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people, in Tanganyika. A number of them will be operating in remote areas of Tanganyika, and the Government and we together have cooperatively come to the conclusion that Peace Corps volunteer leaders are not needed in that project in that country; therefore, we will not have any in that project in that country.

We will, however, have a Peace Corps representative, responsible to the ambassador, to whom the ambassador can look for advice about what the Peace Corps is doing in his domain.


Senator HUMPHREY. What will be the relationship of your Peace Corps representative, in Colombia, for example, to the aid agency country administrator?

Mr. SHRIVER. He will coordinate his activity with the aid agency chief of mission, and both of them will be responsible to the Ambassador who is, after all, the overall person in charge of all activities in that country.

We anticipate no particular conflict between those two people. As a matter of fact, in the countries I visited, at least four of our Ambassadors took me aside and recommended that we establish our operations in those countries in the way I have just described.

That is one of the reasons why we have suggested establishing them that way, because the people on the scene in the foreign countries have recommended this to us.

Senator HUMPHREY. Are you going to house this Peace Corps representative with our mission?

Mr. SHRIVER. Yes, sir.

Senator HUMPHREY. Mission people! I mean, economic and technical assistance people ?

Mr. SHRIVER. In some cases, yes, and in some cases, no.

I hate to seem to be equivocal about it but I do not intend to be. It is just that the fact of the situation is that way.

Take one country where our embassy is located in one place and the Peace Corps representative will probably be located in a totally different city, as much as 200 or 250 miles away from that.

Senator HUMPHREY. Why would that be?

Mr. SHRIVER. He would be closer to the center of the volunteer workers, and he would be in closer contact with the foreign government officials with whom they would be working. This is at the suggestion, in this particular case, of our ambassador there that he be so located, and also of the host country.



Senator HUMPHREY. Have you properly indoctrinated the ambassadors, Mr. Shriver, as to the role of this particular program?

Mr. Shriver. We have discussed with them, but they have been, perhaps, indoctrinating us rather than we indoctrinating them. In each case in the countries where we have gone

and where we are intending to send Peace Corps volunteers, we have done our best to explain to the Ambassadors and the other people on the staff the mission of the Peace Corps and how we intend to operate it, and have solicited their advice, and have gotten a lot of good suggestions from them.

Senator HUMPHREY. I am hopeful that that will be the case in each instance.

May I just make an observation resulting from one experience that I had ? I traveled in 10 countries in 1957 to discuss what we called the surplus food program, or the food-for-peace program, and I occasionally found somebody who had heard of it. All of the foreign governments knew about it, and I think one or two Americans were somewhat aware of it, not fully aware, but they did have a fleeting knowledge of it.

Now, I know that is not true of the Peace Corps, which has itself had considerable publicity, but the objectives of the Peace Corps and the administrative structure of the Peace Corps, for instance, that the Peace Corps Director is to report directly to the ambassador, ought to be understood by the ambassador and not just by one of his 33 assistants. I really urge upon you that this kind of information relating to the structure of your organization be well known by the responsible officer, because it is quite obvious that the country administrator of the aid agency is not going to have direct supervision over the Peace Corps staff representative.

Mr. SHRIVER. That is right.

Senator HUMPHREY. There will be a coordinating relationship, with both reporting to the Ambassador.

Mr. SHRIVER. That is correct.

Senator HUMPHREY. I say this most respectfully. I do not wish to be unkind or inconsiderate of the Embassy people, but the well-established Foreign Service officer sometimes kind of looks down his nose at some of these new programs. Not all, but some do; and I say that unless there is an understanding of the Corps, there could be a lot of trouble.



Do you

feel that the Peace Corps program is likely to encourage the voluntary agencies to do less on their own and look to the Government for more and more help?

Mr. SHRIVER. No, sir; quite the contrary. We expect and hope it will encourage

them to do more. As a matter of fact, the requests that we have had for assistance and for Peace Corps volunteers to work with private voluntary agencies indicates already that, as the result of Peace Corps programs, the voluntary agencies may be able to do 10, 20, maybe a hundred percent more than they have been able to do.

Senator HUMPHREY. What about raising money for recruiting their own people?

Mr. SHRIVER. They will still have to do that. We are not giving them money to supplant funds from private sources. What we are giving them money for is for additional operations.

For example, take the CARE Colombian project. If it were not for the Peace Corps, it would go forward with 65 persons participating in it, all citizens of Colombia. That would be the total extent of

it. Instead of that, it is going ahead twice as big with 65 Americans participating in it. This should be, we hope, better for Colombia, and better for CARE, and it constitutes a 100-percent accretion because of the existence of the Peace Corps.

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Senator HUMPHREY. Are you familiar with this morning's story in the New York Times, entitled “Peace Corps Finds Need for Key Men"! The subtitle says “Drive Spurred by a Lack of Volunteers for Vital Jobs."

Mr. SHRIVER. I saw that; yes, sir.

Senator HUMPHREY. Do you believe that the supply of, and demand for, volunteers is going to coincide, and do you have enough qualified volunteers to meet all of the projects approved thus far, as well as those which you have under active consideration?

Mr. SHRIVER. Well, we do have, of course, Senator, enough qualified volunteers to meet the projects approved so far. We would not approve the project unless we felt confident we had the people to carry it out.

Secondly, with respect to the supply of volunteers, as I mentioned in my opening remarks, I think the response from the American people has been extraordinary. After all, we have received applications from about 11,000 people who have volunteered. They have filled out, completed questionnaires asking for a great many details on their life, their work history, their educational background, their friends, and so forth. This in itself indicates a certain amount of seriousness in their application.

Most of these people have applied to serve in the Peace Corps at a time when they did not know whether they were going to Africa, South America, or Asia or where. They have applied when they did not know exactly what kind of remuneration, if any, they would get. They applied when perhaps they did not know all about the rigors of what they would be facing. But still they have indicated their desire to serve the United States in this particular way, in what I consider to be a very encouraging and heartening exhibition of patriotism.

We believe that as specific projects become better known, for example, the project in Colombia or the Philippine Islands, that a number of people who have hitherto refrained because they did not know where they would be going or what they would be doing will begin to volunteer for specific undertakings, and we do intend to have what we call special recruiting, recruiting of specific people for specific projects.

We believe that this is an essential development of the general recruiting program. We will continue the general recruiting program, but we will also be looking for people to volunteer for specific jobs overseas and, as we do make these specific opportunities better known, we believe we will get increasing numbers of volunteers.

Even now, as the summertime approaches and vacation time is here, we still receive at Peace Corps headquarters somewhere between 50 and 100 applications every day coming in, new applications. We will have new examinations given in July, and at that time we expect that there probably will be another 500 to 1,500 people taking examinations.


Senator HUMPHREY. What is the contemplated number of the total corps to be, the total number of corpsmen?

Mr: SHRIVER. Well, the contemplated number, as set forth by the President, was that he hoped that we would have between 500 and 1,000 people in training or overseas in this calendar year. I do not think there is any doubt, Senator, that we will be able to meet that goal.

In our presentation here we have projected a corps which by 1962 will have as many as 2,700 people or more in training or overseas.

Senator HUMPHREY. And the $40 million is to suffice for that!
Senator LAUSCHE. To take care of how many?

Mr. SHRIVER. The answer to that question is slightly complicated, Senator Lausche, but if you will look on page 27, page 28, and page 29 of this report you can see how that breaks down. Instead of it being just in terms of specific numbers of people, we have tried to present it in terms of man-years.

Senator LAUSCHE. I think we can save time if you will just give me an estimate of about how many it will take care of.

Mr. SHRIVER. 6,450. There will be 2,700 overseas in this projection, with 3,750 forward-funded for summer training next summer, so we will have 2,700 presumably overseas, and 3,750 forward-funded, and those forward-funding figures build up the total to the $40 million.

You see, Senator, in each case what we are dealing with
Senator LAUSCHE. You have answered my question.

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Senator HUMPHREY. I just want to conclude my interrogation.

First of all, I want to say to you, Mr. Shriver, that I believe the energy, enthusiasm, and dedication with which you have put yourself into this program, plus your obvious knowledge of its purpose, dimensions, and prospects, has been one of the most rewarding experiences of recent days in Government.

This room is testimony to that. If you would look around you in the back, you will see the young people who are here in larger numbers than they have been here at any time for any particular program, and if this program did nothing more than instill some increased sense of interest in public affairs and in American responsibility among our young people, it would have been well worthwhile already.

You have a great responsibility, as you know, because people can be disillusioned, and they can be disappointed. I think we ought to prepare people for some breakdowns here and there, some failures. But in the main, I am confident it can be a great success, and I particularly want to commend you and your very able staff. The staff in itself is ai indication of the manner in which you have proceeded, and I commend you for the splendid presentation and for the manner in which you have kept the public, not only the Congress and the executive branch, but the American people, informed as to what this mission is all about and how you intend to proceed.

You have been exceedingly candid. You have not tried to deceive anyone. I think this is going to stand you very well in Congress as well as in the country, and I want to thank you.



Mr. SHRIVER. Thank you very much, Senator Humphrey.
The CHAIRMAN. The Senator from Iowa.
Senator HICKENLOOPER. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.

Mr. Shriver, do you know how many Americans are abroad today, or the average number that have been abroad in the last several years as missionaries and members of the voluntary private agencies?

Mr. SHRIVER. I do not know the exact number, Senator, but I know there are thousands and thousands of Americans serving overseas as missionaries and in private voluntary agencies. It is one of the great glories, I would say, of our country that we have been able to inspire people, or they themselves have been inspired, to go into the service.

Senator HICKENLOOPER. Would you say that it is probably in the tens of thousands?

Mr. SHRIVER. Well, it could be much more.
Senator HICKENLOOPER. I have no figures myself.

Mr. SHRIVER. I have no figures either, but I could easily assume it is more than in the tens of thousands. There may be a hundred thousand or more.

Senator LAUSCHE. Will the Senator from Iowa yield?

Senator LAUSCHE. The U.S. News & World Report of March 20 carried a piece on this subject and said there were 26,000 Protestant workers abroad and 7,000 Catholics. I think there is another category of miscellaneous missionaries, but of the Catholic and Protestant, the total number is 33,000.

Senator HICKENLOOPER. This missionary work by the religious organizations has been going on for many years, has it not?

Mr. SHRIVER. Generations; yes, sir.

Senator HICKENLOOPER. And it is many times the contemplated numbers which the Peace Corps proposes to put abroad, at least under the original plan; isn't that true?

Mr. SHRIVER. It is many times the number, Senator, which we are asking Congress to approve for us in the first year of the operation. The total size, the ultimate size of the Peace Corps will be determined by the Congress of the United States, and the success of our programs.

How large it will be, I am not prepared to say.


Senator HICKEN LOOPER. During all these generations in which missionary activities in the fields of agriculture, medicine, health, religion, morals, and spiritual training have taken place all over the world, and especially in what we might call the less developed parts of the world, we have not yet brought these areas to a point of social and economic thinking which we believe to be a proper standard ; isn't that correct?

Mr. SHRIVER. Well, certainly there are parts of the world less developed than this country. But I know, Senator, that the efforts of the missionary groups in large numbers of these countries have made large contributions to their development. Many of the leaders in those countries have been educated in mission schools, for example, and I

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