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Table 15 summarizes legislation, inspection and permit requirements for each state as compiled by Charlotte Williams of the Cordura Company. Thirty-six states had some regulations specifically for camps. The state regulations varied greatly in the areas covered and in their specificity.

B. VISITS TO FOUR SELECTED STATE AGENCIES

The following procedure was used to indicate the results of special state visitations. The four states are referred to in this report as State I, State II, State III and State IV to conceal their identities. The camps referred to specifically are noted by letters of the alphabet with a superscript designating the state in which the camp is located (e.g., Camp AI or Camp BII).

1. State I: This state has a system of voluntary certification only. Camps wishing state certification must request it. The state department will make an inspection to determine if the camp qualified for certification. If the camp does not pass inspection, there is no penalty, except the denial of certification. State I was one of the two states in which a sanitarian from Century Research Corporation administered an Environmental Survey Form to camps. The following is a comparison of the state inspection and the Century inspection. Environmental survey findings

State inspection findings CAMP AI*

Everything marked 0.K.

Fire extinguishers not available (in

sleeping facilities) Bottom of pool swimming area not

visible Unmarked fire exits (in kitchen and

dining areas) Unscreened building openings (in

kitchen and dining areas) *Camp certified by State.

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Nebraska.
Nevada
New Hampshire X
New Jersey.
New Mexico.
New York.
North Carolina (no leadership) X.
North Dakota (no leadership) X.
Ohio (have not responded).
Oklahoma (no legislation)
Oregon (no leadership).
Pennsylvania (no leadership).
Rhode Island X.
South Carolina.
South Dakota
Tennessee X
Texas (none till bill passed in July 1973).
Utah (not designed for youth camping).
Vermont (no leadership).
Virginia (no leadership) X.
Washington
West Virginia XX.
Wisconsin XX
Wyoming (no leadership).

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1 Local department enforced regulations.
2 No specification regarding frequency of inspection in law.
3 Required when opening new facilities only.
4 Required every 6 months.
6 Required twice a season.
6 Water is sewage, contagions, disease only.
Note.-XX-Excellent-have leadership.
X-fairly comprehensive.

H & HRD—Health Division, Department of Human Resources.
ER-Environmental Resources.
BSE-Bureau of Sanitary Engineering.
H-Health Department.
W-Welfare Department.
SS-Department of Social Services.
HW-Health and Welfare.
HM—Health and Mental Hygiene.
B-Board of Standard of Child Care.

Environmental survey findings

State inspection findings CAMP BI* Improper trash containers (in camp- Dishwashing facilities inadequate. site).

Hazardous materials not labeled ; Deck/beach area hazardous.

stored improperly. Garbage not stored in adequate num- Fire extinguishers not available.

ber of approved containers (in din

ing and kitchen areas). CAMP CI* Hot and cold running water not Septic tank lid needs repair. available (in kitchen area). Screen in food preparation area needs

repair. Excremental matter accessible to files.

CAMP DI

Loose trash and debris (in campsite). Camp did not request certification so High weeds.

it was not inspected by State. Improper trash containers. Fire extinguishers not available (in

sleeping facilities). No hot running water (in sanitary

fac.). Inadequate chlorine residual and pH

log (swimming pool). Inadequate filter design on mainte

nance (swimming pool).
Bottom of pool/swimming area not

visible.
Unsanitary condition of kitchen area.
Food adulterated or spoiled.
Utensils improperly stored.
Dishwashing facilities inadequate.
Tableware not sanitized.
*Camp certified by State.
Accumulation of grease on food equip-

ment, stoves, etc.
Inadequate insect and rodent control.

In addition to information for this comparison, the following items were found in the inspection records :

(a) State I inspected and certified a camp which the national agency to which the camp belonged would not certify. In addition, a subsequent health food service inspection found the camp quite unsatisfactory.

(b) The inspection form for a camp in State I was marked 0.K., but the camp was not certified by the state.

(c) One camp was accredited by a national camp accrediting organization but did not pass inspection for certification in State I.

(d) One camp was not inspected because it closed for the season before the inspection could be made. A lack of an official inspection schedule has allowed many camps to go for years without inspection in State I.

2. State II: State II requires that camps be inspected before the initial opening of a new camp and subsequently once a year. When applicable, the inspection is in four areas: camp, water, swimming pool, and food service. However, the person in charge mentioned that there were not enough personnel to inspect every camp once a year. A review of the records indicated that many camps had not been inspected since 1970.

*Camp certified by State.

The following is the comparison of the Century inspections and the state inspections:

Environmental survey findings

State inspections findings
CAMP AII
Garbage not stored in adequate num- Everything marked 0.K.

ber of approved containers (in

kitchen area). Inadequate chlorine residual and pH

log (swimming pool). CAMP BII Improper operation (of solid waste Everything Marked O.K. (When disposal).

asked what were considered by the Inadequate facilities for maintenance state agency as adequate dishwash

of proper (hot/cold) food tempera- ing facilities, the state person retures.

plied that the camp must have a Dishwashing facilities inadequate.

dishwasher or 3 sinks). Tableware not sanitized. Utensils not properly stored. (Comment: only 2 small kitchen sinks

for dishwashing). CAMP CII

Bottom of swimming pool not visible. It was noted that before this camp Deck and beach area hazardous.

could open it must: Utensils improperly stored.

Clean up food preparation area. Tableware not sanitized.

Repair and paint flooring. Garbage not stored in adequate num- Place a thermometer in refrigeratber of proper containers.

ing and heating units. Replace screens in restrooms. Repair hole in kitchen wall.

Remove pest strips. State II cannot immediately close down a camp because of conditions found during an inspection. The swimming pool is the only area that can be closed if not satisfactory. The inspector can place a time limit on correction of violations; a follow-up check on these corrections is fairly good. The problem is not so much lack of enforcement procedures in this state as it is lack of inspection.

Camps are not supposed to operate without a permit, which is issued each year after inspection of the camp. However, simply by applying, and without yearly inspections, camps are receiving permits issued on the basis of their past records. This process has arisen due to lack of personnel.

3. State III: State III requires each camp to have a yearly operating permit. Here again the permit is issued only after the camp has passed inspection by the county office of the State Health Department.

The chief sanitarian, with whom project staff spoke, mentioned that due to the small number of camps within a county and the division of the county into regions, each with a sanitarian, the inspections were frequent and consistent. This state provided an unusual service; the employment of one individual whose function it was to take water samples during the summer, thereby relieving the sanitarians of one area of inspection.

This state designated three major areas of camp inspection : water, sewage, and food service. Serious violations in any of these areas are sufficient cause to suspend camp operation. Camp directors are warned of minor violations and allowed reasonable time in which to make corrections. The closing of camps is, however, the only means for enforcing state permit requirements. This action is taken only if the seriousness of the violation warrants it.

Since camps in State III were not included in Century Research's study, project staff had no basis for comparing inspections. It should be noted, however, that the inspections conducted by this agency generally coincided with standards

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