## Alan Turing: The EnigmaA gripping story of mathematics, science, computing, war history, cryptography, and homosexual persecution and liberation. Hodges tells how Turing's revolutionary idea of 1936-- the concept of a universal machine-- laid the foundation for the modern computer. Turing brought the idea to practical realization in 1945 with his electronic design. This work was directly related to Turing's leading role in breaking the German Enigma ciphers during World War II, a scientific triumph that was critical to Allied victory in the Atlantic. Despite his wartime service, Turing was eventually arrested, stripped of his security clearance, and forced to undergo a humiliating treatment program-- all for trying to live honestly in a society that defined homosexuality as a crime. This New York Times bestselling biography of the founder of computer science and artificial intelligence is the definitive account of an extraordinary mind and life. --Excerpted from 2014 version, published by Princeton University Press. |

### From inside the book

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Page 198

He arrived in about February 1941. Later Hugh Alexander, the British

champion, was transferred to Hut 8 from elsewhere in Bletchley. Alexander was

also a Kingsman, one who had graduated in 1931 and attributed his failure to

become ...

He arrived in about February 1941. Later Hugh Alexander, the British

**chess**champion, was transferred to Hut 8 from elsewhere in Bletchley. Alexander was

also a Kingsman, one who had graduated in 1931 and attributed his failure to

become ...

Page 212

... for a given goal, there was a route or not. But the question could still be asked

as to how mathematicians,

those 'intelligent' steps, and to what extent they could be simulated by machines.

... for a given goal, there was a route or not. But the question could still be asked

as to how mathematicians,

**chess**-players or code-breakers did in practice makethose 'intelligent' steps, and to what extent they could be simulated by machines.

Page 213

Poker, with its bluffing and guessing, was a better illustration of the von Neumann

theory than

called a game of 'perfect information', and he proved that any such game would ...

Poker, with its bluffing and guessing, was a better illustration of the von Neumann

theory than

**chess**.t. A game without concealment, such as**chess**, von Neumanncalled a game of 'perfect information', and he proved that any such game would ...

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Alan Turing Alan Turing's Alan wrote Alan's American AMT's arithmetic Bletchley Bletchley Park Bombe boys brain Britain British calculation called Cambridge cathode ray tube chess Christopher cipher Computable Numbers cryptanalytic Darwin delay line Delilah digits discussion Don Bayley Donald Michie EDVAC electronic enciphered engineering ENIAC Enigma machine explained fact G.H. Hardy German Hanslope Hilbert homosexual human idea instructions intelligence interest kind King's knew letter logical Manchester mathematician mathematics Max Newman mechanical messages method mind Morcom naval Enigma Neumann never Newman operations organisation paper perhaps Peter Hilton physical play plugboard position possible Princeton problem question Robin Gandy rotor scientific secret Shaun Wylie Sherborne signals symbols talk tape teleprinter theorem theory thing thought took Turing machine U-boat universal machine Womersley word writing