## Alan Turing: The EnigmaA gripping story of mathematics, science, computing, war history, cryptography, and homosexual persecution and liberation. Hodges tells how Turing's revolutionary idea of 1936-- the concept of a universal machine-- laid the foundation for the modern computer. Turing brought the idea to practical realization in 1945 with his electronic design. This work was directly related to Turing's leading role in breaking the German Enigma ciphers during World War II, a scientific triumph that was critical to Allied victory in the Atlantic. Despite his wartime service, Turing was eventually arrested, stripped of his security clearance, and forced to undergo a humiliating treatment program-- all for trying to live honestly in a society that defined homosexuality as a crime. This New York Times bestselling biography of the founder of computer science and artificial intelligence is the definitive account of an extraordinary mind and life. --Excerpted from 2014 version, published by Princeton University Press. |

### From inside the book

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Page 105

The behaviour of the computer at any moment is determined by the symbols

which he is observing, and his 'state of

that there is a bound B to the number of symbols or squares which the computer

can ...

The behaviour of the computer at any moment is determined by the symbols

which he is observing, and his 'state of

**mind**' at that moment. We may supposethat there is a bound B to the number of symbols or squares which the computer

can ...

Page 106

It may be that some of these changes necessarily involve a change of state of

following: (A) A possible change (a) of symbol together with a possible change of

...

It may be that some of these changes necessarily involve a change of state of

**mind**. The most general single operation must therefore be taken to be one of thefollowing: (A) A possible change (a) of symbol together with a possible change of

...

Page 460

correspond to the real

find the real

off, and so on. Proceeding in this way do we ever come to the 'real'

we ...

correspond to the real

**mind**: it is a sort of skin which we must strip off if we are tofind the real

**mind**. But then in what remains we find a further skin to be strippedoff, and so on. Proceeding in this way do we ever come to the 'real'

**mind**, or dowe ...

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Alan Turing Alan Turing's Alan wrote Alan's American AMT's arithmetic Bletchley Bletchley Park Bombe boys brain Britain British calculation called Cambridge cathode ray tube chess Christopher cipher Computable Numbers cryptanalytic Darwin delay line Delilah digits discussion Don Bayley Donald Michie EDVAC electronic enciphered engineering ENIAC Enigma machine explained fact G.H. Hardy German Hanslope Hilbert homosexual human idea instructions intelligence interest kind King's knew letter logical Manchester mathematician mathematics Max Newman mechanical messages method mind Morcom naval Enigma Neumann never Newman operations organisation paper perhaps Peter Hilton physical play plugboard position possible Princeton problem question Robin Gandy rotor scientific secret Shaun Wylie Sherborne signals symbols talk tape teleprinter theorem theory thing thought took Turing machine U-boat universal machine Womersley word writing