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193 The king orders him without a wedding-garment to be cast out. SECT. the feast, or presuming his own habit might do

as well as that which was offered him, had re

fused to accept it. And he said to him, Friend, 12 And be saith unMat. XXII.12 how camest thou in hither, not having on a wed- to him, Friend, how

ding garment suited to the occasion ? Was it not not having a wedding-
offered to thee? or hadst thou so little sense of garinent ? And he was
decency and gratitude as to refuse to accept it speechless.
in compliance with the order of my feast? And
he was presently struck speechlesss, being con-
founded with the majesty of the royal presence,

and conscious of his own insolence and folly.
13 Then the king, being justly incensed at so great

13 Then said the an affront, resolved to punish it by a severe im- king to the servants, prisonment; and therefore said to [his] servants, foot, and take him Bind his hands and feet, and take him away hence, away, and cast hina from all the joy and splendor of the guest-cham- into outer darkuess:

there shall be weepber, and cast him out into the darkness which is ing and gnashing of withouth; and there, instead of the mirth and teeth. delight of my banquet, there shall be nothing but weeping and gnashing of the teeth for anguish and despair. (Compare Mat. viii. 12. Vol. VI.

p. 295.) 14 Nor imagine, said our Lord in the conclusion 14 For many are and improvement of the parable, that this will

called, be the case of one alone; for though it be a dreadful truth, yet I must say, that even the


furnished by the Phracians (Odyss. lib. Holy Spirit; and thercrore may justly re-
vii. ver. 40.4); and from the account sept and punish our neglect of so great a
which Diodorus gives of the great hospita- favour.
lity of Gellias the Sicilian, who readily re g He was struck speechless.] I render it
ceived all strangers, and at once supplied (struck speechless,] because the word ipopewgong
500 horsemen with clothes, who by a vio- is in the passive form, and is very expres-
lent storm were driven to take shelter with sive. It is applied to the muzzling of cat-
bim: (Diod. Sic. lib. xii. p. 375. Edit. tle, 1 Cor. ix. 9. Compare 1 Tim. v. 18.
Steph.) —Now it was usual, more especi- and 1 Pet. ii. 15.
aliy at marriage-feasts, for persons tv ap h Cast him out into the darkness which is
pear in a sumptuous dress, adorned, as some reithout.] The mention of this circum-
writers tell us, with forid embroidery (Dr. stance in this connection would incline one
Hammond, in loc.) though many times to think, either tbat the word apisov (in
rehite garments seem to have been used on ver. 4) may signify supper as well as dinner
such occasions: (compare Rev. xix. 8, 9.) (which soule critics have thought), or that
But as it could not be expected that tra the king is represented as visiting the guests
vellers thus pressed in should themselves be in the evening. But not to insist on this,
provided with a suitable habit, we must which is of little moment, it is well known
theretore conclude, not only from the mag that banquels of this kind were generally
nificence of the preparations, to which we celebrated in rooms that were finely illua
must suppose the wardrobe of the prince minated and richly adorned : (sce noteß, on
corresponded, but likewise from the follow- Mat. viii. 19. Vol. VI. p. 295.) And,
ing «ircumstance of resentment against this considering how splendid and magnificent
guest, that a robe was offered, but refused the entertainments of the eastern princes
by hion. And this is a circumstance which werc, it cannot be thought an unnatural
(as Calvin observes) is adınirably suited to circumstance that such an affront as this
the method of God's dealing with us; who ofiered to the king, his son, his bride, and
indeed requires holiness in order to our re the rest of the company, should be pu-
ceiving the benefits of the gospel, but is nished with such bonds, and thrown into a
graciously plcased to work it in us by bis dungeon.


Reflections on our being called to the gospel-feast. 199 called, but few are greatest part of those to whom the gospel is of- sect. chosen.

fered will either openly reject or secretly disobey
it; and while many indeed are called to the gos- Mat.
pel-feast, it will be manifest, by their disregard- XXII.14
ing it, there are but few chosen in such a sense as
finally to partake of its blessings. (Compare
Mat. xx. 16. p. 114.)

Thus did he strongly intimate to the Jews,
that since they despised the rich provisions of
his gospel-grace, incomparably more valuable
than those of a royal feast, and since they used
the messengers whom God had sent to them in
so ungrateful and barbarous a manner, they must
expect to be cut off and destroved by those
hostile armies which Divine Providence would
speedily bring upon them; but that the gospel
should be embraced by the Gentiles, and vast
numbers of them be converted and saved by it.
And he farther intended to insinuate, by the cir.
cumstance of the wedding-garment, that as God
had made provision in his gospel for the sancti.
fication of men's hearts, and the reformation of
their lives, he expected true holiness and cor-
dial obedience from all who professed to embrace
it; and would another day take a strict review
of all its professors, that he might separate babi-
tual sinners from the number and the blessings
of his people, and deliver them over to perpetual
darkness and misery.


xxi. 2

How rich are the provisions of the gospel! a feast indeed be. Mat. coming the bounty and majesty of the King of heaven; and proportionable even to the love which he bears to his own Son, in honour of whom it is made!

How wonderful is the grace which calls us to the participation o, 10 of these provisions; us, who were originally sinners of the Gentiles, aliens from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers to the covenant of promise! (Eph. ii. 12.) Yet has he graciously sent his messengers to us, and invited us to his house, yea, to his table, with the additional hope of yet nobler entertainments in reserve. Nay none of us reject so condescending a call, lest we turn his goodness 4-6 into righteous indignation, and treasure up to ourselves wrath against the day of wrath! (Rom. ii. 5.)

Let us also remember, that it is not every one who professes to accept the entertainment, not every one who talks of gospel-bless



200 The Pharisees and Herodians come to Jesus to ensnare him, SECT: ings, and seems to desire a share in them, that will be admitted

to it. No: in order to our partaking of an inheritance among the Ver. saints in light, it is necessary that we be made meet for it by the li holiness both of our hearts and lives, (Col. i. 12.) This is the wed

ding garment, wrought by the Spirit of God himself, and offered

to us by the freedom of his grace. And it is so necessary, that with13 out it we must be separated from the number of his guests and

friends, and even, though we had eaten und drank in his presence, must be cast out into outer darkness, (Luke xiii. 26.)

Frequently let us think of that awful day wben the King will come in to see his guests; when God will take a most exact survey 12 of every soul under a Christian profession. Let us think of that

speechless confusion which will seize such as have not on the wed,

ding-garment, and of that inexorable severity with which they 13 will be consigned to weeping and gnashing of teeth. To have seen

for a while the light of the gospel, and the fair beanings of an eternal hope, will add deeper and more sensible horror to those gloomy caverns; to have heard those glad tidings of great joy, and to hear them, as it were, echoed back in accents of final despair, how will it wound the ear, and pierce the very heart! May God prevent it, by fulfilling in us all the good pleasure of his goodness, and the work of faith with power; that the name of our Lord Jesus Christ may be glorified in us, and we in him (2 Thess. i. 11, 12.) when the marriage supper of the Lamb shall be celebrated, and all the harmony, pomp, and beauty of heaven shall aid its solemnity, its magnificence, and its joy!


Our Lord confounds the Pharisees and Herodians when they hoped

to have ensnared him by their question relating to the lawfulness of paying the Roman tribute. Mat. XXII. 15—22. Mark XII. 13–17. Luke XX. 20-26.




Mat. XXII. 15.

Mat. XXII. 15. ChivTIEN the Pharisees, stung with the severe THEN went the Pha

risees, and took but just rebukes he had been giving them in counsel

the foregoing parables, went out from his pre- might entangle him in XXII,15 sence, and retiring, took counsel together how his talk.

they might ensnare him in [his) discourse, and

find something on which they inight ground an Luke accusation or complaint against him. And they

LUKE XX. 20. And XX. 20. narrowly watched him in all his motions that day, they watched him, and

and sent out spies to try if they could take him at spies, which should an advantage, who should pretend themselves to be feign themselves just righteous men, that were come, for the ease of men [MARK, eten



SECT. cliv.

Asking if it was lawful for them to pay tribute to Cæsar.

201 certain [disciples] of their consciences, to propose a scruple to bim on the Parisers and of the

an affair of great importance. Now those that Herodians), that they might take hold of his were sent on this errand were persons of oppo. Luke words, that so they site sects ; [even) some of the disciples of the x8. 20. misht deliver him unto leading men among the Pharisees, who were rity of the governor. very solicitous for the freedom of their country [MAT. XXII. 16.-- from every mark of slavery; and (some] of the MARK XII. 13.) sect of thc Ierodians, a party of men (as was

before observed) peculiarly attached to the
family of Herod, and consequently zealous in
the interest of the Roman government, which
was the main support of the dignity and royalty
of that family. (See note on Mark iii. 6. Voi.
VI. p. 274.) And these, different as their princi-
ples were, combined together in an attempt
upon Jesus, that if an opportunity offered, they
might lay hold on his words, either to render
him obnoxious to the people as an enemy to
their liberties, or to deliver him up as a seditious
person to the power and authority of Pontinis
Pilate, who was then the Roman Governor of

that province.
21 And [MARK, And when they were come to him, in order to 21
when they were come) accomplish their design, they craftily accosted
they asked him, say. him with an air of great respect, and with flat-
ing, Master, we know
that thou [art true, tering expressions of the highest esteem ; and
and] savest and teach- asked him, saying, Master, we know, and are well
est rightly (neither

satisfied, that thou art true and upright; and as for thou re. thou comest as a Messenger from God, so, after gardest not the person the example of those faithful and courageous of men), (MARK, but teachest the

prophets who were in Israel in its better ages, of God in truth]? thou sayest and teachest rightly, and art impar:ial {MAT,,,XXII.--16. and sincere in every thing that thou declarest; MARK XII. i 4.-)

neither carest thou for the censure or applause
of any man; for thou regardest not the person of
men, so as to be influenced by complaisance or
fear, or any private views whatever, to deviate
from the strictest integrity and veracity ; but
plainly teachest the way of God and the patb of


carest thou for man :



a That they might lay hold on his words.] he denied the lawfulness of this tribute, the They hoped to have ensnared him by the Herodians would have had a very plausible question they came to propose, whatever pretence of accusing him to the Roman answer he could have returned. If he as- power, as a seditious person, which his serted on the one hand, that tribute was to persecutors had afterwards the assurance be paid to Cæsar, the Pharisees, who ge. io do ; Luke xxiii. 2, sect. clxxxvi. nerally maintained (as Judas Gaulonites (Compare Acts xvii. 7.) Nay, perhaps, had done) that such a subjection to a the very circumstance of taking upon him foreign power was inconsistent with the to determine such a question might, by privileges of God's peculiar people, would these invidious inquirers, be construed as have endeavoured to expose him to popu a pretence to sovereignty. See Voss. Har. lar resentment, as betraying the liberties mor Evang. p. 54, 55, of his country. On the other hand, had

b One



202 He bids them render to Cesar what is Cæsar's, &c.
sect, duty in truth. We are come therefore to pro-

MAT. XXII. 17.

pose a question to thee, about which thou

What thinkest thou?
Ảnowest that we Pharisees and Herodians are Is it lawful [LUKE,
XXII.17 divided, and to which an interested man who for us) to give tribute

was governed by principles of buman policy (MARK XII. - 14.
might, perhaps, be unwilling to answer : tell us, Luke XX. 22.]
we pray thee (for we have determined to submit
our judgment and practice to thy sentiments in
the matter, What thinkest thou? Is it lawful for
us Jews, who are the peculiar people of God,
and are many of us in conscience tender of ac-
knowledging any king but him, or one of our
brethren appointed by his immediate delega.

tion', to pay the usual tribute to Cæsar, the
Mark Roman Emperor, or not? What dost thou ad MARK XII. 15.-
XII. 15.

Shall we give, or shall
vise in this case, as right for us to do? Shall we

we not give ?
give it to the collectors, or shall we not give it?
We must beg an inmediate answer, for the tri-
bute is even now demanded of us. And here they
ceased, as thinking they had nim in an inextri-
cable snare, and that he could return no answer
which would not expose him to the severe re-
sentment either of the Jewish people or of the
Roman officers.
But Jesus, knowing their hypocrisy, which was

[ Jesus),
indeed their reigning character, perceived their knowing their hypo-
craftiness [and] wickedness in this address, bow- ed their craftıness),
ever pious and respectful it appeared, and there. (and wickedness, and
fore said to them, Ye hypocrites, IVhy do ye tempt tempt ye me [ye hy.

said unto them, Why me by such an ensnaring question, and seek to pocrites ? ] (MAT. draw me into danger and destruction by it? Is XXI. 18. Luke XX.

23.) this a proof of your regard and friendship to a Mat. faithful and impartial Teacher ? But that I MAT. XXII. 19.XXII.19 may return a proper answer to your question, Shew me the tributo

money: [Bring me a whatever be the view that you may have in ask

penny, that I may see ing it, shew me the tribute money which is de- it.] MARK XII.-15.]

LUKE XX. 24.-] manded of you ; and bring me bither a penny, Mark or denarius, that I may see it. And they brought

MARK XII. 16. XII, 16. him a Rouan penny. And, looking upon it, (unto him a penny).

they brought he says to them, Whose is this image which is And he saith unto struck upon the coin, and whose inscription and them, Whose is this title is this {which] it has round it"? And they, tion" [Luxe, that it





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b One of our brethren, &c.] We are 16.) seems to think it was this that formerly told that the ground argument which the engaged them so vigorously to oppose the followers of Judas Gaulonites, and others Chaldcans, and to refuse submitting to inclined to their party, urged, as decisive their government, till Jerusalem was deagainst the authority of the Romans, was stroyed. See nute a on Luke xiii. 1, p. 7. that text which prohibited their seiting a chose is this image and inscription ! ] stringer to be king over them, Deut. xvii. Dr. Lightfoot tells us (in his Hor. Heb. on 23. And Grotius (in his note on Mat. xxii. Mat. xxii. 20) that the Jews have a tradi


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