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peculiarly exposes that people, that supply, and he depended upon her he had no doubt of being equally engagement. Indeed so little was successful in the future, and that he disposed to depend upon the be thould be able, either by money aid of others, in any thing which to render them inert, or by civil came within his own possible comcommotion incapable, until he had prehenfion, that he bad for sevegrown beyond their grasp or ral years payt used extraordinary, reach.

and for that part of the world, These mighty designs, which almost wonderful efforts, to be had been long restrained by the come himself a potent maritime great power and military r-puta- power; not only by the acquisition tion of the English, were at length of a great length of sea coast, brought into act, by that distract- but by his fparing no expence ed state of affairs, and those nu- in the purchase and building of merous enemies, which the alter- ships; not to mention bis conquest Date weakness and temerity of' of the numberless Maldive islands, their councils, with the rapacity which would have afforded him of individuals, had, at length, an inexhaustible resource of seabrought upon them. These were the real motives, independent of The vigorous measures pursuall former causes, whether of pri- ed upon the arrival of Sir Eyre vate or public resentment, which Copte at Madras, and the subseled to Hyder's irruption into the quent repeated defeats which he Carnatic. The state of their af- received from that com nander, fairs at that time, and the weak- not only blasted Hyder's hopes of dels and ill government of their speedy conquest, but broke in ally, the Nabob of Arcot, seemed upon and disconcerted the whole to lay that rich and extensive coun- scheme of his designs. He soon try an easy prey at his feet; and made the unexpected and unwel. his first fuccefles were such, that come difcovery, that instead of it was no wonder he expected to rapidly subduing the Carnatic, have been master of Madras, and and being then free to follow up of the whole coast of Coroman. the chain of his other projects to del, within a few weeks. With the end, it was become a matter this vast addition of power, and of the greatest doubt, whether increal: of renown, together with bis own force fingly would ever the means which they would af. be equal to the accomplishment of ford to him of prescribing laws the first object. The confidence for the conduct of all the lesser in his own power thus overthrown, ftates, and of dire&ting the al- he had only to place his truft in, ready excited resentinents of the and with fully to look forward to Mahrattas to the attainment of the arrival of that French naval his own purposes, it seemed as armament, which was to sweep if there would be nothing but a the English out of the Indian seas; Infficient naval force wanting, to this great service once performed, enable him to drive the English Hyder well knew that he was himentirely ont of India. This de- self fully competent to the comfuency France had promised to pletion of the batiness by land, at least so far as related to the coast knew that a treaty of peace, and of Coromandel. After long and perhaps of alliance, was far adtedious delay, when expectation vanced, if not already concluded, and hope was nearly exhaufted, the between the Englith and the MahFrench fleet arrived, and after ex- rattas. He had too much reason citing a transitory gleam) of hope, to apprehend, that an intended failed in the attainment of all its partition of his dominions would objects, so far at least as related to be the band of union between him; for desperate fights at sea, those late enemies ; without any decisive consequences, both exceedingly jealous of his or the taking two or three tranf- power, and had both suffered exports, or a number of provision tremely by his arms.

He had no vefsels on their way to and from confederacy to oppose to fo forMadras, were matters which af- midable a junction; which, on forded peither consolation nor pro- the contrary, was likely to draw fit tol yder.

after it all the states in India; It could not then be without for there were few of them who that anguish, which disappointed had not been either je lous of his ambition, and a total overihrow power, or afraid of his designs; of the most fanguine hopes are and ihe most inconsiderable would capable of exciting, that he now hope to pick up some fare of the beheld all bis designs frustrated spoil, in such a general wreck of The lingering war in the Carsa- his fortunes.

But if this appretic afforded neither advanta e nor hended confederacy did not even bope ; and, if it was ruinous to his take place, he saw that the Eng. enemies, it was scarcely less solish being now freed from their to himlelf. The country was al- Mabratta enemy, would direct :heir ready so desolated, that it was of whole force against him singly; little farther value to either of the and that while his hands were parties, than as it afforded them fully occupied in the Carnatic, a multitude of strong posts and Bombay and Bengal would urge garrisons, and a wide icene for their utmost efforts against him on every kind of action and manæu- the Malabar side; where he was yre in war. It had already been moft vulnerable, and from whence the grave of his best generals, of. they might easily carry the war ficers and troops, and not much less into the very centre of his domiof his own military reputation ; at nions. As to his French allies, the same time, that he was so they had already failed him in deeply involved, that he could that point, in which only he connot quit so unfortunate and hope- fidered them as capable of doing less a scene of contest, without a him any effential service ; for as total dereli&ion of his past name to their land forces, he set but litand renown.

tle value upon them; and he be. Whilft he was thus chained fides knew, that they could never down in the Carnatic, he saw the be able to send such an army to clouds gathering on every fide, that dittance, as would be in any and every indication of an ap- degree capable, in these circumproaching and dreadful storm. He stances, of turning the scale of


war in bis favour. Indeed it had But this cessation was confined been one of his own long ettablished entirely to the land; for the Inmasims, that the Europeans could dian ocean was still destined to be nerer become powerful or formi- the scene of hard and bloody acdable in India, by any other means, tion. M. de Suffrein had returned than by that of native troops, fron Battacalo to the coat of railed and disciplined in the Coromandel, pretiy early in June, coupiry.

and having touched at the Danish Such was the fituation, and such settlement of Tranquebar, where probably the feelings and refle&i- bis fleet was revidualled by reons of Hyder.

veral Dutch thips which had ar. Sir Evre Coote's ill health ren- rived for that purpose from Bata. dering him incapable of conti- via, be proceeded thence to Cuddanuing any longer in the field, and lore, which the French had renSir Hector Monro returning to dered their strong and great place Europe, the command of the army of arms, both for the land and devolved on Major-general Stuari. tea service. The French comThe country was pow fu entirely mander had it now in contemruined, that the contending ar- plation to fulfil Hyder's hopes, mies were obliged to draw their (with whom he bad helil several supplies from other quarters, conferences) by totally cruthing which, befides the immense ex- the English squadron, before the pence it occafioned, could not but arrival of Sir Richard Bickerton, greatly impede the operations of who with several thips of war, the war. Hyder, however, from had been long on his way from the nearners on all sides of his own England, and most impatiently dominions, was, comparatively expected at Madras. He itill prewith the Englith, but little af- served his former superiority, of fected by this circumstance. As twelve thips of the live to eleven, the enemy ftill cautiously abftained betides his beavy frigates, and he from risquing an action, and that used all posible means to prepare it was impossible to force them to them in the beli manner for im. it, at the same time, that they were mediate action. In order to rentoo numerous and powerful in der this superiority fully decitive the field, and the French too against a squadron fo weakly manftrong at Cuddalore, to admit of ned as the Englith, he replenished any attempt for the recovery of his thips with 403 French, and as that place, a toilfome campaign on many sepoys, at Cuddalore ; and the fide of General Stuart, was spent receiving intelligence foon after in long and laborious marches, that Sir Edward Hughes was areither occafioned by the motions of rived on the coalt, he, under prethe enemy, orintended to counter- tence of a defign on Neg.apaiam, act their designs, by the supply strengthened his fquadron with and relief of garritons ; so that 300 artillery men; than which, no event of any confiderable im- no aid could be more thorougly portance took place in the Car- effectively. natic during the remainder of the Sir Edward Hughes having new year.

mafted the Monsoouth, and re. VoL: XXVI.



fitted bis other thips, as well as the enemy, which was fome mitime and circumstances would ad.' nutes later. mit at Trincomale, as soon as he At something more than half received intelligence that the ene- past twelve, the French line apmy were departed from Batacalo, peared to be in great diforder, and loft no time in his preparation to several of their ships were perfollow them to the coast; and hav- ceived to have suffered extremely ing taken on board his recovered both in their · malis and hulls. men, arrived at Negapatam towards The van fhip had already been the end of the month.

obliged to bear away quite out The French commander, con- of the line; the Brilliant, the fiding in his strength, appeared French admiral's second a head, boldly with 18 thips before Nega- had lost her main-mast; and lepatam to challenge his enery, veral others thewed sufficient marks who, without regard to his num- of loss and disorder. At this criber òr force, was by no means tical moment, when even hope itflack in answering the defiance. self could scarcely find any thing It was past noon when the French to cling to, fortune befriended the fleet came in fight, and Sir Ed. enemy, and a fudden thift of ward Hughes was in such ad- wind saved the French squadron mirable readiness, and so little from absolute ruin, The sea disposed to give them any delay, breeze set in with such unusual that by three o'clock he had power, that several of the English weighed anchor, and inftantly thips in the van and centre, parti, putting out to sea, stood to the cularly those which had received fouthward during the evening and the greatest damage in their mafts the night, in order to gain the and rigging, were taken a back, wind of the enemy. This essen- and paid round on the heel, with tial point being gained, and con- their heads the contrary, way; firmed by several masterly evolu- while others, particularly those in tions in the morning, when the the rear, whole rigging had sufSquadron had nearly closed with fered the least in the adion, were the enemy, he threw out signals abled to withstand this Thift of the for every ship to bear down di. wind, and accordingly continued rectly upon her oppofite in the on their former tack. French line, and to bring her to The circumstance, so fortunate

close action. These or- to the one fide, and untoward with July 6th. ders

admirably respect to the other, necessarily obeyed; and for some confider- breaking the British line, and able time, the action was close, totally deforming their order of warm, and generally well main- battle, rendered them incapable tained on both fides. The firing of prosecuting their advantage had commenced in the French with effect; while the disabled, line, about twenty minutes before broken, and flying enemy, were eleven o'clock, but was not re- thereby enabled to recollect and turned on the side of the Englith recover themselves. For

dur until they had sufficiently neared ing this state of disorder in the



Britifh line, the French squadron battle a-head, and was preparing bad time to wear, and getting to renew the attack; but at two upon a new tack, to form with o'clock, feeing that the enemy those thips, which had suffered least were standing in thore, and col. a-line to windward, in order to lecting their ihips in a close body, cover those which were disabled. while his own were much dislo the intermediate time, Sir Ed- persed, and several of them una ward Hughes seeing part of his governable, he gave up that dethips on one tack, and the more lign,, and thought only of colnumerous on the other, wbile the letting his ships, and preparing Eagle, Worcester, and Burford, them for that service, which he which had been able to continue hoped would be conclusive and on their former, were nearing the final with respect to its object, on enemy's main body very fast, he the ensuing morning. The Brie attempted to remedy this ditorder, tifh Squadron cast anchor at the by hauling down the fignal for approach of the evening between the line, and throwing out ano- Negapatam and Nagore, and were ther to wear, which he intended bulily employed during the night to follow with that for a general in securing their lower mafis, as chace. But at this instant he was most of their fanding rigging had bailed by Captain Gell, of the Mo- been thot away, and in stretching Darca, who informed him, that serviceable fails to their yards ; not only all his standing rigging but no exertions, in so thort a bad been shot away, but that bis time, could render them capable thip had otherwise received fo of fresh evolutions and immediate much damage as to be utterly un- service; they had been well able governable ; and the admiral per- in the line,' to continue the enceiving at the same time, that the gagement, and to press upon their enemy, who had now worn, and enemy to the latt; but when their were coming on the larboard tack, ' already torn rigging had been

endeavouring to cut off the strained and racked in the gale, Eagle

, while at the other extre- and by the subsequent movements, mity of the line, his van fhip, they could not but be crippled in the Hero, was getting in so close such a manner, as mutt require with the land as to make a signal time, as well as application, for its of distress, he found it neceilary cure. to throw out the signal for wear- The French squadroñi had an. ing only. During this operation, chored about three leagues to leea partial engagement was conti- ward; and it could not be withnued botween luch of the English out the most unspeakable mortifihips and of the French as happened cation, that the Englith admiral to come within the reach of each beheld them getting under fail in2 other, and the Eagle was for some the morning, and proceeding on time hard preiled - by two of the their way to Cuddalore, while his enemy.

thips were utterly incapable of At half past one, the admiral preventing or pursuing them, made the fignal for the line of Their frigates upon this occasion,

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