specifications.

Federal Specifications need not be used under the following circumstances:

(a) The purchase is required under a public exigency and a delay would be involved in using the applicable specification to obtain agency requirements.

(b) The total amount of the purchase does not exceed $2,500. (Multiple small purchases of the same item shall not be made for the purpose of avoiding the intent of this exception.)

(c) The purchase involves items of construction for new processes, new installations of equipment, or items for experiment, test, or research and development, until such time as specifications covering them are issued or it is determined by the General Services Administration, and the procuring agencies notified, that further deviations from the Federal Specifications will not be permitted: Provided, That, in connection with such deviations, existing Federal Specifications shall be used to the extent that they are applicable.

(d) The purchase involves spare parts, components, or materials required for repair or maintenance of existing equipment, or for similar items required for maintenance or operation of existing facilities or installations: Provided, That existing Federal Specifications shall be used to the extent that they applicable.


(e) The items are purchased in foreign markets for use of overseas activites of agencies.

(f) An Interim Federal Specification is used by an agency in lieu of the Federal Specification.

(g) Where otherwise authorized by law.

§ 1-1.305-3 Deviations from Federal Specifications.

When the essential needs of an agency are not adequately covered by an exist

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