## Alan Turing: The EnigmaA gripping story of mathematics, science, computing, war history, cryptography, and homosexual persecution and liberation. Hodges tells how Turing's revolutionary idea of 1936-- the concept of a universal machine-- laid the foundation for the modern computer. Turing brought the idea to practical realization in 1945 with his electronic design. This work was directly related to Turing's leading role in breaking the German Enigma ciphers during World War II, a scientific triumph that was critical to Allied victory in the Atlantic. Despite his wartime service, Turing was eventually arrested, stripped of his security clearance, and forced to undergo a humiliating treatment program-- all for trying to live honestly in a society that defined homosexuality as a crime. This New York Times bestselling biography of the founder of computer science and artificial intelligence is the definitive account of an extraordinary mind and life. --Excerpted from 2014 version, published by Princeton University Press. |

### From inside the book

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Page 105

He continued with his discussion of the human computer: Let us imagine the

consists of some change in the physical system consisting of the computer and

his tape.

He continued with his discussion of the human computer: Let us imagine the

**operations**performed by the computer to be split up ... Every such**operation**consists of some change in the physical system consisting of the computer and

his tape.

Page 297

Yet he did perceive that its mechanism could serve to effect

symbols of any kind whatever," and in this and other ... Babbage wanted a '

scanner', in effect, working on a stream of instructions, and putting them into

Yet he did perceive that its mechanism could serve to effect

**operations**uponsymbols of any kind whatever," and in this and other ... Babbage wanted a '

scanner', in effect, working on a stream of instructions, and putting them into

**operation**.Page 320

In his philosophy it was almost an extravagance to supply addition and

multiplication facilities as hardware, since in principle they could be replaced by

instructions applying only the more primitive logical

NOT.

In his philosophy it was almost an extravagance to supply addition and

multiplication facilities as hardware, since in principle they could be replaced by

instructions applying only the more primitive logical

**operations**of OR, AND, andNOT.

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Alan Turing Alan Turing's Alan wrote Alan's American AMT's arithmetic Bletchley Bletchley Park Bombe boys brain Britain British calculation called Cambridge cathode ray tube chess Christopher cipher Computable Numbers cryptanalytic Darwin delay line Delilah digits discussion Don Bayley Donald Michie EDVAC electronic enciphered engineering ENIAC Enigma machine explained fact G.H. Hardy German Hanslope Hilbert homosexual human idea instructions intelligence interest kind King's knew letter logical Manchester mathematician mathematics Max Newman mechanical messages method mind Morcom naval Enigma Neumann never Newman operations organisation paper perhaps Peter Hilton physical play plugboard position possible Princeton problem question Robin Gandy rotor scientific secret Shaun Wylie Sherborne signals symbols talk tape teleprinter theorem theory thing thought took Turing machine U-boat universal machine Womersley word writing