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diftinguilhed for its beauty, than north-west of Calcutta. The river, eminent for its rank and confidera- without taking in its continual tion. But neither the falubrity of windings, points generally from the air, nor the delights of its fitu- the welt to the eart in its course ation, were more alluring to trang through Its extent from ers, than the happy security to per- north to south, including the son and property which it afforded. districts of Chunar and Gazya It accordingly became the coveted pour, which are united with it, retreat of the people of all the is about 50 miles; nor is it much Alatic countries and religions, leis from cast to west ; but it is who weary of a busy life, vexed a good deal indented on the former by its ditappointments, or appre- fide by the province of Babar. hep five of its dangers, wished to It was a part of those extenfive enjoy during some portion of their poffetiions, which the misfortunes lives, the tranquillity of a secure of the court of Delli, enabled and bappy retirement.
Sujah Ul Dowlah, the grand The expences of the present vizier of the empire, and nabob war with Hyder Ally and the of Oude, to secure the actual soMarattas, in which all the Eng- vereignty and posseflion of in his lith presidencies were fo deeply, own family. The Rajah, Bulwant and one at least fo dangerously in- Sing, was tributary to Sujah Ul volved, rose to such an height, Dowlah, for the country of Bea that the wealth and revenue of nares, and its dependencies, at a Bengal, great as these were, proved certain stated tribute or rent ; for unequal to their supply. New it is difputed, though indeed of sources were accordingly to be little consequence, to which class sought: and the weak and the it properly belongs. wealthy were doomed, as usual, In the war which broke out in to administer to the wants of the the year 1764, wherein Sujah U1 strong and the warlike. The pro- Dowlah fupported Coiliin Ally secution of these means of supply, Cawn, who had been the murled to the subsequent calamities derer of so great a number of of Benares ; and suddenly plunged Engl th gentlemen at Patna, the Mr. Hastings, the governor ge- Rajah Bulwant Sing, notwithneral, into a new war, at near standing the relation in which he 600 miles distance from the seat of stood with Sojab, took a decided his government.
part in favour of the English, For the better comprehension and rendered them effential and or illustration of this subject, it acknowledged services. As Suwill be necessary to take some no- jah Dowlah was so entirely ruined tice of the late state and govern- by the war, that he scarcely hoped ment of that country, as well as of to have been left in poilellion of its relation to, and the means by any part of his territories, it was which it became dependent on the in the power of the Englith to East India company:
dietate the terms of peace. These The country of Benares lies were, however, to much in his far up the Ganges, not a great favour, así to excite no small surdeal Thort of 600 miles, to the prize at the time, both at home
and in India; but it was, not- terms of the article, seemed to be withstanding, held as a matter in- bound only to Bulwant Sing's dispenfably necetlary, not only person, without any express prowith respect to honour, gratitude, vifion being made for the contiand good faith, but to the real nuance of the zemindaries in the interests of the nation and com- Rajah's family. It appears, howpany, to provide for the Rajah's ever, from Lord Clive's corresinterests and poff lions in such a pondence, that this was fully unmanner by the treaty, as should derstood by all the parties to be effectually secure him from the the clear intention of the article ; animosity and revenge of Sujah and the value and importance UL Dowlah, wbich were well which was attributed to it by known to be boundless and im- himself, and confirmed by placable.
acknowledgment of the company When General Carnac was em- at home, as well as by the prepowered by the prefidency of sidency of Calcutta, sufficiently Bengal, in the year 1765, to ne- thews that they all received and gociate the preliminary articles of confidered it in the same sense. a peace with Sujah U1 Dowlah, Lord Clive paid little attention to this matter was accordingly parti- the nicety of words in a compact cularly committed to his charge: with a man, wbom he regarded and it was laid down as a specitic at this time merely as an instruarticle of his infiructions, “ To ment of his own making, and the ficure Bulwant Sing in the polief explanation of which would reft fion of his country.' By the fifth either with himself or the comarticle of the treaty of Illababad, pany. which was foon after concluded In fact, the Englifh by being by Lord Clive, although the most the mediators of this condition, extraordinary favours and advan)- became virtually its guarantees ; tages were in other respects grant, and the ties between them and ed to Sujah UI Dowlah, yet he the Rajab, being founded on their was mott folemnly bound to con- mutual interests and Security, were tinue Bulwant Sing in poffeftion from thence indissoluble. He looked of all the territories he held be- only to them for protection against fore the war, subject only to the the malice and rapacity of a payment of the same revenue as cruel and perfidious tyrant; while, heretofore.
on the oiber hand, his country Confidering the immense ob- afforded them, without any exjects which Lord Clive had at pence, a' tirong and excellent barthat time in ad and in contem- rier on the side of Oude, and plation, it is no wonder that he did would, as well as his forces, annot pay all the attention to the swer all purposes of war and dewording of this article, which fence, as effe&ually as if it were the prefidency, if it had been in their own. their hands, would probably have When circumstances served, and done, and which the character of the proper season was arrived, Suthe vizior more elpecially de- jah Ul Dowlah well knew how to Danded. ?be latter, by the turn to account this past error, or
negligence in stating the terms of required no colouring, and which the 5th article of the treaty of he disdained to illustrate, informs Illahabad; and indeed it is not his employers by letter upon the impollible that he had himself been occasion, that he leaves it to the originally its contriver, and found young rajah, and to all others means for its palling without ex- who were concerned in or witamination. The death of Bul- nesses of the transaction, to late want Sing, in the year 1770, af- what his condua had been in this förded tiis opportunity; the letter business ; only observing, that he of the treaty was in full preserva- had taken the strictest care, not to tion, but its fpirit could not then diminish our national bonour, disinfo clearly appear. The presidency tereftedness, and justice; which he of Bengal was therefore obliged to considers, as having a greater efinterfere with vigour and spirit in feet, in securing the vast potsersupporting the interests of the fa- fions of the company, than even mily, by procuring the investiture the force of their arms, however of Cheit Sing, in the government formidable. Sentiments, not more of his father, Bulwant's terri. valuable for the humanity and hotories.
hour: which they breathe, than The negociation upon this af- for the wiļdom of the policy which fair was committed to Colonel they convey. Harper, who acted in it with great This conclusive settlement of honour, and left no room for fu- the- zemindary in the family of ture doubt or evasion. The young Bulwant Sing, was then deemed rajah, upon this occasion, was ob- v of such consequence to the comliged to make a present of twenty pany's affairs, that the president lacks of rupees io the Nabob vi- and council of Bengal congratuzier, and tò increase the annual · lated the court of directors upon tribute, from twenty-one and a . it, as an event highly important half, to twenty-four lacks. In the to their interests, and of great treaty, for the instrument then moment in its future conseperfe&ed between Sujah UI Dow- quences. jah and the Rajah Cheit Sing was It would seem now that nothing lo denominated, the former bound farther remained to be done in this himself specifically, that nothing business; and that so far as conmore than what was there in de- pacts and treaties can be binding, clared, thould ever be demanded the zemindary was secured to the of the latter ; and he concluded, family and descendants of Bulwant in the Mahommedan stile, by a Sing. Yet whe:her it proceeded folenin appeal to God, the pro- from any subiequent infractions phet, and the Koran, as parties and of the agreement by the Nabob' witnesses to the agreement, and, vizier, from apprehensions that between them, and their joint founded on the capriciousness and pofterity, there should never be a faithleffners of his difpofition, variation therein.
which it thought could Colonel Harper in the con. not be too carefully guarded sciousness of an integrity which against, we find that this business
REGISTER, 1783. was again taken up, and a new firument was made eternally bindsettlement made in confirmation ing upon the parties, and upon of the former.
their inutual potterity. This took place in the year Upon the death of the Nabob 1773, when Mr. Hastings, then vizier in the year 1775, and the president of the council of Calcutta, acceflion of his son and succestor thought it neceilary to make a Alloit Ul Dowlah, new arrangeprogress to the court of the Nabob ments took place between the vizier, as well, perhaps, to ob- company and that prince, which tain some personal explanations atleeted the whole government of from him with respect to past and his dominions. Among these the current maiters, as to form thole sovereignty of Benares, and its de. new connections and arrangements, pendencies, was entirely 'given with respect to revenue, troops,
over and transferred to the com. and the acquition of territory, pany; the Rajah Cheit Sing then which were foon after displayed in Itanding exactly in the fame degree their effects. Upon this occafion, of relation and vartalage to that a new treaty or instrument, t the body, in which he bad before stood same pur ort as the former with the Nabob of Oude. Nothing concluded and ratified, between could exceed the fatisfa&ion which the Nabub vizier, and the Raj.h this transfer of sovereigniy, and Cheit Sing; but with ihis farther entire emancipation from confirmation, and advantage to pricious tyranny, afforded to the the Rajal, at the president, by young ik ajah and his family. They hineif signing and becoming a were now placed in the hands of party to the present, thereby ren- their old friends, allies and pro. dering the compny actual guaran- tector, and the most flattering tees, at all time times, to the prospects of latiing quiet, fecurity due performance of the conditions, and happiness were in view. Inded the neceility of tomething Thele hopes were confirmed, firong tan treaties to bind the if they could be supposed to re. faith, and to reitrain the raincity quire any confirmation by a letter of the Nabob vizier, became upon from Mr. Hattings, who had been that very occasion fully apparent; appointed to the new and high for notwithlianding ihe ratt ad- office of governor general. This vantages, which at the expence letter teemed with sentiments of of his neighbors, as well as of his regard, honour and juftice, and natural lord, the Mogul, were authorized the Britith resident then thrown into bis hands, he ai the court of Benares to aflure was exceedingly ditlatisfied with the Rajah that no farther tribute Mr. Harings, for not permitting than that already ftipulated, should him to extort ten lacks of rupees be exaced from him, and that from the young rajah, as well as to it lhould not under any future strip him of ino very strong forts, change of government be enlarg. which coufiituted the best defences ed.- A recommendation about of his country. Upon this occa- the same time, from the gobon, as on the former, the in, vernor general and council to
the Rajah, that he should raise and The increasing exigencies and fupport a body of 2,000 horse, or expences of a war, which was racher, perhaps, that he thould becoming general throughout Inincrease the cavalry already on his dia, were not likely to produce etiablishment to that number, as any renuifiion of these demands, it was in no degree pressed as when once the ice was broken, obligation, but seems to have and the precedent establithed. been merely proposed as a mea- They were annually repeated ; lure of common utility, and a while the unwillingness of conprovision against any future and pliance, and the backwardness of untoreseen danger, could aitord no payment, became every year more cause of apprehention, nor indicate apparent, and afforded farther any changein the Rajah’s condition. room for ditlatisfation. During
It is not denied, that the Rajah the many ages in which the Hinof Benares continued to adhere doo princes and landholders have to the engagements on bis side, been doomed to suffer the opprefby the punctual discharge of the fion and exorbitance of foreign ftipulated revenue, nor that his power, a firict concealment of their conduct was in every respect high- wealth, and a confiant plea of ex. ly satisfactory, until new and un- treme poverty, have been the weak expected demands occafioned such means which they generally aalteration in it, as proved at length dopted to elude the extortion and the means of giving umbrage to rapacity of their rulers. The the
government of Calcutta. Rajah of Benares resorted to this L'pon intelligence of the war with etiablished practice; and even fo France, it was determined by early as the payment of the second the governor general and council, year's fubtitly, although he was in ihe month of July 1778, that known or supposed to be very the Rajah Cheit Sing ihould be rich, he affected to borrow money required to contribute ex- in imall fums, and even to sell his traordinary subsidy of five lacks plate and jewels, as demonftraof rupees, towards the expences tions of his inability; and was which this new exigency would
ftill so flow in bis payments, impofe on their government dur- that it was found treceffary tó ing the current year. It may be quicken him, by sending two supposed, that the innovation battalions of repoys to be
quare thus proposed, and the danger tered in his dominions, and of the precedent, affected the their pay to be 'charged to his Rajah much more than the amount accet, until he had made good or value of the fum demanded. the whole. However that was, the governor
The bird year's fubfidy was general informs, us in his narra- still worse paid and the fame retive, that after many excuses, and medy, of fending troops to live protestations of inability, the Ra- upon him, was again adopted. jah at length confented, with a The Bajah then carried the plea of very ill grace, to the payment, inability and poverty so far, that and discharged it with a worse.