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understanding the matter aright, you may know what you are here both to do, and to expect.
Direct. 1. The name of the Holy Ghost, or Spirit of God, is used in Scripture for the third person in the Trinity as constitutive, and as the third perfective principle of operation; and most usually as operating ad extra,' by communication. And therefore many fathers, and ancient divines and schoolmen say, “That the Holy Ghost the third person and principle is the love of God; which, as it is God's love of himself, is a constitutive person or principle in the Trinity; but as it is pregnant and productive, it is the third principle of operation 'ad extra ;' and so that it is taken usually for the pregnant, operative love of God.'
And thus they suppose that the Divine power, intellect and will (or wisdom and love) are the three constitutive persons in themselves, and the three principles of operation * ad extra.' To this purpose writeth Origen, Ambrose, and Richardus the schoolman; but more plain and full Damascene and Bernard, and Edmundus Cantuariensis, and Potho Prumensis cited by me in my “Reasons of the Christian Religion.” Augustine only putteth memory for power, by which Campanella thinketh he meant power, (Metaphys. par. 2. 1. 6. c. 12. art. 4. pag. 88.) what Cæsarius - and many others say, de triplici lumine,' I pass by: the Lux Radii et Lumen,' are thought a fit similitude by many : but the motion, light and heat, is a plain impression of the Trinity on that noble element of fire. The holy man, Ephræm Syrus, in his Testament, useth the phrase (in his adjuration of his Disciples, and the protestation of his own steadfastness in the doctrine of the Trinity against all heresies) .by that three named fire of the most Holy Trinity, (or "Divine Majesty,' as another copy hath it) and by that infinite and sole, one power of God; and by those three subsistences of the intelligible (or intellectual) fire.' And as it is a most great and certain truth, that this Sacred Trinity of Divine principles, have made their impress communicatively upon the frame of nature, and most evidently on the noblest parts, which are in excellency nearest their Creator; so it is evident that in the creatures, love is the pregnant communicative principle: so is natural love in generation and friendly love in benefiting others; and spi
ritual love, in propagating knowledge and grace, for the winning of souls.
What I said of the Scripture use of the word is found in 1 John v.5-8. Heb. ix. 14. 1 Cor. xii. 2-4. Rom. i. 4. John i. 32, 33. iii. 5.34. vi. 63. Gen. i. 2. Job xxxiii. 4. 2 Cor. iii. 17, 18. Luke iv. 18. Micah iïi. 8. Isa. xi. 2. lxi. 1.
Direct. 2. The most excellent measure of the Spirit given by Christ after his ascension to the Gospel church, is to be distinguished from that which was before communicated ; and this Spirit of Christ is it which our Christian faith hath special respect to.'
Without the Spirit of God, as the perfective principle, nature would not have been nature ; Gen. i. 2. All things would not have been good, and very good, but by the communication of goodness: and without somewhat of that Spirit, there would be no moral goodness in any of mankind : and without some special operations of that Spirit, the godly before Christ's coming in the flesh, would not have been godly, nor in any present capacity of glory : therefore there was some gift of the Spirit before.
But yet there was an eminent gift of the Spirit proper to the Gospel times, which the former ages did not know; which is so much above the former gift, that it is sufficient to prove the verity of Christ.
For 1. There was -use for the special attestation of the Father by way of power, by miracles, and his resurrection to own his Son. 2. The wisdom and word of God incarnate, must needs bring a special measure of wisdom to his disciples; and therefore give a greater measure of the Spirit for illumination. 3. The design of redemption being the revelation of the love of God, and the recovery of our love to him, there must needs be a special measure of the Spirit of love shed abroad upon our hearts. And in all these three respects, the Spirit was accordingly communicated.
Quest. 'Was it not the Spirit of Christ which was in the prophets, and in all the godly before Christ's coming ?'
Answ. The Spirit of Christ is either that measure of the Spirit which was given after the first covenant of grace, as it differeth from the state of man in innocency, and from the state of man in his apostacy and condemnation: and thus it was the Spirit of Christ which was then given, so far as
it was the covenant and grace of Christ. By which men were then saved. But there was a fuller covenant to be made after his coming, and a fuller measure of grace to be given, and a full attestation of God for the establishment and promulgation of this covenant: and accordingly a fuller and special gift of the Spirit. And this is called The Spirit of Christ, in the peculiar Gospel sense.
Quest. 'How is it said, John vii. 37., that the Holy Ghost was not yet given, because Christ was not yet glorified ?'
Answ. It is meant of the special measure of the Spirit, which was to be Christ's special Witness and Agent in the world. They had before that measure of true grace which was necessary to the salvation of believers, before the incarnation and resurrection of Christ, (which was the Spirit of Christ, as the light before sun-rising is the light of the sun ;) and if they died in that case, they would have been saved: but they had not the signal Spirit of the Gospel, settled and resident with them, but only some little taste of it for casting out devils, and for cures at that time when Christ sent them by a special mission to preach, and gave them a sudden special gift ; Luke ix. 1. x. 17.
Quest. 'How is it said of those baptized believers, (Acts xix.) that they had not heard that there was a Holy Ghost ?'
Answ. It is meant of this eminent Gospel gift of the Holy Ghost, as he is the great Witness and Agent of Christ; and not of all the graces of the Holy Ghost.
Quest. 'Was it before necessary to have an explicit belief in the Holy Ghost as the third person in the blessed Trinity, and as the third principle of the Divine operations, and were the faithful then in covenant with him ?'
Answ. Distinguish between the person and the name : no name is necessary to salvation; else none could be saved but men of one language: to believe in the Holy Ghost under that name, was not necessary to salvation (nor yet is); for he that speaketh and heareth of him in Greek, or Latin, or Sclavonian, &c. may be saved, though he never learnt the English tongue: but to believe in the energetical, or operative, or communicative love of God, was always necessary to salvation, considered in the thing, and not only in the name : as it was to believe in his power and his wisdom: and to believe which is the first, and which the
second, and which the third, is not yet of absolute necessity to salvation; while they are co-equal and co-essential; and it was necessary to the Jews to believe, that this love of God did operate, and was communicated to the faithful; not upon the terms of innocency, according to the first covenant; but to sinners that deserved death, and upon terms of mercy, through the covenant of grace, which was made with lapsed man in order to his recovery, through a Redeemer.
Direct. 3. · All that is efficiently necessary to our salvation, in or of God, is not objectively necessary to be known. And such a measure of the knowledge of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost is necessary to save us, as is necessary objectively to sanctify us under the efficiency of the said Spirit: And all the rest is not of such necessity. And therefore as under the Gospel, the Spirit is Christ's great Witness, as well as Agent in the world, it is more necessary now to believe distinctly in the Holy Ghost in that relation, than it was before Christ's coming in the flesh.'
There is a great deal of the Divine perfection, which causeth our salvation, unknown to us: as the sun will shine upon us, and the wind will blow, and the rain will fall, and the earth will bear fruits, whether we know it or not; so our knowledge of it is not at all necessary to any Divine efficiency as such : the Spirit by which we are regenerate, is like the wind that bloweth, whose sound we hear, but know not whence it cometh, nor whither it goeth (no nor what it is); John iii. 6-9. But all those things which are necessary to work objectively and morally on the soul, do work 'in esse cognito ;' and the knowledge of them is as necessary as the operation is. It was of absolute necessity to the salvation of all, before Christ's coming, and among the Gentiles as well as the Jews, that the Spirit should sanctify them to God, by possessing them with a predominant love of him in his goodness; and that this Spirit proceed from the Son or wisdom of God: but it was not so necessary to them as it is now to us, to have a distinct knowledge of the personality and operations of the Spirit * and of the Son. 'And though now. it is certain that. Christ is the way, the truth, and the life, and no man cometh to the Father, but by the Son (John xiv. 6.); yet that knowledge of him which is necessary to them that hear the Gospel, is
not at all necessary to them that never hear it; though the same efficiency on his part be necessary: and so it is about the knowledge of the Holy Ghost, without which Christ cannot be sufficiently now known and rightly believed in.
Direct. 4. • The presence or operation of the Spirit of God is causally the spiritual life of man, in his holiness : as there is no natural being but by influence from his being ; so no life but by the communication from his life, and no light but from his light, and no love or goodness, but from this Spirit of love.'
It is therefore a vain conceit of them, that think man in innocency had not the Spirit of God: they that say, his natural rectitude was instead of the Spirit, do but say, and unsay : for his natural rectitude was the effect of the influx or communication of God's Spirit: and he could have no moral rectitude without it; as there can be no effect without the chief cause : the nature of love and holiness cannot subsist, but in dependance on the love and holiness of God: and those Papists who talk of man's state first in pure naturals, and an after donation of the Spirit, must mean by pure naturals, man in his mere essentials, not really, but notionally by abstraction distinguished, from the same man at the same instant as a saint ; or else they speak unsoundly: for God made man in moral dispositive goodness at the first; and the same love or Spirit, which did first make him so, was necessary after to continue him
It was never his nature to be a prime good, or to be good independently without the influence of the prime good; Isa. xliv. 3. Ezek. xxxvi. 27. Job xxvi. 13. Psal. li. 10. 12. cxliii. 10. Prov. xx. 27. Mal. ij. 15. John iii. 5, 6. vi. 63. vii. 39. Rom. viii. 1. 5, 6. 9. 13. 16. 1 Cor. vi. 11. ii. 11, 12. vi. 17. xii. 11. 13. xv. 45. 2 Cor. iii. 3. 17. Ephes. ii. 18. 22. iii. 16. v. 9. Col. i. 8. Jude 19.
Direct. 5. “The Spirit of God, and the holiness of the soul may
be lost, without the destruction of our essence, or species of human nature; and may be restored without making us specificilly other things.'
That influence of the Spirit which giveth us the faculty of a rational appetite or will, inclined to good as good, cannot cease, but our humanity or being would cease: but that influence of the Spirit, which causeth our adherence to God by love may cease, without the cessation of our be