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attach a fundamentally different inter- already been provided. While it cerpretation than myself to the modifica- tainly seems a large sum and a heavy tions on the acceptance of which I alone debt for a struggling young republic to consented to remain in office.” Lord undertake, it must be remembered that Curzon thereupon requested Mr. Balfour, patriotic sentiment in the island made as Prime Minister, to place his resigna- liberal treatment of the old soldiers an tion in King Edward's hands. Mr. absolute political necessity, while the Balfour asked Lord Curzon to recon- difficulty of deciding justly and accusider, but, in a final despatch, the latter rately as to the merits of individual declared : “ The main question is not claims may easily be understood by the the choice of an individual, but of the citizens of the neighboring republic principles underlying our administra- which is paying so many millions of tion. I am reluctantly driven to the dollars yearly in pensions to the soldiers conclusion that the policy of his Majes- of a war ended forty years ago. The ty's Government is based on principles Platt Amendment, which forms part of that I could not conscientiously carry the treaty between Cuba and the United into execution.” These principles have States, provides in effect that Cuba must to do with the supremacy of civil gov- not contract excessive public debternment in India. The question is as such, that is to say, as cannot be cared to whether the Viceroy shall be supreme for as to interest and reasonable sinkingor the Commander-in-Chief. On the fund provision out of the ordinary revemere technical question of Lord Cur- nues, and after current expenses are zon's efforts to limit the freedom of the paid. It has been urged in this country British Cabinet in its choice of a Military that the bill just signed by President Member of the Indian Council, the Min- Palma carries just such an excessive isters were, perhaps, obliged to accept expenditure as was forbidden by the the Viceroy's resignation. But that Platt Amendment. The repetition of seems no reason why the army should this charge has brought out a response be entirely withdrawn from civil control, from the Cuban Minister at Washington, no matter how magnificent the military Señor Quesada. The most pleasing and qualities of the present distinguished satisfactory part of this statement is that Commander-in-Chief. The event shows which deals with the growth of Cuban that England still thinks military con- prosperity. Señor Quesada points out trol more important for India than civil that there a surplus of about government, presumably because of twenty-two million dollars in the Cuban Russia's strategical advantages along treasury just before this law was passed; the Persian and Afghan borders. Lord that commercial and agricultural conKitchener recently stated that Russia, ditions have improved beyond the hope even while grappling with Japan, was of the most optimistic; that production pushing forward her preparations for a and investment are increasing at such contest in which the British Empire in a rate that the wealth of the country India would have to fight for its existence. must be doubled within a few years; Mr. Balfour has now responded to this and that the notable sanitary revolution warning by giving to the Commander-in- in Cuba has had a wonderful effect in Chief practically a free hand.

attracting, not only pleasure-seekers, but business men and industrial investors.

Appropriations for public works and Last week President Palma improvements have been made on a Cuban Finances

signed the bill providing large scale, and will not be hindered by for the payment of $28,500,000 to the the payment to the soldiers. On the Cuban soldiers who took part in the war other hand, the method now chosen for against Spain which resulted, through clearing off the perplexing financial the interposition of the United States, problem of meeting the soldiers' claims in Cuban independence. This is only will keep those claims from falling into part of the entire amount devoted by the hands of speculators and usurers. Cuba to this purpose, the rest having Altogether, to judge from Señor Que


a Senatorial Primaries

sada's statement, the Cuban Govern- Governments have each designated one ment cannot be accused of reckless distinguished engineer to serve on the financiering, and is not in danger of board. being unmindful of its national and international obligations.

Little by little there in Virginia

seems to be develop

ing a constitutional Panama Plans

While the work of prepara- change in this country not unlike that

tion, organization, and sani- which affected the Presidential elections tation is actively going on at Panama, in the early days of the Republic. Virthe question as to how the actual digging ginia has joined that group of States in of the canal shall be done is not to be which, without any alteration of the forgotten. Everything that is done now written Constitution, United States Senaand that will be done for a year to come tors are practically chosen by the people. will be of exactly as much use whether Last week the very active and at times the sea-level plan is or is not adopted, acrimonious contest between Governor and some engineers say that the final A. J. Montague and Senator Thomas decision may properly be left open for S. Martin for election as the Demoa much longer period of time. Mean- cratic candidate for United States Senwhile it will be remembered that when the ator culminated in the popular primaries. present Canal Commission was appointed Senator Martin was successful. Strictly, there was appointed also an international of course, the vote was a recommendabody of expert advisers. This body will tion to the Legislature to re-elect Senator meet in Washington next week and Martin. This recommendation the Legcompare and weigh a vast amount of islature is at liberty to disregard, just as material already gathered for this pur- the Presidential electors are free to dispose. It is reported that the members regard the wishes of the party which has of the board differ radically in their chosen them. As a matter of fact, howpresent beliefs as to the construction of ever, not only is the party contest ended, the canal. They will take up the ques- but the State contest is practically over. tions involved, not as partisans, but as The Legislature being overwhelmingly experts engaged to reach definite conclu- Democratic, Senator Martin is virtually sions by thorough study and judicial elected United States Senator as truly as attitude of mind. If necessary, the Mr. Roosevelt was virtually elected Presiboard will make a visit to the Isthmus dent, not in February, but in the precedof Panama and look into some of the ing November. In this case the machine problems on the ground. The question candidate won. Senator Martin is an of cost will be carefully scrutinized from organization man. Popular primaries data furnished by accountants and finan- do not cure all political ills, but do put ciers. No one can tell what the result the organization under scrutiny. Senator of this investigation will be, for the Martin has been forced to appeal to the members of the board themselves do people for approval as he never would not know what it will be and cannot have done if the choice had been left know it until the several propositions only to the Legislature. Governor Monhave been exhaustively 'examined and tague has performed a public service in compared. The constitution of this board bringing the issues involved in the Senaof advisers is such that practical results torial candidacy before the people. Virseem certain. Its chairman is General ginia may have decided wrongly, but Davis, formerly Governor of the Canal it has not been forced to submit to the Zone, and among the eight American decision of an irresponsible machine. associates are such renowned engineers At the same time the Democratic nomias Mr. William Barclay Parsons, of nation for Governor was made, and New York, Professor William H. Burr, resulted in the choice of ex-Congressman of Columbia University, and General Claude A. Swanson. This


the Henry L. Abbott. In addition, the contest for Governor has not been ended Bntish, German, French, and Dutch by the nomination of the Democratic

candidate. The United States District them after deducting enough to cover all Attorney for the Eastern District of outstanding risks and other obligations. Virginia was recently nominated for the It is stated that the vexed question of Governorship in convention by the Re- the surplus is being investigated by the publicans. Judge Lewis, as he is known proper officials of the Society with the from his former position on the State aid of counsel, and is now pending for Bench, is a man of high position in the adjudication in an action before the State. He is Republican by tradition, Supreme Court. The action of the for his fathers were strong Federalists. Society in distinctly separating itself By his nomination the Republican party from those who formerly controlled it, of Virginia has moved further than ever and asking for relief from the effects of before from its Reconstruction connec- their acts, is a very encouraging sign. tions. It is not unlikely, therefore, that As time goes on it becomes increasingly the race question, which for so long clear that there is a new Equitable, has furnished political shibboleths, will anxious to undo the wrong-doing of the be less conspicuous than ever in the past, and acting on the principle that campaign this fall. State issues of prac- the money of its policy-holders is a trust tical import promise to have more than to be administered primarily for their usual weight, and it is not unlikely that benefit. voters in Virginia will feel freerthan before to divide according to real party prefer

Last week at Narra

Arbitration as Viewed ence. There are thousands of thoughtful

by the Lawyer

gansett Pier, Rhode Virginians who would welcome such a

Island, the Ameristate of affairs if it should come to pass. can Bar Association held its twentieth

annual meeting. The Committee on

International Law, of which Everett P. The Equitable Society has Wheeler, Esq., was chairman, made a Progress of the Equitable Suit

filed its answer to the suit report which covered two important sub

brought against it, as co- jects—the constitutionality of a general defendant with the members of its old arbitration treaty, and the position of Board of Directors, by Attorney-General neutrals as affected by the Russo-JapaMayer. The Society, as at present con

On the latter subject the stituted, unexpectedly joins the State in report indicates clearly the danger that its prayer for relief, admitting many of lies in the policy which France has purthe allegations brought forward in the sued, and makes clear the advance which complaint. The claim is made, however, the United States has made by its action. that the responsibility for the various It is because of its treatment of arbitransactions rests, not on the entire tration that the report deserves attention Board of Directors, but only on certain beyond the confines of the Bar Assoindividual members, especially those who ciation. Although all the members of were formerly officers of the Society and the Committee did not agree to all the who composed the important committees arguments contained in the report, it is of the Board. The answer is verified by significant that the majority of the ComMr. Paul Morton as President. In a mittee record their agreement as to the significant final paragraph it recites that conclusion-namely, that a general arbiwhile the Society is imperfectly informed tration treaty is constitutional. It is as to many of the matters set forth, it pointed out that the Constitution does believes that the Society has been ma- not explicitly or implicitly limit the terially damaged by the "negligent con- nature of treaties which may be made by duct and improper and unlawful acts the President with the consent of the of some of the defendants in the exer- Senate; that a general arbitration treaty, cise of their official duties. The answer if adopted, would be a part of "the takes exception to the statement in the supreme law of the land," and for its complaint that the surplus in the treasury enforcement as such the President would of the Society belongs to the policy be performing an executive function in holders and should be distributed to making special agreements; and that so far from its being beyond the President's experience of European cities, and powers to negotiate such agreements in found it favorable to municipal ownerpursuance of a general arbitration treaty, ship. The second part of his speech he the courts have decided that regulations devoted to a detailed explanation of the made by even the President's subordi- method by which he proposed to hasten nates, if they are made in pursuance of municipal ownership of street railways a general act of Congress, have the force in Chicago. Under the Illinois law of law. The chief value of this report lies enabling cities to own their street-car in the conciseness with which it presents systems, the process of issuing cerlawyers' arguments in support of a gen- tificates to pay for car lines, and the eral arbitration treaty.

nese war.

process of calling for bids and issuing specifications, both involve delay, es

pecially when invoked by the powerAmong various bod- ful corporate interests opposed to muMunicipal Ownership ies organized in this nicipal ownership. To secure to the Discussed

country to promote city, therefore, an option on the lines civic progress, the League of American which would be practically equivalent Municipalities is distinctive in that it is to ownership, Mayor Dunne proposed a composed of municipal officers. In its plan of organizing a private company sessions last week at Toledo, Ohio, the which, by the terms of its charter, would subject which overshadowed all others be under the control of the City Council. was that of municipal ownership of pub- The dividends on the capital stock, the lic utilities. This was due to two causes : salaries of the employees, and the exfirst, to the general interest in the sub- penditures, contracts, and specifications ject, which is manifest throughout the for building entered into by the company country, and naturally found expression would all be subject to determination by in this meeting ; secondly, to the fact the Council, and the methods by which that one of the speakers was Mayor the property could at any time pass into Dunne, of Chicago, who was elected to the hands of the city would be explicitly his office on the issue of municipal own- stated in the act of incorporation. A

A ership of street railways. Mayor Dunne's little more than half of the mileage of address may be divided into two parts. car tracks in the city is, or in the next In the first part he considered the gen- two years will be, at the disposal of the eral subject of municipal ownership. city. Mayor Dunne believes that the He called attention to the fact that for lines included in this could be made, if the past fifty years it has been applied operated by the city, immediately remumainly to water supply, sewage systems, nerative. It has been objected that if parks, and, in some cases, bathing-houses. the trackage of the city should thus be More recently, however, it has been divided between private companies and applied to such public utilities as light- the municipality, the citizens of the city ing plants, telephone systems, and street- would be deprived of transfers which car lines. “ Municipal ownership.” he they now have and would be required to clearly showed was no new and untested pay double fare. This is a practical device, although it has been character- objection that will carry weight with a ized as such when its application to great many people. Americans are slow enterprises in the control of powerful to submit to inconvenience even for a corporations has been proposed. There great good. We seem to prefer to pay is nothing horrible in the thought of a big taxes indirectly rather than little taxes city supplying water to its inhabitants ; directly. Nevertheless, the sentiment there seems to be something dreadful, for the municipal ownership and operahowever, in the idea that a city should tion of such public utilities as street supply its citizens with transportation. railways is undoubtedly growing. The It is in the municipal ownership and fierce and unreasoning vituperation with operation of street railways that Mayor which it is frequently opposed is an Dunne naturally is chiefly interested. indication of the extent to which it has H: referred at some length to the already spread.




in New Orleans


Strong hopes that the There are many huge rookeries, in which The Yellow Fever Situation worst is over as regards

dozens of Italian families live, in even worse the yellow fever epi- ment-houses of New York's East Side. Most

squalor than prevails in the crowded tenedemic in New Orleans were expressed of the houses are built about courts, which at the end of last week by Dr. J. H. are paved with flat blocks or cobbles, and White, who is in charge of the work of

reek with accumulated filth, mud, and stag

nant water. The courts often serve the Marine Hospital Service in the

stables for the horses, as well as playgrounds afflicted districts. The figures for the for scores of children, many of the smaller week do not tell the whole story. So ones running naked in the very hot weather. far as actual deaths are concerned, there has been, statistically speaking, a slight change apparently for the worse ; this,

Early last June, be

The Women's League fore there was however, was expected, and was really inevitable when one considers the headway

much a suspipreviously obtained by the disease. The cion that the summer would bring an decrease in new cases at the end of the epidemic, the Women's League of New week is the really significant thing. The Orleans started a campaign of educatotal number of cases in New Orleans tion on the subject of mosquitoes—the up to Saturday last was 1,743, and that first work chosen by Mrs. W. H. Behan of the total deaths, 275. Outside of the as chairman of its department of Home city the number of cases reported in- and Education. Several of the members creases, but, except in two or three locali- resolved to set the example of screening ties where sanitary conditions are very cisterns, and did so—this as a prelimibad, it is believed that the epidemic can nary to a movement to secure the combe held in check. In the exceptional pletion of the city's water system, and cases it will probably continue to be thus abolish for all time the thousands dangerous until frost comes, and the of cisterns which year after year have physicians now think that in New Orleans menaced the town as breeding-places. itself it cannot be hoped that yellow fever At a meeting last week the women dewill be entirely eradicated before that termined to press the fight for the water time. Serious charges have been made system with all the force which the informally against the city health officer, death-rolls of July and August have Dr. Kohnke, for allowing the epidemic added to the argument, and in that way to get a positive lodgment without taking to bring a permanent good from this measures to stamp it out. Later on an season's travail, But the Women's investigation will doubtless be held as to League is pledged to an the circumstances attending the early searching reform. The revelations that stages of the epidemic; at present the people have been forced to accept as to one thing to do is to fight its spread. A the housing conditions in “Little Pacorrespondent of the New York “ Trib- lermo” ought to help mightily toward une" who has just visited the infected hastening the coming of a better day for district in New Orleans gives the follow- all the poorer dwellers of the city. The ing description of the conditions against President of the Women's League is which the authorities and doctors are Miss Eleanor McMain, a young Southern struggling :

woman who, in Kingsley House, on An

nunciation Street, is doing for a gr A few blocks below Canal Street brings one into the infected district. As there are

river neighborhood what Jane Addams no sewers, the sanitation, even of the streets,

has done for the Halsted Street district is miserable. Water lies in the open gutters, of Chicago. This summer the Settleand mud oozes from cracks between the

ment has been used as a home for the wide, stone paving-blocks. Some of the streets are not paved at all, and are as full

nurses who are fighting the fever. The of chuck holes as a lumbering, town in the neighborhood women of its mothers' Puget Sound rain belt. The buildings in clubs were among the first to attack cisthe district are old, some of them over one

terns and gutters. The President of the hundred years. The architecture is a curious mixture of Spanish and French, modernized

Kingsley House Board is the Rev. Bevwhere repairs have been absolutely necessary. erly Warner, superintendent at Central



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