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We, too, join the favorable response which has greeted the Peace Corps proposal. This enthusiastic response indicates something of the desire of Americans for world peace and friendship with all peoples. The Peace Corps program can do much to assure the peoples of the world of this concern and release them from the tensions and fears of a nuclear holocaust.


We commend and approve the emphasis that seeks to promote better understanding of other peoples on the part of America and a better understanding of America by other peoples of the world. The Peace Corps program of mutual activity, through person-to-person contacts, promotes friendship and understanding, the cornerstones of a peaceful world.

We commend and approve the emphasis upon willingness to serve under conditions of hardship” and with minimum compensation. This kind of approach to people in need aids significantly in developing a mutuality of concern and effort for the improvement of the general welfare.


And, Mr. Chairman, I am citing several lessons from experience in the last 9 years which, basically, support the ideas presented in this bill.

(1) The idea of youth participating in relief services and economic development overseas is basically sound. Since 1945 in all phases of our foreign program more than 1,500 porsons have served in 45 different countries, with terms of from 2 to 6 years. In 1960, 241 men and women, most of whom were between the ages of 20 and 30, served abroad. Physicians, nurses, hospital executives, teachers, agricultural technicians and workers, construction engineers and workers, social workers, skilled and unskilled laborers were among the number.

(2) Youth serve as an effective link between senior technicians and the people. I cite several instances where we are using youth as links in this way:

(a) In Haiti six young men are engaged in agricultural work at the grassroots level. These men work under the counsel and advice of US. technicians. (6) In Paraguay seven young men work on

b the Paraguay Government and United States Government transChaco roadway project. They serve in the training program for Paraguay roadworkers under Government technicians. (c) In Indonesia on the isolated islands of Timor and Halmahara we have both medical and agricultural teams operating projects in the closest cooperation with Indonesian technicians and Government officials. (d) In Nepal seven young men skilled in construction are working with Nepalese, building hospitals and schools.

(3) Youth frequently establish better rapport with people of other countries at the grassroots level than does the executive or professional person.

In the villages of the Aridea Valley in northern Greece we have had a peace team for more than 9 years. The leader of the team is a well-trained agricultural worker. The members of the team are young men who live with the Greek villagers. They spend many evenings in the homes of the villagers discussing problems of livestock and crops. They are accepted, loved, and respected, and have a tremendous influence.

(4) The motivation controlling youth in service is extremely important. There must be a genuine spirit of self-sacrifice and devotion to the welfare of others. Such motivation is usually found only in those who possess a meaningful religious faith.

(5) Qualified leadership is essential for youth in overseas projects.

If available, leaders should be provided who have themselves had successful experience overseas.

(6) The voluntary agency worker, unattached to Government, is in a unique position to build good will for his country, as a byproduct of his service. This concerned agency volunteer, working diligently for the welfare of people at the grassroots level, loved and respected, becomes to these people the image of the average American.



In the light of these facts, we propose the following in alteration of the regulations and in amendment of the act, if necessary.

I say, if necessary, Mr. Chairman, because I am inclined to think that the wording of the act provides for the suggestions here on page 15, line 4, and line 5 that the President is authorized in terms of the Act to enter into, perform and modify contracts and agreements, and otherwise cooperate with the listed agencies. Possibly the term "otherwise cooperate" makes provision in the bill for the suggestion I am here presenting.

(1) The requirement that all voluntary agencies sign contracts with Government to participate in the Peace Corps program should not be maintained. Such contractual relationship establishes the voluntary agency as an arm or agency of the Government. Voluntary agencies that have been conducting effective programs abroad, as a byproduct of services rendered, have had a tremendous influence in building good will for America. To require all voluntary agencies participating in the Peace Corps program to establish contractual relations with Government will seriously weaken the effectiveness of the Peace Corps program. The program will be vulnerable to the charge that this is political strategy for American advantage, instead of a friendship crusade in human welfare.

Therefore, we recommend, that as a part of the Peace Corps program, grants-in-aid be authorized for the enlargement of successful programs now in operation by approved agencies and such other new programs and agencies as may be subsequently approved.


PERSONNEL (2) Furthermore, since the proper selection of volunteer personnel is vitally and inseparably related to the nature of a particular oversea project; and

Whereas, voluntary agency oversea activity verifies that the achievement of the desired goals of the Peace Corps requires, in addition to adequate educational preparation for job assignment, a high degree of correct motivation, a deep concern for the welfare of peoples and other specific qualifications relevant to the situation :

Therefore, we recommend that approved voluntary agencies for Peace Corps participation be authorized to select personnel from applicants having passed the Peace Corps qualification tests. In such selection procedures a person shall not be discriminated against because of race or religion.



(3) We further register a concern as to administrative policy. When the program of a voluntary agency is subsidized by support from the Peace Corps program the necessity for full accountability is recognized. The purposes and objectives of such programs should be promptly and regularly provided. The administration of such program should rest with the voluntary agency.

In conclusion, we affirm our interest in cooperation with this program. We express to the committee our appreciation for the privilege to present our concerns, with the hope that they be considered favorably. We further express our appreciation to the Peace Corps staff for the courtesies they have extended in discussion of the proposed plans and program.

Senator SPARKMAN. Thank you, Dr. Hostetter. It is a very thoughtful and thought-provoking statement.

Let me ask you if you recognized the station in IIaiti that Senator Aiken mentioned? Was that yours, by any chance ?

Mr. HOSTETTER. I think not. We have three places of activity in Haiti, but I do not think, as I listened to him, that those were ours.

Senator SPARKMAN. Thank you very much. Our last witness before the morning recess will be Mr. Richard Shipman, of the National Farmers Union, Washington, D.C.

Mr. Shipman, if you please, come around and proceed with your statement.



Mr. SHIPMAN. Mr. Chairman, my name is Richard Shipman. I am assistant director of legislative services, Washington office of the National Farmers Union. We appreciate very much this opportunity to express our point of view this morning.

The National Farmers Union is in full support of S. 2000, to provide for a Peace Corps to help the people of interested countries in meeting their needs of skilled manpower.

We are completely in accord with the concept of a massive assault on poverty, illiteracy, and disease everywhere in the world, and of the unique contribution people—teachers, technicians, mechanics, farmers, youth leaders can make by working with and alongside the people who are desperately in need.

It is our belief that the size of the program should be on the basis of the maximum purposeful utilization which can be made of Peace Corps volunteers in the receiving countries. Certainly it is within the capacity of our own people, along with like-minded people in other developed nations, to make an all-out people-to-people effort.



Whatever the appropriation that is required to train, equip, and sustain members of this Peace Corps will be ultimately a most economic and fruitful use of funds. Such funds should include adequate provision for continued education of the Corps members upon return to the United States, after completion of their mission, and provide health and welfare protection against the hazards of the activity and living in strange and difficult circumstances.

In addition, our Government should seek to utilize to the fullest the reservoir of experience built by Peace Corps members, both collectively and in terms of job opportunity in our Foreign Service.

It should not be overlooked that many voluntary organizations have for years been engaged in projects and programs similar in concept to the Peace Corps. These programs should be associated in every way possible, including financial, with particular efforts being exerted to coordinate the Peace Corps with these ongoing voluntary efforts,


The developing rations of the world are in the main agricultural. In many of them three-fourths of the people derive their living directly from farming.

Therefore, the contribution farmers, farm technicians, and vocational training teachers can make in these countries is of major importance. Agricultural practices can, of course, be upgraded only slowly as the use of equipment, machinery, tools, seeds, insecticides, and fertilizer is upgraded. We feel the practical farmer-to-farmer demonstration and guidance of process is a most effective approach and lends itself admirably to the concepts of the Peace Corps program.

Of special significance would be teams of surveyors, technicians, and practical farmers to assist governmental land reform programs in those nations seeking to implement land reform and irrigation development.

It is our belief that the most effective means by which the direct type of technical assistance as envisioned by the Peace Corps can be applied is through multilateral channels. We recommend that other developed nations be invited to share in a multinational Peace Corps program (many are already so engaged) with the aim that it can soon be brought under the auspices of the United Nations.



It is our belief that much attention should be given to the possibilities of practical service. Such practical service, we feel, can in

the main be met by a high school education if knowledge and competency in mechanics, building trades, farming, and other technical skills are present.

We are aware that rapid and insistent demands will be made for teachers, scientists, technicians-utilization of which is essential to a well-rounded program, but should not overshadow the practical needs of people not articulate enough to express their own requirements, or without access to channels of communication.

In the last analysis, after the theorizing, the planning—and the guidelines have been laid down—there must come those who are skilled with the tools and the tricks of the trade to actually convey personto-person the practical know-how essential to individual responsibility and success.

Selection and training of those with practical skills, in the same fashion as those with academic skills, will require an extended period of orientation and specialized preparation. It is our belief that 6 months' training in this country, including language, followed by 6 months in the receiving country, is a minimum period.


Mr. Chairman, we have taken account of a number of factors relating to the Peace Corps program because we believe support and sufficient appropriation for the fullest implementation is vital, but we would like to underscore the fact that we have so little time. We sense a great urgency.

The rising expectations of those in the emerging and developing countries can only be met by bold, imaginative, and daring programs of good will and assistance. We believe that the Peace Corps is so conceived and urge the fullest and quickest implementation possible. Thank you.

Senator SPARKMAN. Thank you, Mr. Shipman.

We have had some very fine statements this morning, and yours is no exception.

That concludes the hearings for this morning. We will recess now until 2:30, at which time we will reconvene in this room. Our first witness at that time will be Mr. Louis Schneider of the American Friends Committee.

The committee stands in recess.

(Whereupon, at 12:45 p.m., the committee recessed to reconvene at 2:30 p.m. the same afternoon.)


Senator HUMPHREY (presiding). We will open the hearing on S. 2000 with Mr. Louis Schneider. Proceed, Mr. Schneider.



Mr. SCHNEIDER. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.

I am Louis Schneider of Philadelphia, associate executive secretary for program of the American Friends Service Committee.

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