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P R E F A C E.
HE conclusion of the war in the East Indies, has ne
cessarily claimed our utmost attention in the History of the present year. Exclusive of the great national importance of that arduous contest, and the vast stakes which were played for by all the parties, the number and variety of military events, both by sea and land, of which it was so unusually productive, together with the superior abilities and extraordinary exertions of the principal leaders on all sides, must ever render the late war in India peculiarly interesting. Having got through this difficult, though pleasing talk, we had only to gather up the gleanings of the war in other quarters; and then tracing those measures which led to the restoration of the public tranquillity, we have proceeded to take a view of the nature, circumstances, and consummation of that general peace, which has happily put an end to the ravages and calamities of war both in the Old and the New World. Having thus concluded the narration, and wound
the business of the late most extensive and eventful war, we shall be able, in our next volume, to take a retrospective view of those political affairs and transactions in Europe, which however consequential they might have been deemed in other seasons, could not have been attended to during the din and tumult of arms, and while a rapid succession of the most interesting events were continually crowded upon the public attention.
It gives us no small concern to understand, that a passage in our History for the year 1773, should have been supposed to convey an imputation injurious to the honour and character of the Baron de Tott. Independent of our attention to historical truth, as well as to personal justice, we too much regard the fingular talents and eminent abilities of that Nobleman, not to regret, however innocently, that we should in any manner, have afforded means for wounding his feelings ; much less should we consent to its being understood, that we gave any fanction to a falfe and scandalous calumny. It is impossible, at this distance of time, to recollect any of the operative circumstances with respect to that passage, or even what our own sense of the subject then was. The Translator of his very curious and valuable Memoirs has, in his Preface, along with the charge, candidly furnished almost every thing which it would be necessary for us to say upon the subject, by quoting, from ourselves, the uncertainty of the information which could then be obtained, relative to the circumstances of the Russian and Turkish war, and still farther, by his own subsequent acknowledge ment, that the calumny, to which the passage in question is supposed to allude, however maliciously raised, was publicly prevalent. We shall only add, that we are in ourselves convinced of, that Guys, the French consul or deputy, and the real renegado, was the person to whom we really pointed, however the Baron's actions might at first have been mistakenly attributed to him. Time has cleared up the truth, and done ample justice to his character.
Retrospective view of affairs in India. Benares. Transactions which led to the
dependance of that country on the East India company. The Rajah Bulwant Sing, having taken a decided part in their favour, in the war against his paramount lord, Sujah Ul Duwlah, his territories are secured to him by the treaty of Illahabad. Investiture of Cheit Sing, upon the death of his father Bulwant, and a new treaty concluded in favour of the family by Major Har. per. A third treaty, in confirmation of the trvo former, concluded by Mr. Haffings, who is himself a party to it, and renders the company guarantees of the Rajab's poffefions. Upon i he death of Sujah Ul Doeclah, the Nabob via zier, the fovereignty of Benares is transferred by his fucceffor to the company. Extraordinary subsidies demanded and levied from the Rajah, Cheit Sing, on eccafion of the war with France, lay the foundation of those differences which took place between him and the government of Calcutta. A supply of 2000 cavalry demanded from the Rajah. Charges of disaffection and contumacy taid against him. Governor general's progress from Calcutta, to settle the affairs of Benares, and other countries. Proceeds up the Ganges in Buxar, where be is met by the Rajah, with great attendance and number of boats. Different accounts of the conference on ihe water. Rajah's visit 'ai Benares forbidden. Rajah taken into custody : rescued, and the jepoys, with their offic ficers, massacred. He flies firft to Ramnagur, and from thence retires in the night to ibe fortress of Lutteefpoor, Oussaun Sing appointed by the governor general 10 adminifter the affairs of the country in the place of the Rajab. VOL. XXVI. 
Ramjiewaun, garrisons Ramnagur for the Rajah. Scheme for the reduce tion of that place frustrated by the rajores of Capt, Mayaffre: who is killed in an ill-judged attack, and the party repulsed with great loss. Country immediately in arms. Design of attacking the governer general in his quarters obliges bir to relire by night to Chunar. Repeated proposals made by the Rajah for an accommodation, produce no effeci. Embarrallmient occafioned by the Nabab vizier's visit. The commotion in Berares spreads the flame in the adjsining countries. Cheit Sing's manifesto. Attack on the Rajah's camp ai f'uteetah. Great reinforcements arrive at Chunar. Bundco Cawn, a native, proposes the means by which the Rajab's forces might, without much difficulty, be diffel bid of their frong holds. The cheme adapted by Major Popham; who privately dissatches Major Crabbe, with a strong detachment, to penetrate the mountains, under the guidance of Bundso Cawn, and arlack the enemy in the rear, while he engagus them in front. The design jucceeds; Major Crabbe carries the firong pols of Sukront; the eremy abandon the fortress of Lutteef poor; The Rajah flies to Bidjygur, and all his forces djperfe. Country immediately rfumes its usual tranquillity. Governor general returns to be ars; jinds the
government ; aj points a new Rajah;, and increases'the revinne. : Diffurbances in the neighbouring countries queiled. I realy of peace and alliance happily concinded with Madajce Scindia by Colonel Muir. 'The Rajah, Cheit Sing, tolally abandons his country. Strong fortress of Bidjrgur taken, upor ccrditionis, by Major Püpham. Great treasure found, and spoil made by the army,
defolated by the a spirit of industry, as bad given present and by former wars, the to a whole country, the face of fequeftered and happy country a garden in the highest state of Benares, generally had the for- of culture and beauty ; and whole tune to escape the common cala. labours were common bene. mity. Besides the security de. fit to all, who either lived near rived from the great distance of the or had occasion to approach fea, the facred character ascribed them. to that city, which had through The Ganges, before it yet be. many ages been considered as the comes too vast for health and sa. repository of the religion and learn. tisfaction, winding through the ing of the Bramins, could not but variegated face of luch a country, endear it in the highest degree could not but greatly heighten the to the Hindoos; and the foreign picturesque beauty of the scene ; ravagers of India, if they paid and lying, as it does, under the no respect, found it neceflary, happiett influence of the heavens, at least, to thew fome attention to it is not to be wondered at, that the prejudices of the conquered.. under such favourable circum. Hoftility indeed was not much stances, Benares had long been provoked by a people, who, along considered as the paradise of In. with the moit gentle aud inof. dia. The capital' was not less