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2. Values and risks

These are all treated quite briefly because of the time limitation.

The values of the Peace Corps lie not only in the actual work which is done in the cooperating countries, nor in growth of friendly attitudes toward the United States in these countries, but also in the broadening of horizons on the part of American volunteers. The increase of international understanding on the part of those who serve in other countries, and the effect which this will have on their later lives, may prove to be one of the most valuable outcomes of the entire program,

Church officials are concerned, however, lest the positive values inherent in the program be jeopardized by selection of people with inadequate motivation, or by failure of the training program to prepare volunteers fully for the "cultural shock” which they may experience in being transplanted to a completely different environment. The adequacy of the screening and training of applicants will have a major bearing on the success of the program.


3. Participation of church-related agencies

There is a lack of consensus among church leaders as to whether a church-related agency should accept financial support from the Peace Corps for projects administered by the agency. The Peace Corps has understandably ruled out proselytizing and propagandizing in connection with projects which it sponsors.

One Lutheran mission board executive recently stated that to accept this limitation would be to forfeit the church's primary mission. Other church officials feel that there are service projects of a nonmissionary character which might properly be carried on by church agencies with Peace Corps support. Even here, the question may validly be raised whether the public image of an autonomous chuch, international in scope, would not be seriously altered by having a church-sponsored service project linked with a national program through joint sponsorship.


Here an awkward situation may arise due to differences in viewpoint among various church groups. If one denomination sees no ideological hindrance to participation in Peace Corps projects and enters into cooperative activities on a large scale, while other denominations are prevented from doing so by conscientious scruples, a skewed pattern of church-state relationships may result.

As indicated above, the church bodies cooperating in the National Lutheran Council have not yet arrived at an official decision in respect to this question. This decision will be made later this year, probably in October.


Meanwhile, there is an active interest among the youth groups and the educational institutions of these church bodies in the progress of the Peace Corps program, and in their relation to it.

The offices which coordinate youth work in the churches feel a responsibility toward those individuals, particularly those of younger age, who are selected by the Peace Corps for oversea service, and may inaugurate a program for religious orientation of their members before their departure for abroad and spiritual ministry during their term of service. Each of these will have their own particular problems of church-state relations. The church-related colleges are cooperating in the recruitment of Peace Corps volunteers, and some of them may enter into a special relationship with the Peace Corps in connection with its training program.


In spite of differing opinions over the role the churches should play in relation to the Peace Corps program, there is a reservoir of genuine good will among church people for the Peace Corps as such. Church young people with special skills are encouraged to volunteer for service in the Corps, and to bring to it all the Christian idealism of which they are capable. There is a widespread feeling that the Peace Corps offers a potential breakthrough in our relations with the new nations of Africa, and the developing nations of Asia and Latin America.

Church leaders will watch the unfolding program with interest, exercising their prerogative of continuing appraisal and constructive criticism, against a background of basic moral support. Most of them feel that the idea behind the Peace Corps is sufficiently creative that legislation should be enacted to place it on a permanent rather than a temporary basis, so as to make it an ongoing and developing phase of national policy. That completes my statement.

The CHAIRMAN. Thank you, Dr. Van Deusen.
Senator GORE. I would like to ask a question.

The CHAIRMAN. The Senator from Tennessee.

PARTICIPATION OF RELIGIOUS GROUPS IN PEACE CORPS ACTIVITIES Senator GORE. You have made an interesting statement, and I congratulate you, sir.

You picture a dilemma. The basic mission of your church group's operations abroad is missionary, yet because of our constitutional provision, U.S. Government participation in religious work, however desirable, is prohibited. Aren't these two mutually exclusive?

Reverend Van DEUSEN. I feel that as far as the missionary thrust and purpose of the church is concerned, that is true, that the Government cannot validly enter into a cooperative relationship in the part of the church's work which has to do with winning converts.

Senator GORE. You used the word "validly' with respect to the Government's action. That hardly applies to your church. Could your church, in conscience and in consonance with its tenets of faith, enter into a contractual relationship which would prohibit it from engaging in missionary work?


Reverend Van DEUSEN. Again, in the same area, the answer would be, "No, it could not.” In the work where a missionary purpose was even slightly involved, I think that our church would be poorly advised to enter into any contractual relationship with the Government, because, if for no other reason, the relationship of our church with the people to whom it ministers in other lands, would be changed, would be jeopardized by its being linked with a Government problem.

а. I have a personal feeling that no mission board of any church can validly, again to use the same word, accept Peace Corps support, nor would the Peace Corps be willing to offer it.

The reason I am making somewhat of a distinction there is that there are some of our leaders who feel that no area of the church's work should receive such support. There are other leaders who feel that projects of a service nature that are not primarily missionary in thrust could receive such support; pointing to the fact, as has been mentioned already by a previous witness, that in distribution of surplus food there has been a substantial cooperation between the voluntary agen cies, some of them church agencies, and the U.S. Government.

Senator GORE. Well, taking that as an example, would it, in your opinion, be possible for a group sponsored by your church to participate with Peace Corps volunteers in community development with your church leadership assisting in providing leadership and advice to the Corps ? Isn't there an area in which there can be cooperation short of missionary work?

Reverend Van ĎEUSEN. It has been made clear to us in our conversations with Peace Corps officials that if there would be any cooperation it would have to be on this 'basis: That, for example, in the recruitment of personnel, if there were a project for which we were primarily responsible, we would be free to nominate volunteers from our own group, but there would be other volunteers nominated also from the pool provided by the Peace Corps itself, and that the final choice would have to be made without regard to religious affiliation.

Senator GORE. Would this be acceptable to your church?

Reverend VAN DEUSEN. This is one of the things which is still under advisement.

Senator GORE. In other words, this is something which you are examining, as well as the Government?

Reverend Van DEUSEN. Very closely, and we have very conscientious scruples against making any decision which would in any way limit our effectiveness as a church.

Senator GORE. Your testimony has been very helpful, and I congratulate you, sir.

Reverend VAN DEUSEN. Thank you.
The CHAIRMAN. Thank you very much.
Senator SYMINGTON. Mr. Chairman, may I ask a question?




Senator SYMINGTON. Dr. Van Deusen, in Africa most of the people who have an education have been educated by missionaries. Mr. Dayal came to a lunch of this committee. He was out there running

the military aspect of the United Nations. He mentioned the fact that in the Congo, in the entire Congo, there were 11 college graduates—one lawyer and not one doctor.

I want to be sure I understand your testimony. If this is done without any proselytizing by any particular faith, do you have any objection to the Peace Corps having contractual relationships with missionary organizations?

Reverend Van DEUSEN. Yes, we would, because the two are inseparable.

Our educational work has in it such a strong religious element, with proselytizing being an avowed part of its purpose, that we think it would be inappropriate for the Peace Corps to subsidize in any way that part of our program.


Senator SYMINGTON. So that there can be no relationship of the Peace Corps, in your opinion, with any religious body?

Reverend Van DEUSEN. Again I would have to limit that to the areas in which the religious objective is primary.

There is an area regarding which discussion is possible, which can be labeled as of a service nature apart from the educational process: the distribution of food, agricultural missions, medical missions. These the church has been doing for years. Even there my personal reaction is it would be very difficult to separate Christian motivation even in those areas, but there are some church leaders who feel it could validly be done with Peace Corps support.

PENDING POLICY DECISION OF COUNCIL'S EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE I cannot commit my organization until its decision has been made, but my guess is that their decision will be not to enter into any cooperative relationship in project-sponsoring areas. There may be some relationship in the training area where the church may validly contribute its know-how without this other religious phase entering into the discussion.

Senator SYMINGTON. You mean training areas over here?

Reverend Van DEUSEN. Over here, yes, by our church-sponsored colleges and universities that might be possible.

Senator SYMINGTON. But not over there?

Reverend VAN DEUSEN. Well, again I cannot make a flat answer. In fact, one of our major church bodies, which does not belong to the council, has already entered possible negotiations for the sponsored projects, so I cannot speak for the whole Lutheran group on that.

Senator SYMINGTON. I see. You say that the official decision will be made later this year.

Reverend VAN DEUSEN. In October there will be another meeting of the executive committee of the National Lutheran Council, at which this will be one of the items of the agenda. At that time the policy decision will probably be made.





Senator SYMINGTON. But your decision has been made.
Reverend Van DEUSEN. You mean my personal decision?
Senator SYMINGTON. Yes, that is right.

Reverend VAN DEUSEN. Yes. My own feeling in the matter is it would be wiser for the churches to do their own work under their own auspices, and to maintain a friendly and cooperative relation with the Peace Corps, meanwhile urging Christian young people to participate in the Peace Corps projects as individuals, carrying with them into their work their Christian idealism and motivation, and, within the limits of propriety, seeking to express their Christianity in the kind of work they do abroad.

Senator SYMINGTON. Thank you very much, Dr. Van Deusen.
I have no other questions, Mr. Chairman.


Senator GORE. Well, Doctor, you use the term "Christian motivation.” That is something which anyone might possess. Isn't that different from missionary work and proselytizing zeal?

Reverend Van DEUSEN. It is substantially different, I would say, in this respect: That it is a matter of personal idealism rather than organizational activity.

Senator GORE. Well, in the very nature of the undertaking by the Peace Corps, is it not inherent that most of the volunteers will be motivated by good will toward mankind?

Reverend VAN DEUSEN. I have a feeling that is a very essential ingredient of the program if it is to be successful, and it is because that ingredient is needed that we are urging our young people who have that kind of motivation to enter as individuals into the Peace Corps program.

Senator GORE. Well, isn't that, in effect, almost synonymous with Christian motivation, although people of other religious convictions may have similar motivations?

Reverend Van DEUSEN. I would agree with that. I think the religious motivation insofar as Christian young people are concerned comes from their Christian beliefs and experiences, and I would look for equally valid motivation in the Jewish group, for example.



Senator GORE. You say that you think there is an area in which the church groups can maintain friendly and cooperative relationships with the Peace Corps group. Wouldn't you also say that would be a mutually helpful relationship?

Reverend VAN DEusen. I think that would be mutually helpful. For example, in the field where a church mission program is already in existence, and a Peace Corps program comes into the same country in an adjacent area, I think very easily the individuals involved in those two programs could get together for consultation, for sharing of know-how, and for all sorts of friendly relationships which would be mutually helpful.

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