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C programs is fiscal year 1974 is $4.6 billion. That is a large sum, and I am here to explain why these funds and your support are so essential. Before detailing our needs, I will provide a brief overview of 0 mission objectives.
I. OVERALL OBJECTIVE OF THE CS MISSION Our C system must provide the means to transform individual combat units into an integrated, effective force. This system must satisfy the needs of all echelons of our forces to observe, provide warning and assess adversary intentions, collect and process information on the status of our own and hostile forces, support decision-making, and communicate commanders' decisions to the forces. Essential supporting functions include navigation and position-fixing to establish a common geographical frame of reference for intelligence systems and the forces and information systems to support operational planning of missions.
II. STRATEGIC CY MISSION AREA Since I reported to you last year, we have had some rearrangements in our mission areas. Satellite Communications, which was previously part of DefenseWide Systems, is now a part of the strategic C* mission area. Strategic CR requirements determine many essential features needed for satellite communications and this change facilitates better integration of our programs. This change accounts for the major portion of the increase funding request for tihs mission area in fiscal year 1984.
The difficulty of the C mission is intensified by the fact that our basic national security policy is one of deterrence, which requires that we sustain a capability to react quickly and effectively after the enemy has taken the first initiative. We have taken several important steps to improve our ability to develop, procure, manage and operate our C system. These include the following:
We are giving our Co systems equal priority with the weapon systems they support, and treating the weapon-system mix as a unified element. This perspective will help ensure that the needs of the Force Commanders for force management and force capabilities are balanced over a broad range of possible conflict environments.
We are pursuing a planning process which views the evolving Có weaponsystem mix over a 15-year horizon to guide the direction and pace of that evolution. By adopting this perspective we hope to improve program stability and create a better integrated system.
We are designing and deploying an enhanced C system which, through emphasis on survivability and endurance, can resist the current and projected threat.
Our strategic C program addresses three primary areas: surveillance and warning, command centers and communications connectivity. The modernization initiatives contained in this program is considered the highest priority segment of the President's strategic modernization program. 4. Surveillance and warning
In the surveillance and warning area we subdivide programs into those directed toward the atmospheric threat and those associated with the ballistic missile threat. With regard to the missile area, we are continuing with the Requisition of the ground-based PAVE PAWS radars to eliminate gaps in our present SLBM coverage in the southeast and southwest areas. The southeast radar will have greater target detection capability than other PAVE PAWS radars, permitting it to perform a secondary satellite tracking mission. This will Termit us to shut down the aging FPS-85 radar in Florida, which provides essential space-track data. We expect to complete the BMEWS missile impact prediction computer replacements at all sites and to continue the Thule radar modernization. These steps will improve our attack assessment capabilities.
Two new early warning satellites will be acquired with fiscal year 1984 funds to maintain the existing space segment for ballistic missile launch detection. These new satellites will be of a modified design in order to improve system survivability relative to the existing space segment. We will continue to acquire mobile ground terminals (MGT's) that will provide an austere back-up capable of processing the satellite data and provide direct readout of warning information to the users. These MGT's are virtually impossible for the Soviets to target and that frees us from dependence on the very vulnerable fixed ground processing facility used today.
We will also be acquiring sensors for deployment on NAVSTAR Global Positioning System satelites to accurately locate and characterize nuclear detonations in near real time on a worldwide basis. This system known as the Integrated Operational NUDETS Detection System (10NDS), will permit assessing damage we have sustained and the effects of our retaliatory strikes.
In the area of atmospheric threat warning, we are initiating the acquisition of new long range radars (LRR's) for the DEW Line and we expect to complete the R&D for new short range radars (SRR's). The LRR's will require minimal manning and no manning will be required for the SRR's. As a result of this reduced manning and improved reliability, we plan to deploy 19 more radar systems than are in operation today while cutting our operations and maintenance costs to about half of our fiscal year 1982 cost. This deployment will provide contiguous surveillance coverage of the northern attack routes and with the new Over-the Horizon Backscatter (OTH-B) systems being deployed in the Southern Area as well as in the East and West Coast areas, the U.S. will have a complete contiguous all-altitude surveillance coverage of all approaches to North America. The fiscal year 1984 OTH-B request provides for continuing the upgrade of the 60-degree experimental radar system located in Maine to its operational configuration, in addition to acquiring two additional 60-degree sectors for that same location to provide full East Coast coverage. These improvements are also an integral element of the President's strategic modernization program. B. Command centers
In this area, we are upgrading the survivability and capability of command centers that would direct U.S. strategic forces during a nuclear war. This includes the continued deployment and upgrading of our E-4B airborne command posts to serve the National Command Authority in time of war. EC-135 airborne command posts serving military commanders will be hardened against nuclear effects and will be equipped with upgraded satellite and very low frequency/low frequency communications equipments. These communications upgrades will help sustain connectivity in the event of severe jamming. C. Communications connectivity
Our strategic communications programs are structured to provide improved communication connectivity between command locations (including NCA), sensor sites and nuclear capable forces. New acquisitions will emphasize survivability and endurability. In fiscal year 1984, we will continue with the Defense Satellite Communications System (DSCS) III program by procuring long lead items for four new DSCS III satellites. These new satellites will provide increased capacity, improved jamming protection and a high degree of autonomy which means that they will be less dependent on the single satellite control facility (SCF) located at Sunnyvale, California. We will also initiate full scale engineering development of the MILSTAR space segment with a projected first launch later in this decade. This program will provide a highly enduring satellite space segment for two-way connectivity to the forces. O ating in the Extremely High Frequency (EHF) band MILSTAR will provide improved AJ protection and be more capable of effectively operating in a nuclear environment. While we are still doing development work with some EHF terminals, we will initiate the acquisition of the EHF single channel objective tactical terminal (SCOTT) in fiscal year 1984. We are continuing with the Fleet Satellite Communications (FLTSATCOM) satellite acquisition; in fiscal year 1984, we will procure FLTSATCOM No. 7 which will have an EHF package on hoard in addition to the normal Ultra High Frequency (UHF) capability, as an interim measure until MILSTAR service is available. And finally, in the satellite area, we will be provided UHF leased service via LEASAT. This program has been delayed because of delays in the space transportation system program. We are now expecting a first satellite launch in May of 1984.
In areas other than satellite communications, we are initiating acquisition of modem HF equipment for our Theater Nuclear Forces that will provide communications connectivity in both a jamming and a nuclear environment. In CONUS, we will complete the second phase of the Ground Ware Emergency Network (GWEN). This system will operate at low frequency and provide essential connectivity to major command locations, sensor sites, strategic bomber bases and missile launch control centers. The system will ultimately
have somewhere between 300 to 500 relay nodes to assure an austere communications backbone even after a nuclear laydown. The fact that this system will maintain communications connectivity even after a nuclear attack will discourage attacks on terrestrial communications links.
III. CONCLUSION A comprehensive and integrated strategic C program is an absolute necessity to implement any plan for revitalizing our strategic deterrent regardless of the composition and quality of our strategic forces.
We must be able to accurately sense and estimate the specific objectives of an attack; communicate with our forces prior to, during, and after an attack; and retain the ability to direct our strategic forces in a counter-thrust, the strength of which will be so unacceptably high to the Soviets, they will be deterred from ever initiating an attack.
Our program takes a major step toward providing such a credible strategic C posture. We will support this step with a technology R&D base for continued improvement and as a basis for determining what additional steps may be needed. Particular emphasis will be placed on assuming means for reconstitution and recovery after an attack.
Mr. Chairman, this concludes my remarks. I urge your support of the strategic C program, and will be happy to answer any questions you or the committee might have.
Mr. LATHAM. I would like to turn the microphone over to General Randolph to summarize his area.
STATEMENT OF MAJ. GEN. BERNARD P. RANDOLPH, U.S. AIR FORCE, DIRECTOR, SPACE SYSTEMS AND COMMAND, CONTROL, COMMUNICATIONS, DEPUTY CHIEF OF STAFF, RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND ACQUISITION, HEADQUARTERS USAF
General RANDOLPH. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. I have a formal statement to enter into the record. With your permission, I would like to summarize that in unclassified fashion.
In presenting my summary I would like to point out some of the things we have accomplished with the support of this committee in the past years and also the kinds of things we expect to do in fiscal 1984.
I would like to point out the fact that last October we successfully launched a mission that was a number of firsts, the first Titan 34D, the first inertial upper stage [IUS], and first DSCS III spacecraft all in one mission. It was a success.
That DSCS III program had early program growth. I am pleased to report that has been brought under control. The first DSCS III satellite is performing above our expectations. We have signed fixedprice contracts for the first four production spacecraft at slightly less than we previously advised the Congress.
In addition, we propose in fiscal year 1984 to go ahead with longlead parts for four additional spacecraft.
With regard to SACDIN, we have successfully completed the hardware validation phase and begun field testing with installations at Offutt Air Force Base in Omaha and Vandenberg Air Force Base in California.
SACDIN provides reliable and secure data communications and record data systems as required to support the needs of the NCA and CINCSAC. We will complete the test program and go into production in fiscal year 1984.
We began moving out smartly on the new communications satellite MILSTAR with release of the full-scale engineering development request for proposals. You will recall MILSTAR is designed to be highly survivable for all levels of conflict and is the centerpiece of the President's strategic C3 modernization program.
By the way, we just selected Lockheed as the prime contractor to develop the space segment and expect to award a contract this spring and complete specific design work in 1984.
We let a contract for the over the horizon backscatter [OTH-B] radar system in Maine to improve that to a fully operational configuration and to ultimately deploy it on the east coast of the United States and, of course, we plan an installation on the west coast.
In fiscal 1984 we will complete the first 60 degree sector which is in Maine and begin work on the two other 60 degree sectors to complete east coast activity. This radar will give us long-range surveillance out to 1,800 miles from each of the coasts.
The Air Force accepted the first regional operations control center [ROCC] at Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla., this past year and this ROCC is part of our overall new joint surveillance system which provides the surveillance and command and control functions required for peacetime air sovereignty and air defense in crisis or wartime.
Interestingly enough our manpower requirements will be reduced by 5,000 slots when we complete this improvement and, more importantly, our annual O&M costs will be reduced by $100 million.
We have awarded a contract for the initial connectivity capability of the nine-relay nodes which are part of the ground wave emergency network (GWEN).
As you also may recall, the ground wave emergency network program provides a high confidence communication link between our sensors, the NORAD sensors, the CONUS based SIOP forces and the national command authority (NCA). GWEN gives us a system protected in a nuclear environment unlike anything we have today.
In fiscal 1984 we will begin full-scale development of GWEN leading to a 45-node operational capability by fiscal 1985. So we have been able to move rapidly in this area.
We began the diversity reception equipment proram which provides improved VLF receiving equipment for all Air Force ground and airborne systems.
We are pleased by the fact that we were able to let this contract to a small business which we feel will be able to perform. In fiscal 1984 we will continue design work leading to a completed design in this area.
We continue working on providing the vital command, control and communications to effectively integrate, coordinate and manage all of our space defense resources. The Space Defense Command and Control System (SPADOC) is the centerpiece of this effort. It is a phased approach to the upgrading and integration of our sensors providing information to protect our spacecraft; the defensive kinds of things that we are doing to protect our space systems and supporting our antisatellite work. We plan to complete design work in fiscal 1984 to include extensive software.
The current atmospheric defense system of North America.which includes United States and Canada in a cooperative venture and is composed of ground-based radars as part of the distant early warning [DEW] line, the continental air defense integration north called CADIN/PINE TREE system in southern Canada, plus the joint surveillance system.
However, all these radars have limited range, significant gaps in low altitude coverage and high O&M costs.
We have a comprehensive upgrade program which includes replacing the existing DEW with a series of minimally attended radars and unattended long-range radars which will reduce our overall O&M cost by a significant amount.
In addition, we will be able to terminate our involvement in the CADIN/PINÉ TREE as a result of the improve new radars, thus further reducing our O&M. This combined reduction in O&M will allow our initial replacement investment to be amortized in a little more than 3 years.
The Congress will soon receive a fiscal year 1983 reprograming request for $8 million to begin this program. The reprograming is necessary to keep it on schedule in accordance with the congressional direction which we received as part of the fiscal year 1983 appropriations bill.
In fiscal year 1984 we propose to procure 11 of these long-range radars, FPS-117, and begin developing the new short-range gap filler radars.
Sir, this concludes a brief overview of the kinds of things we are doing and some of the things we propose in fiscal 1984.
[The prepared statement of General Randolph follows:] PREPARED STATEMENT OF MAJ. GEN. BERNARD P. RANDOLPH, DIRECTOR SPACE SYSTEMS AND C3, RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT AND ACQUISITION HEADQUARTERS, USAF
MR. CHAIRMAN AND MEMBERS OF THE COMMITTEE: It is a pleasure to talk to you today on the Air Force Command, Control and Communications program request for fiscal year 1984. The budget request you have before you represents a C$ program which continues to strengthen those initiatives begun in response to President Reagan's top priority on upgrading our C posture. I am here to assure you we are making every effort to insure our C systems can survive and operate in a hostile war time environment.
With your permission, I want to highlight some accomplishments in the Air Force C3 program during this past year:
We successfully launched a mission last October that was remarkable for a number of firsts. We launched our first Titan 34D, our first IUS and first DSCS III, in one mission.
The DSCS III program had experienced some early cost growth. That program has been brought in at the budgeted cost and the first satellite is performing above our expectations. We have signed fixed price contracts for the first four production spacecraft at slightly less than our earlier projections.
We successfully completed SACDIN hardware validation and began field testing with installations at Offutt AFB, NB and Vandenberg AFB, CA. As you know SACDIN provides a reliable and secure digital data communications and record data system as required to support the needs of the NCA and CINCSAC.
We began moving out smartly on our major new communications satellite program, MILSTAR, with the release of the FSED contract. This system is designed to be highly survivable for all levels of conflict and is the center piece of the President's Strategic C modernization program.