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some of the blessings of modern health, modern healing to the people in the area.

By the way, that is another suggestion. Somebody can buy one of those. They do not need the Government to do all of it, you know.

Mr. DANIELS. That is right.

Senator HUMPHREY. And most of this is tax deductible, since it is a charitable organization.

Mr. DANIELS. We are a nonprofit organization.

Senator HUMPHREY. People want to know what to do. All they have to do is to wake up and start to think, and there are a lot of things. There are many foundations anxious to get these projects underway, even without a Peace Corps.




Do you think the Peace Corps would be able to supply manpower that would be helpful to your organization ?

Mr. DANIELS. Yes, indeed. As a measure of our confidence, we have talked to the Peace Corps in a most preliminary way about this possibility. We think that Peace Corps personnel would be ideal for our operation, and we think they could be integrated into our mobile clinics most efficiently and usefully. This is exactly the type of personnel that we can use, as I tried to bring out in my testimony.

We need doctors, yes. But we need technicians, people who can swab wounds and dress and bandage and run an X-ray machine and repair a complicated piece of equipment like these mobile units. We have been most interested and encouraged by our talks with the Peace Corps. I do not know whether this will finally jell, it is a matter of current discussion.


Senator HUMPHREY. I hope it shall. I had an experience, Mr. Daniels, last Sunday when I was home in Minnesota. A good friend of mine, Rev. Millard Ahlstrom, of St. Peter, Minn., called me about a graduate of a school called St. Olaf College at Northfield, Minn.

This young man-his name is Wulfe-graduated a few years ago, married, and went overseas on some kind of mission with his church This man is not a doctor, he is not a lawyer, he is not an engineer, he is not a specialist, he is not a technician.' Somebody asked him, “What are you?” And he said, “I guess I am nothing."

But he went overseas, and he went to Thailand, to the northern part where there is a leper colony, and he proceeded to have the lepers build themselves a hospital, and a handicraft shop, and to sell their objects of handicraft, to become self-sustaining. He is 26 years of age. He

. has done this all on his own, with no help from anybody except the people, the unwanted people, of the leper colony. He bought a secondhand jeep 5 years ago, and

he still has it. I hear people say, “Well, what can I do?” They can buy a jeep. I will tell them were to send it.

Mr. DANIELS. There are many places desperately in need of such equipment.


Senator HUMPHREY. And this is an instance, it seems to me, where the Government could afford to pay the transportation.

They get no magazines and no books. We ought to have on every oversea American airline a reduced rate to send American books and American periodicals to certain centers overseas for our professional people, for our libraries. By the time you get some of our weekly publications overseas, a whole new year has transpired. They have already been to the moon and back. So if you are going to have news get to people overseas, you have to get it there fast enough so that it is still news and not history.

Mr. DANIELS. That is right, Senator.

Senator HUMPHREY. These are just a few little suggestions. You are an ingenious man. Pass some of these along. I am just thinking

. I out loud. I think I had better let you go.

I am interested in what you are doing, and I want to compliment your organization, as I have the other organizations which have testified here.

Mr. DANIELS. Thank you very much, Senator.

Senator HUMPHREY. İf you don't think people are interested, turn around. You would be surprised how interested people are in doing good things.

Mr. DANIELS. I think they are, and I think the Peace Corps is a great contribution in this regard.

Senator HUMPHREY. The best thing about the Peace Corps thus far is that it has proven to the world and to the Nation that people are interested in doing something good. It is good news.

Mr. DANIELS. Very good news.
Senator HUMPHREY. Grant Shrum.
Mr. DANIELS. Thank you very much.
Senator HUMPHREY. Thank you very much.

Mr. Grant Shrum, executive director of the National 4-H Club
Foundation of America.
Are you out here from that nice center on Connecticut Avenue ?
Mr. ŠHRUM. Yes, sir.
Senator HUMPHREY. That is a beautiful place you have out there.
Mr. SHRUM. Thank you.

Senator HUMPHREY. Thanks for the parking space when I go to church Sunday morning.

Mr. SHRUM. I use it for the same thing.
Senator HUMPHREY. Thank you. I want to thank somebody.
Mr. SHRUM. You are welcome.
Senator HUMPHREY. You may proceed.


NATIONAL 4-H CLUB FOUNDATION OF AMERICA, INC. Mr. SHRUM. My name is Grant A. Shrum, and I am executive director of the National 4-H Club Foundation of America, Inc., a private, nonprofit educational corporation to complement and assist the educational program of the cooperative extension service in serving the basic needs of young people. We appreciate this opportunity to appear today as a private organization with international experience and to give some of our thoughts as they relate to the Peace Corps.


The National 4-H Club Foundation has developed effective methods for bringing together private and public funds to expand and enrich educational programs and facilities. We work closely with the cooperative extension service of the land-grant universities in each of the States and the U.S. Department of Agriculture. With the support of private enterprise, we have undertaken such projects as the development and operation of the National 4-H Center; specialized training for 4-H members, volunteer leaders, and professional personnel in citizenship and leadership; and, of greatest importance to you here today, the International Farm Youth Exchange (IFYE).


Senator HUMPHREY. Might I add at this point that any information that you can give us about the structural organization of the International Farm Youth Exchange and the scope of its activities—I gather that you have some of that in this statement will be very helpful.

Mr. SHRUM. Yes, sir; I do have.

Using agriculture as a common denominator, the International Farm Youth Exchange helps to build a bridge of understanding between the United States and its world neighbors. Each year we exchange rural young people with about 35 to 40 countries. Well over 200 young men and women are taking part this year. They are finding, as have some 1,200 U.S. youth and 1,400 foreign youth who have preceded them, that the best way to learn about another way of life is to live it. These young people are carefully selected, between the ages of 20 and 30 years, and they spend from 4 to 6 months actually living with rural people. Foreign exchangees coming to this country are scheduled by the State 4-H offices and each participant lives with selected farm families in two States. Our delegates going abroad live with rural people who are associated with rural youth programs similar to our 4-H, learning firsthand about another culture while imparting realistic impressions of our American way of life.

While IFYE is basically a program for promoting better understanding and good will among peoples, the participating young men and women with their farm background and experience have contributed to economic and social growth of their host countries as well.

In addition, the IFYE program has: provided a living experience in international understanding for over 20,000 rural families; produced a corps of young leaders dedicated to international understanding and good will, and to developing effective human relations with their fellow man; demonstrated by its grassroots nature the desire of the American people for understanding and peace; initiated thousands of individual contacts between 4H members and similar clubs abroad.

Certainly, IFYE has helped to spread and strengthen democratic principles and ideology throughout the world. The program is financed almost entirely by private enterprise, through leadership efforts of individuals in business and industry who have seen in this type of program a practical realistic way to achieve understanding

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and good will. Supported directly by 4-H members and leaders, and hundreds of business and industrial firms, foundations and other friends of 4-H, this program demonstrates the sincerity of the American people to share in the problems of others, and has stimulated broader programs of education to further international understanding and good will.



The National 4-H Club Foundation has closely followed the rapid development of the Peace Corps idea and we believe there can be opportunities for private efforts to assist in achieving practical and real results in this new approach in our international policy. As an educational organization, we are anxious to assume our full responsibility in this endeavor.

From our experience, we understand many of the difficulties of this undertaking. There is great risk in any Peace Corps project unless it is carefully handled. If we have learned anything about this type of activity from our own experience, it is that it should be done right or not at all. Programs of this nature must be established by utilizing careful and objective analysis based on experience and knowledge—not on “starry eyed” hopes and dreams.

We believe that the Peace Corps can make substantial progress toward greater economic and social development and, at the same time, strengthen bonds of friendship between the people of the United States and the people in other lands. The most significant contribution to be made by the National 4-H Club Foundation in this effort can be made in assisting with educational programs in agriculture and home economics, particularly with rural youth programs. By placing emphasis on rural youth education in agriculture and home economics, accomplishments in adult education will also be realized.


Through our international program, the National 4-H Club Foundation has demonstrated the significance of private voluntary effort in building and strengthening relationships with the people of other countries. We believe that for greatest impact of the Peace Corps, maximum use should be made of the established private agencies. Care must be taken to effectively coordinate these private efforts and the long-term projected goals of the U.S. Government.


An example of this working relationship is that of the National 4-H Club Foundation with the informal educational program conducted by the land-grant colleges and State universities in the United States through the Cooperative Extension Service. The extension service is an outstanding program of education, and has been copied the world over. Much of this effort in other countries can be traced to efforts of the U.S. Government. Four-H Club work in the United States and similar programs abroad represent the youth phase of this program of education. It is important to note that the 4-H program

in the United States and in other countries is not an organization, but rather a program of education. It is a system for teaching young people how to do every-day practices “better” and to "learn by do

As a means of extending the body of knowledge from scientific and educational institutions to rural people, 4-H educational programs are a demonstrated success.




The National 4-H Club Foundation is in a unique position to help channel the resources of the Peace Corps into these rural youth educational programs and related community development efforts in Latin America, Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. Such an effort would bring to full force the resources of: (1) The Cooperative Estension Service; (2) the 4-H Club movement of 2.3 million members in 93,000 clubs in the United States and in Puerto Rico; (3) the 4-H type rural youth educational movements in over 55 countries; (4) the support of private business leaders, corporations, and business firms engaged in supporting extension and 4-H educational endeavors.

This program can also incorporate the existing efforts being made by the U.S. Government in assisting educational endeavors at the national level in other countries.

The 4-H Foundation believes these projects must be developed carefully, when satisfactory financing, qualified personnel, constructive relationships, and adequate administration can be assured. Our board of trustees has directed that projects in which we might become engaged shall be initiated on a pilot demonstrational basis to insure their success, and to gain the needed additional experience to carry out future expanded programs.






To achieve the maximum benefit from private organizations, it will be necessary for the Peace Corps to establish contracts that will permit the private organization to function in accordance with policies established by their own governing body and carried out by an experienced, well-trained, and competent staff.

It is the opinion of this organization that private cooperation with the Peace Corps must supplement, contribute to, and complement the long-term planning and efforts of the various organizations and agencies of the U.S. Government if the Peace Corps effort is to render its most effective results in behalf of other people.

Senator HUMPHREY. Mr. Shrum, thank you very much for your statement.

Do I understand that your organization has been in contact with Peace Corps personnel already?

Mr. SHRUM. Yes, sir; we have.

Senator HUMPHREY. In your statement when you say: To achieve the maximum benefit from private organizations, it will be necessary for the Peace Corps to establish contracts that will permit the private organization to function in accordance with policies established by their own governing body and carried out by an experienced, well-trained, and competent staff

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