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in compliance with the Act entitled "An Act for the perservation of American antiquities”, approved June 8, 1906 (34 Stat. 225), and State laws where applicable. 179 Sec. 306. Mapping.

In carrying out the provisions of this title, the Secretary may, wherever practicable, authorize the use of photogrammetric methods in mapping, and the utilization of commercial enterprise for such services. Sec. 307. Research and planning.

(a) The Secretary is authorized in his discretion to engage in research on all phases of highway construction, modernization, development, design, maintenance, safety, financing, and traffic conditions, including the effect thereon of State laws and is authorized to test, develop, or assist in the testing and developing of any material, invention, patented article, or process. The Secretary may publish the results of such research. The Secretary may carry out the authority granted hereby, either independently, or in cooperation with any other branch of the Government, State agency, authority, association, institution, corporation (profit or nonprofit), or any other organization, or person. The Secretary is also authorized, acting independently or in cooperation with other Federal departments, agencies, or instrumentalities, to make grants for research fellowships for any purpose for which research is otherwise authorized by this section. The funds required to carry out the provisions of this subsection shall be taken out of the administrative and research funds authorized by section 104 of this title, funds authorized to carry out section 403 of this title, and such funds as may be deposited in a special account with the Secretary of the Treasury for such purposes by any cooperating organization or person. The provisions of section 3709 of the Revised Statutes, as amended (41 U.S.C. 5), shall not be applicable to contracts or agreements made under the authority of this subsection. 180

(b) The Secretary shall include in the highway research program herein authorized studies of economic highway geometrics, structures, and desirable weight and size standards for vehicles using the public highways and of the feasibility of uniformity in State regulations with respect to such standards. The highway research program herein authorized shall also include studies to identify and measure, quantitatively and qualitatively, those factors which relate to economic, social, environmental, and other impacts of highway projects. 181

179 Amended by sec. 8(e) of Public Law 86-657, July 14, 1960 (74 Stat. 522).

180 Amended by sec. 103 of the Highway Safety Act of 1966, Public Law 89-564, Sept. 9, 1966 (80 Stat. 731); and sec. 115(c) of Public Law 91-605, Dec. 31, 1970 (84 Stat. 1713).

181 Amended by sec. 136(c) of Public Law 91-605, Dec. 31, 1970 (84 Stat. 1713); and sec. 112(b)(2), Public Law 96-470, Oct. 19, 1980 (94 Stat. 2239).

(c)(1) Not to exceed 142 per centum of the sums apportioned for each fiscal year beginning with fiscal year 1974 to any State under section 104 of this title shall be available for expenditure upon request of the State highway department, with the approval of the Secretary, with or without State funds, for engineering and economic surveys and investigations; for the planning of future highway programs and local public transportation systems and for planning for the financing thereof; for studies of the economy, safety, and convenience of highway usage and the desirable regulation and equitable taxation thereof; and for research and development, necessary in connection with the planning, design, construction, and maintenance of highways and highway systems and for study, research and training on engineering standards and construction materials, including evaluation and accreditation of inspection and testing, and the regulation and taxation of their use. 182

(2) One and one-half per centum of the sums apportioned for each fiscal year beginning with the fiscal year 1983 to any State under sections 104 and 144 of this title shall be available for expenditure by the State highway department only for the purposes enumerated in paragraph (1) of this subsection. 183

(3) In addition to the percentage provided in paragraph (2) of this subsection, not to exceed one-half of one per centum of sums apportioned for each fiscal year beginning with the fiscal year 1964 under paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) of section 104(b) of this title shall be available for expenditure upon request of the State highway department for the purposes enumerated in paragraph (1) of this subsection, including demonstration projects in connection with such purposes. 184

(4) Sums made available under paragraphs (2) and (3) of this subsection shall be matched by the State in accordance with section 120 of this title unless the Secretary determines that the interests of the Federal-aid highway program would be best served without such matching.

(5) The sums provided pursuant to paragraph (2) of this subsection shall be combined and administered by the Secretary as a single fund which shall be available for obligation for the same period as funds apportioned under section 104(b)(1) of this title. 185a

(d) As used in this section the term “safety” includes, but is not limited to, highway safety systems, research, and development relating to vehicle, highway, and driver characteristics, accident investigations, communications, emergency medical care, and transportation of the injured.

185

186

182 Amended by sec. 151, Public Law 93-87, Aug. 13, 1973 (87 Stat. 276); and sec. 156(d), Public Law 97-424, Jan. 6, 1983 (96 Stat. 2134).

183 Amended by sec. 156(b), Public Law 97-424, Jan. 6, 1983 (96 Stat. 2134). 184 Amended by sec. 126, Public Law 91-605, Dec. 31, 1970 (84 Stat. 1713).

185 New subsec. (c)(2), (3), and (4), added by sec. 11, Public Law 87-866 Oct. 23, 1962 (76 Stat. 1145).

1854 Added by sec. 156(a), Public Law 97-424, Jan. 6, 1983 (96 Stat. 2134). 186 Added by sec. 103, Public Law 89-564, Sept. 9, 1966 (80 Stat. 731).

(e) The Secretary shall report to the Congress in January 1983, and in January of every second year thereafter, estimates of the future highway needs of the Nation. 186

Sec. 308. Cooperation with Federal and State agencies and foreign coun

tries. (a) The Secretary is authorized to perform by contract or otherwise, authorized engineering or other services in connection with the survey, construction, maintenance, or improvement of highways for other Government agencies, cooperating foreign countries, and State cooperating agencies, and reimbursement for such services, which may include depreciation on engineering and roadbuilding equipment used, shall be credited to the appropriation concerned.

(b) Appropriations for the work of the Federal Highway Administration shall be available for the expenses of warehouse maintenance and the procurement, care, and handling of supplies, materials, and equipment for distribution to projects under the supervision of the Federal Highway Administration or for sale or distribution to other Government agencies, cooperating foreign countries, and State cooperating agencies, and the cost of such supplies and materials or the value of such equipment, including the cost of transportation and handling, may be reimbursed to current applicable appropriations. 187

Sec. 309. Cooperation with other American Republics.

The President is authorized to utilize the services of the Federal Highway Administration in fulfilling the obligations of the United States under the Convention on the Pan-American Highway between the United States and other American Republics (51 Stat. 152), cooperating with several governments, members of the Organization of American States, in connection with the survey and construction of the InterAmerican Highway, and for performing engineering service in the other American Republics for and upon the request of any agency or governmental corporation of the United States. To the extent authorized in appropriation acts, administrative funds available in accordance with subsection (a) of section 104 of this title shall be available annually for the purpose of this section. 188

Sec. 310. Civil defense.

In order to assure that adequate consideration is given to civil defense aspects in the planning and construction of highways constructed or reconstructed with the aid of Federal funds, the Secretary of Transportation is authorized and directed to consult, from time to time, with the Federal Civil Defense Administrator relative to the civil defense aspects of highways so constructed or reconstructed. 189

186 Added by sec. 161(a), Public law 97-424, Jan. 6, 1983 (96 Stat. 2135). 187 Technical amendment-sec. 152(5), Public Law 93-87, Aug. 13, 1973 (87 Stat. 276).

188 Technical amendment-sec. 152(5) of Public Law 93-87, Aug. 13, 1973 (87 Stat. 276).

Sec. 311. Highway improvements strategically important to the national

defense. Funds made available under subsection (a) of section 104 of this title may be used to pay the entire engineering costs of the surveys, plans, specifications, estimates, and supervision of construction of projects for such urgent improvements of highways strategically important from the standpoint of the national defense as may be undertaken on the order of the Secretary and as the result of request of the Secretary of Defense or such other official as the President may designate. With the consent of a State, funds made available under subsection (b) of section 104 of this title may be used to the extent deemed necessary and advisable by the Secretary to carry out the provisions of this section. Sec. 312. Detail of Army, Navy, and Air Force officers.

The Secretary of Defense, upon request of the Secretary, is authorized to make temporary details to the Federal Highway Administration of officers of the Army, the Navy, and the Air Force, without additional compensation, for technical advice and for consultation regarding highway needs for the national defense. Travel and subsistence expenses of officers so detailed shall be paid from appropriations available to the Department of Transportation on the same basis as authorized by law and by regulations of the Department of Defense for such officers. 190 Sec. 313. Repealed. 191 Sec. 314. Relief of employees in hazardous work.

The Secretary is authorized in an emergency to use appropriations to the Department of Transportation for carrying out the provisions of this title for medical supplies, services, and other assistance necessary for the immediate relief of employees of the Federal Highway Administration engaged in hazardous work. 192 Sec. 315. Rules, regulations, and recommendations.

Except as provided in sections 204(d), 205(a), 206(b), 207(b) and 208(c) of this title, the Secretary is authorized to prescribe and promulgate all needful rules and regulations for the carrying out of the provisions of this title. The Secretary may make such recommendations to the Congress and State highway departments as he deems necessary for preserving and protecting the highways and insuring the safety of traffic thereon.

189 Functions transferred the Secretary of Transportation by sec. 6(a) of Public Law 89-670, Oct. 15, 1966 (80 Stat. 931); and technical amendment-sec. 152(3) of Public Law 93–87, Aug. 13, 1973 (87 Stat. 276).

190 Functions transferred to the Secretary of Transportation by sec. 6(a) of Public Law 89-670, Oct. 15, 1966 (80 Stat. 931); and technical amendment-secs. 152(5) and 152(6) of Public Law 93–87, Aug. 13, 1973 (87 Stat. 276).

191 Repealed by sec. 102 of Public Law 89-564, Sept. 9, 1966 (80 Stat. 731).

192 Functions transferred to the Secretary of Transportation by sec. 6(a) of Public Law 89-670, Oct. 15, 1966 (80 Stat. 931); and technical amendments-secs. 152(5) and 152(6) of Public Law 93-87, Aug. 13, 1973 (87 Stat. 276).

Sec. 316. Consent by United States to conveyance of property.

For the purposes of this title the consent of the United States is given to any railroad or canal company to convey to the State highway department of any State, or its nominee, any part of its right-of-way or other property in that State acquired by grant from the United States. Sec. 317. Appropriation for highway purposes of lands or interests in

lands owned by the United States. (a) If the Secretary determines that any part of the lands or interests in lands owned by the United States is reasonably necessary for the right-of-way of any highway, or as a source of materials for the construction or maintenance of any such highway adjacent to such lands or interests in lands, the Secretary shall file with the Secretary of the Department supervising the administration of such lands or interests in lands a map showing the portion of such lands or interests in lands which it is desired to appropriate.

(b) If within a period of four months after such filing, the Secretary of such Department shall not have certified to the Secretary that the proposed appropriation of such land or material is contrary to the public interest or inconsistent with the purposes for which such land or materials have been reserved, or shall have agreed to the appropriation and transfer under conditions which he deems necessary for the adequate protection and utilization of the reserve, then such land and materials may be appropriated and transferred to the State highway department, or its nominee, for such purposes and subject to the conditions so specified.

(c) If at any time the need for any such lands or materials for such purposes shall no longer exist, notice of the fact shall be given by the State highway department to the Secretary and such lands or materials shall immediately revert to the control of the Secretary of the Department from which they had been appropriated.

(d) The provisions of this section shall apply only to projects constructed on a Federal-aid system or under the provisions of chapter 2 of this title.

Sec. 318. Highway relocation due to airport.

Federal highway funds shall not be used for the reconstruction or relocation of any highway giving access to an airport constructed or extended after December 20, 1944, or for the reconstruction or relocation of any highway which has been or may be closed or the usefulness of which has been or may be impaired by the location or construction of any airport constructed or extended after December 20, 1944, unless, prior to such construction or extension, as the case may be, the State

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