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petitive sports were the most frequent activities. The largest single type of injury was lacerations or cuts of the fingers. Most injuries involved the extremities.
The frequency rate for illness reports was between 9 and 10 per 1,000 camper days. Of over 7,000 such reports filed, there were 216 that resulted in hospitalization, going home, or laboratory tests and hence could be considered the more serious cases. Most of these involved some form of upper respiratory infection or inflammation. There were a few cases of childhood diseases and three cases of known appendicitis.
Inspections of camps by sanitarians revealed them, for the most part to be clean and relatively free of hazards. Chief among areas of possible improvement was the area of fire protection. Other findings
Although a number of organizations offer in-service and continuing education programs, these are geared to meet the needs and goals of the individual organizations and are usually concerned with camp management. Specialized courses in water safety and first aid are offered by the American National Red Cross. These are well publicized and open to the public.
Guides, manuals, and standards to aid camp operators are published by a number of organizations, but again these are geared to the needs of the organi. zations for the most part.
State laws relating to camp safety were found to be grossly inadequate, either because they were altogether lacking, or that they were not inclusive enough to cover all areas of camp safety.
Enforcement is difficult and sometimes impossible to achieve. Inspection agencies are frequently understaffed and especially during the summer season which is the normal period of operation for most camps. Enforcing the correction of any violations can be a long and costly process which local officials may not feel is worth the expenditure of time and funds.
The report presents recommended standards in developing camp regulations. These are presented separately for resident camps and for day camps and travel and trip camps.
FIELD DATA COLLECTION MATERIALS USED IN INVESTIGATION
OF YOUTH CAMP SAFETY
Youth Camp Survey Orientation Material for Field Representatives
The 1973 Youth Camp Study is a safety and health project sponsored by the U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare. The study is being conducted by the Century Research Corporation, 4113 Lee Highway, Arlington, VA 22207, telephone (703) 527-5373.
Twenty Field Representatives residing in or near twenty selected cities of the U.S. are each being allocated ten youth camps which will be visited periodically during the camping season (mid June through late August).
A youth camp is defined as one where there are five or more campers; remaining overnight and eating at the camp; they are 18 years of age or younger; and there is no direct parental supervision.
There are five reports to be made by or about camps participating in the survey :
1. Camp Profile describing health and safety provisions in the camp.
2. Camp Census describing the number of campers, counselors, and activities in each session.
3. Camp Environmental Survey checking on the water supply, sewage and solid waste disposal, and the condition of eating, sleeping and play areas.
4. Camper Injury Reports describing each injury to a camper and the events surrounding the injury.
5. Camper Illness Reports describing each illness occuring in camp. All of these forms have been approved by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget.
It is expected that you will work a total of about three days per week, and that you will make a visit to each of your ten youth camps at least once every other week. If you find that one of your camps is not currently in operation, or is otherwise not a good choice, you will substitute an alternate camp on your list, in consecutive order following the first ten. This change will need to be approved by the Field Supervisor or one of the Principal Investigators.
PREPARING FOR VISITS TO YOUTH CAMPS You should identify on a local map of your area the locations of the ten camps that you will be visiting. Number them as they are numbered on your list of camps. You should, if possible, telephone each camp manager (director, supervisor) to make advance arrangements for your first visit. At the end of each visit you can arrange for your subsequent visits. You should plan your itinerary so as to visit your camps with the least amount of motor travel, thereby saving time and travel costs. You can estimate travel times between sequential camps. Depending on events, it is expected that you will be at your home or residence each night, thereby minimizing any per diem requirements. After your first visit you should be able to estimate the time that you will be required for subsequent visits. No matter how well you plan, it will be rare if everything goes according to plan, so be flexible, enterprising and inventive in rearranging itineraries. Conduct
You should be completely honest in your work, reliable and conscientious. Please write legibly whenever you fill in forms or review for completeness forms already filled out by camp management. You should be understanding and inspire people's confidence. Be sure to study the forms that you will be using so that you can explain them clearly and answer questions about them. Dress and grooming
You should be appropriately groomed, and attired in conservative apparel consistent with the situation where you are visiting. Vu will need comfortable, durable shoes and adequate rain gear.
ADMINISTRATION Form and reports
After you are employed you will receive packages of Government prepared report forms and a supply of Century Research Corporation forms including Time Records, Expense Reports and Weekly Log Forms. Instructions for using these forms are presented at various points in this booklet. Two Field Representative Introduction letters are provided, the first on the letterhead of the Department of Health, Education and Welfare, the second on the letterhead of the Century Research Corporation. You may use either or both letters to introduce yourself to camp operators and government officials. These should not get into unauthorized hands. You may also occasionally be given assistance or guidance from a local representative of the National Recreation and Park Association, who are collaborating with Century Research Corporation during this Youth Cmp Study. Also, U. S. Public Health Service and state and local officials representatives may be of help from time to time. Always be friendly and courteous to these people. If you have any question about their authority you should contact your Field Supervisor or a Principal Investigator. Telephone reports
About every other day that you work, and possibly more often if directed, you should telephone Century Research Corporation, (703) 527-5373, and report on work completed, problems encountered, and your future plans. If possible, use your home telephone, and include the rosts of your calls in your Expense Reports. Use Direct Distance Dial whenever possible. Mailing of survey report forms
Whenever possible, completed survey forms should be mailed to Century Research Corporation, 4113 Lee Highway, Arlington, VA 22207, each day you complete forms or collect them from visits to your youth camps. Occasionally you will find yourself in rural locations or with only one or two forms, in which case you should delay mailing until it is more convenient. First Class Mail should normally be used. Envelopes will be provided you for these mailings. Cost of postage should be entered in your Expense Report.
FIELD REPRESENTATIVE DUTIES–GENERAL 1. Verify existence of camp, location and date it will be open.
2. Notify Century Research Corporation of additional camps not on sample list.
3. On direction of and in the order indicated by Century Research Corporation contact Camp Directors about participating in the study. (Other Century Research Corporation personnel may already have accomplished initial contracts.)
4. Instruct the Camp Director in the requirements of his participation in the study. These include:
a. Completing a Camp Profile Form once.
c. Having a Camper Injury Form filled out for each person seeking inedical help for injury.
d. Having a Camper Illness Form filled out for each person seeking medical help for illness.
e. Permitting an inspection of the camp to assess water supply. sewage and solid waste disposal, and state of eating, sleeping, and play areas.
f. Permitting the field representative access to the camp to pick up completed forms about once a week and to review them with the person
who completed them. 5. With the Camp Director (or his designate) complete a Camp Profile Form.
6. With the Camp Director (or his designate) complete a Camp Census for every session.
7. Complete an inspection of the camp facilities for health and safety features. This will include some interviewing of the Camp Director or his designate.
8. Periodically revisit the camp to pick up completed injury and illness forms. This will include:
a. Reviewing each form for completeness and accuracy.
1). Determining from the person who filled in the form what is the correct information for any missing or inconsistent items. 9. Forward any incidental information regarding any camp in the sample area to Century Research Corporation. This may include information on accidents, illnesses, reputation, size, activities, and so forth.
VERIFYING SAMPLE LIST
1. Various listings of camps have been used to generate the list of camps in each locality. The list of camps in your locality must be checked to insure accuracy. 2. For camps on the list, do the following:
a. Determine that the camp is actually located in the Zip Code area in which the sample is to be drawn. If it is not then try to determine what Zip Code it is in.
b. Determine that the camp is operating this summer. If possible, determine the dates for opening and closing.
c. Is the camp actually a resident youth camp? To be included, the camp must contain five or more campers, 18 years old or younger, remaining five or more nights. To be excluded are day camps (where campers return home each evening) and family campgrounds (where youngsters would be under control of parents). Other situations may arise that should be checked with your supervisor or with Century
Research Corporation. 3. By any means available you should add to the list camps that are not listed but meet the criteria for inclusion, that is: They are resident youth camps (as opposed to day camps) operating this summer in one of the Zip Code areas for which you are responsible. Sources may include:
a. Your own information
b. Local headquarters of organizations (Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts, 4-H) may produce people who know about their own and other camps in the
c. Telephone book yellow pages may show some commercial camp listings d. Local health officials who are requred to inspect facilities may have information on locations
e. Where licenses are required, the licensing office may produce information
f. Local youth workers—such as teachers, coaches, recreation department personnel, church workers
1. Century Research Corporation will order all camps on your list alphabetically and then, by appropriate randomization procedures, will reorder them into the order in which you are to contact them.
2. The first 10 camps on tha proirity list are to be contacted by you and their cooperation and participation in the study solicited. They may be contacted in any efficient order, but do not go beyond the first ten camps. 3. One of several responses may be obtained on your contact:
a. Acceptance, in which case you train appropriate personnel in the use of the forms and complete the other forms.
b. Reluctance, in which case you will try to detemine the nature of the reluctance. Reseasons may include:
(1) Camp Director does not fully understand the study. We have several possibities for resolving this ranging from sending in the Field Supervisor through soliciting approval of the national headquarters if the camp belongs to a national organization of association.
(2) Reluctant to devote the necessary time. We may be able to use other personnel to explain fully the nature of the time involved.
(3) Want to be paid for their participation. You can make no commitment of this sort. Ascertain that this is the only impediment
and then refer the case immediately to Century Research Corporaton. c. Refusal. Do not take a dat “no” if at all possible. Offer to have the Field Supervisor, Century Research Corporation principal personnel or others discuss the project with the camp before the director firmly decides not to participate. A telephone conversation from the refuser to Century
Research Corporation may be all that is necessary. 4. When it is firmly established a camp will not participate, the following information should be determined to the extent possible:
Whether camp is profit or non-profit
Approximate counselor census This information will assist in determining whether those camps not participating will have affected the results obtained from participating camps.
5. After it has been determined that a camp in the first 10 will not participate, it will be necessary to substitute from camps lower on the list. This will be done in order starting with the 11th listed camp to substitute for the highest priority refusal, the 12th for the next highest priority refusal, and so forth.
6. If the end of the list is reached before ten participating camps have been identified it will be necessary to contact Century Research Corporation for further substitution possibilities.
1. Contacting the camps in your area is your responsibility. The appropriate methods may depend on such things as the size of the camp, whether it has a telephone, its distance from you and so forth. A telephone call to determine whether the Camp Director will be available on a given day would seem appropriate before traveling many miles to find the camp not yet opened. 2. Objectives of the first visit are to do the following:
a. Explain the project is a study of youth camp safety and health, directed by Congress and being conducted by Century Research Corporation for the U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare.
b. Emphasize that only a sample of youth camps is to be studied and it is therefore very important that each of the selected camps actually participates.
c. Explain that agreement to participate entails the following on the part of the camp:
(1) A Camp Profile is completed which describes the camp facilities, personnel, and safety practices. This takes about 12 hour to complete.
(2) A Camp Census is completed for each session showing the number of campers, number of counselors, and the activities involved.
This form takes approximately 12 hour to complete. 3. Each time a camper seeks medical attention for an injury or illness, a form is completed describing the injury or illness, the ciroumstances surrounding the event, and the disposition of the case. The length of time to complete this form is probably not in excess of 15 to 20 minutes even for the most complicated situation.
4. At some point in the season the camp would be inspected to assess the water supply, sewage and solid waste disposal, and the condition of eating, sleeping, and play areas. This inspection requires about four hours, but would not require camp personnel all of that time unless the director so desires.
5. The camp will have to permit the field representative to visit the person completing the injury and illness reports about once a week to pick up completed reports and review them for accuracy and completeness.
6. Certain national organizations have been active in assisting the government in this study. If the camp is affiliated with any of the following organizations it may be helpful to mention this:
American Camping Association
YOUTH CAMP SURVEY, SUMMARY OF FORMS COMPLETION
Time and comments
Camp profile..... Once for each camp sponsor on Field rep. interviewing camp One-half hour.
initial contact or agreement. director or his designate. Camp census For each session..
Camp director or his designate, One-half hour; checked by
possibly by interview. Camp environment.. Once, sometime during the CRC sanitarian or field rep. will 4 hours; may need State or active season.
need to talk to camp director local health officer along.
or designate for part of it. Camp injury....... Each time medical attention or Camp doctor, nurse, or other One-quarter hour or less; treatment is sought for injury. person charged with treat- picked up by field rep. ment of injuries.
every week or 2. Checked for accuracy and complete
ness. Camp illness.... Each time medical attention or Camp doctor, nurse, or other
Do. treatment is sought for illness. person charged with treat
ment of illness.
CAMP PROFILE Section A-General
1. Today's date. Use numbers for month, day, year. Example: 6/15/73 for June 15, 1973.
2. Camp name. Self explantory.
4. Camp ID number. This will be a three-digit number identifying the camp for data processing purposes.